Search results for 'Emily A. Ronning' (try it on Scholar)

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  1. Melissa S. Anderson, Emily A. Ronning, Raymond De Vries & Brian C. Martinson (2007). The Perverse Effects of Competition on Scientists' Work and Relationships. Science and Engineering Ethics 13 (4):437-461.score: 960.0
    Competition among scientists for funding, positions and prestige, among other things, is often seen as a salutary driving force in U.S. science. Its effects on scientists, their work and their relationships are seldom considered. Focus-group discussions with 51 mid- and early-career scientists, on which this study is based, reveal a dark side of competition in science. According to these scientists, competition contributes to strategic game-playing in science, a decline in free and open sharing of information and methods, sabotage of others’ (...)
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  2. Dale Dinnel, John A. Glover & Royce R. Ronning (1984). A Provisional Model of Mathematical Problem Solving. Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society 22 (5):459-462.score: 580.0
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  3. Royce R. Ronning (1965). Anagram Solution Times: A Function of the "Ruleout" Factor. Journal of Experimental Psychology 69 (1):35.score: 360.0
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  4. M. -L. Kearney & A. H. Ronning (1997). Women and the University Curriculum: Towards Equality, Democracy and Peace. British Journal of Educational Studies 45:315-317.score: 240.0
     
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  5. Michael A. Rex & Ron K. Etter (2011). Measuring Up the DeepDeep-Sea Biodiversity: Pattern and Scale.Michael A. Rex and Ron J. Etter . Harvard University Press , 2010 . 368 Pp., Illus. $55.00 (ISBN 9780674036079 Cloth). [REVIEW] BioScience 61 (4):327-328.score: 48.0
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  6. Dana L. Cloud, Steve Macek & James Arnt Aune (2006). "The Limbo of Ethical Simulacra": A Reply to Ron Greene. Philosophy and Rhetoric 39 (1):72-84.score: 40.0
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  7. Lewis S. Ford (1994). Heidegger and Whitehead: A Phenomenological Examination Into the Intelligibility of Experience. By Ron L. Cooper. Modern Schoolman 72 (1):85-86.score: 40.0
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  8. Larise Du Plessis (2009). A Book on Human Nature: Does the Author Do Justice to Either the Historical or the Human Dimensions of This Theme?, Ron Dultz: Book Review. [REVIEW] Indo-Pacific Journal of Phenomenology 9 (1):1-10.score: 40.0
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  9. Helen Rodnite Lemay & Sara Lipton (1999). Ron Barkai, A History of Jewish Gynaecological Texts in the Middle Ages.(Brill's Series in Jewish Studies, 20.) Leiden, Boston, and Cologne: Brill, 1998. Pp. Xiii, 241; 1 Table. [REVIEW] Speculum 74 (3):692-693.score: 40.0
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  10. H. Nakagawa (1989). A propos de la première traduction japonaise du «Discours sur les sciences et les arts» de JJ Rousseau faite par Nakae Chômin:«Hi-Kaika-ron»(«Contre les Lumières»). Etudes Jean-Jacques Rousseau 3:175-192.score: 40.0
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  11. Ron Chrisley, I. Aleksander, S. Bringsjord, R. Clowes, J. Parthemore, S. Stuart, S. Torrance & T. Ziemke (2008). Assessing Artificial Consciousness: A Collective Review Article. Journal of Consciousness Studies 15 (7):95-110.score: 20.0
    While the recent special issue of JCS on machine consciousness (Volume 14, Issue 7) was in preparation, a collection of papers on the same topic, entitled Artificial Consciousness and edited by Antonio Chella and Riccardo Manzotti, was published. The editors of the JCS special issue, Ron Chrisley, Robert Clowes and Steve Torrance, thought it would be a timely and productive move to have authors of papers in their collection review the papers in the Chella and Manzotti book, and include these (...)
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  12. Andreas A. Ioannides, Lichan Liu, Vahe Poghosyan, George A. Saridis, Albert Gjedde, Maurice Ptito & Ron Kupers (2013). MEG Reveals a Fast Pathway From Somatosensory Cortex to Occipital Areas Via Posterior Parietal Cortex in a Blind Subject. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 7.score: 20.0
    Cross-modal activity in visual cortex of blind subjects has been reported during performance of variety of non-visual tasks. A key unanswered question is through which pathways non-visual inputs are funneled to the visual cortex. Here we used tomographic analysis of single trial magnetoencephalography (MEG) data recorded from one congenitally blind and two sighted subjects after stimulation of the left and right median nerves at three intensities: below sensory threshold, above sensory threshold and above motor threshold; the last sufficient to produce (...)
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  13. Ishani Maitra, Brian Weatherson & Jonathan Ichikawa (2012). In Defense of a Kripkean Dogma. Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 85 (1):56-68.score: 18.0
    In “Against Arguments from Reference” (Mallon et al., 2009), Ron Mallon, Edouard Machery, Shaun Nichols, and Stephen Stich (hereafter, MMNS) argue that recent experiments concerning reference undermine various philosophical arguments that presuppose the correctness of the causal-historical theory of reference. We will argue three things in reply. First, the experiments in question—concerning Kripke’s Gödel/Schmidt example—don’t really speak to the dispute between descriptivism and the causal-historical theory; though the two theories are empirically testable, we need to look at quite different data (...)
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  14. Daniel Gilman (1992). What's a Theory to Do... With Seeing? Or Some Empirical Considerations for Observation and Theory. British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 43 (3):287-309.score: 18.0
    it to be an empirical fact that even the most basic human perception is heavily theory–laden. I offer critical examination of experimental evidence cited by Thomas Kuhn and Paul Churchland on behalf of this supposition. I argue that the empirical evidence cited is inadequate support for the claims in question. I further argue that we have empirical grounds for claiming that the Kuhnian discussion of perception is developed within an inadequate conceptual framework and that a version of the observation/theory distinction (...)
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  15. Mark A. Levine, Matthew K. Wynia, Paul M. Schyve, J. Russell Teagarden, David A. Fleming, Sharon King Donohue, Ron J. Anderson, James Sabin & Ezekiel J. Emanuel (2007). Improving Access to Health Care: A Consensus Ethical Framework to Guide Proposals for Reform. Hastings Center Report 37 (5):14-19.score: 18.0
  16. John Perry, Prolegomena to a Theory of Disability, Inability and Handicap.score: 18.0
    Underlying the political activism that led to the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) was what Ron Amundson has called the environmental conception of disability[1]. In [7] we called this the circumstantial conception of disability and handicap, and contrasted it with the intrinsic conception. We use disability to mean loss of a function, such as moving the hands or seeing, that is part of the standard repertoire for humans. Handicap is a species of inability, in particular, the inability to do something (...)
     
