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  1. Emiel Krahmer & Kees van Deemter, Computational Generation of Referring Expressions: A Survey.
    This article offers a survey of computational research on referring expressions generation (REG). It introduces the REG problem and describes early work in this area, discussing what basic assumptions lie behind it, and showing how its remit has widened in recent years. We discuss computational frameworks underlying REG, and demonstrate a recent trend that seeks to link up REG algorithms with well-established Knowledge Representation traditions. Considerable attention is given to recent efforts at evaluating REG algorithms and the lessons that they (...)
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  2. Ruud Koolen, Martijn Goudbeek & Emiel Krahmer (2013). The Effect of Scene Variation on the Redundant Use of Color in Definite Reference. Cognitive Science 37 (2):395-411.
    This study investigates to what extent the amount of variation in a visual scene causes speakers to mention the attribute color in their definite target descriptions, focusing on scenes in which this attribute is not needed for identification of the target. The results of our three experiments show that speakers are more likely to redundantly include a color attribute when the scene variation is high as compared with when this variation is low (even if this leads to overspecified descriptions). We (...)
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  3. Jorrig Vogels, Emiel Krahmer & Alfons Maes (2013). When a Stone Tries to Climb Up a Slope: The Interplay Between Lexical and Perceptual Animacy in Referential Choices. Frontiers in Psychology 4.
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  4. Martijn Goudbeek & Emiel Krahmer (2012). Alignment in Interactive Reference Production: Content Planning, Modifier Ordering, and Referential Overspecification. Topics in Cognitive Science 4 (2):269-289.
    Psycholinguistic studies often look at the production of referring expressions in interactive settings, but so far few referring expression generation algorithms have been developed that are sensitive to earlier references in an interaction. Rather, such algorithms tend to rely on domain-dependent preferences for both content selection and linguistic realization. We present three experiments showing that humans may opt for dispreferred attributes and dispreferred modifier orderings when these were primed in a preceding interaction (without speakers being consciously aware of this). In (...)
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  5. Emiel Krahmer, Ruud Koolen & Mariët Theune (2012). Is It That Difficult to Find a Good Preference Order for the Incremental Algorithm? Cognitive Science 36 (5):837-841.
    In a recent article published in this journal (van Deemter, Gatt, van der Sluis, & Power, 2012), the authors criticize the Incremental Algorithm (a well-known algorithm for the generation of referring expressions due to Dale & Reiter, 1995, also in this journal) because of its strong reliance on a pre-determined, domain-dependent Preference Order. The authors argue that there are potentially many different Preference Orders that could be considered, while often no evidence is available to determine which is a good one. (...)
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  6. Kees van Deemter, Albert Gatt, Roger P. G. van Gompel & Emiel Krahmer (2012). Toward a Computational Psycholinguistics of Reference Production. Topics in Cognitive Science 4 (2):166-183.
    This article introduces the topic ‘‘Production of Referring Expressions: Bridging the Gap between Computational and Empirical Approaches to Reference’’ of the journal Topics in Cognitive Science. We argue that computational and psycholinguistic approaches to reference production can benefit from closer interaction, and that this is likely to result in the construction of algorithms that differ markedly from the ones currently known in the computational literature. We focus particularly on determinism, the feature of existing algorithms that is perhaps most clearly at (...)
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  7. Lisette Mol, Emiel Krahmer, Alfons Maes & Marc Swerts (2009). Communicative Gestures and Memory Load. In N. A. Taatgen & H. van Rijn (eds.), Proceedings of the 31st Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society.
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  8. David Beaver & Emiel Krahmer (2001). A Partial Account of Presupposition Projection. Journal of Logic, Language and Information 10 (2):147-182.
    In this paper it is shown how a partial semantics for presuppositions can be given which is empirically more satisfactory than its predecessors, and how this semantics can be integrated with a technically sound, compositional grammar in the Montagovian fashion. Additionally, it is argued that the classical objection to partial accounts of presupposition projection, namely that they lack “flexibility,” is based on a misconception. Partial logics can give rise to flexible predictions without postulating any ad hoc ambiguities. Finally, it is (...)
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  9. David Beaver & Emiel Krahmer (1998). Presupposition and Partiality: Back to the Future. Journal of Logic, Language and Information 10 (2):147-182.
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  10. Emiel Krahmer & Reinhard Muskens (1995). Negation and Disjunction in Discourse Representation Theory. Journal of Semantics 12 (4):357-376.
    Classical Discourse Representation Theory (DRT) predicts that an indefinite noun phrase cannot antecede an anaphoric element if the noun phrase is, but the anaphoric element is not, in the scope of a negation; the theory also predicts that no anaphoric links are possible between the two parts of a disjunction. However, it is well known that these predictions meet with counterexamples. In particular, anaphora is often possible if a double negation intervenes between antecedent and anaphoric element, and also if the (...)
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  11. Emiel Krahmer & Reini-Iard Muskens (1995). Joumal ofSemantics 12: 357-376@ Oxford University Press 1995. Journal of Semantics 12:357.
     
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