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  17. D. Christopher Ralston & Justin Ho (2007). Disability, Humanity, and Personhood: A Survey of Moral Concepts. Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 32 (6):619 – 633.score: 18.0
    Three of the articles included in this issue of the Journal of Medicine and Philosophy - Ron Amundson and Shari Tresky's "On a Bioethical Challenge to Disability Rights"; Rachel Cooper's "Can It Be a Good Thing to Be Deaf?"; and Mark T. Brown's "The Potential of the Human Embryo" - interact (in various ways) with the concepts of disability, humanity, and personhood and their normative dimensions. As one peruses these articles, it becomes apparent that terms like "disability," "human being," and (...)
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  18. Kaushik Basu & Ravi Kanbur (eds.) (2008). Arguments for a Better World: Essays in Honor of Amartya Sen: Volume I: Ethics, Welfare, and Measurement. OUP Oxford.score: 18.0
    Amartya Sen has made deep and lasting contributions to the academic disciplines of economics, philosophy, and the social sciences more broadly. He has engaged in policy dialogue and public debate, advancing the cause of a human development focused policy agenda, and a tolerant and democratic polity. This argumentative Indian has made the case for the poorest of the poor, and for plurality in cultural perspective. It is not surprising that he has won the highest awards, ranging from the Nobel Prize (...)
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  19. Sarah Gerlo, Julian R. E. Davis, Dixie L. Mager & Ron Kooijman (2006). Prolactin in Man: A Tale of Two Promoters. Bioessays 28 (10):1051-1055.score: 18.0
    The pituitary hormone prolactin (PRL) is best known for its role in the regulation of lactation. Recent evidence furthermore indicates PRL is required for normal reproduction in rodents. Here, we report on the insertion of two transposon-like DNA sequences in the human prolactin gene, which together function as an alternative promoter directing extrapituitary PRL expression. Indeed, the transposable elements contain transcription factor binding sites that have been shown to mediate PRL transcription in human uterine decidualised endometrial cells and lymphocytes. We (...)
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  20. Jerry H. Gill (2000). Reply to Ron Hall's Review. Tradition and Discovery 27 (3):35-35.score: 18.0
    This brief comment is a point-by-point response to some elements of Ron Hall’s review of my recent book, The Tacit Mode: Michael Polanyi’s Postmodern Philosophy.
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  21. Jeroen Mettes (2012). Political Poetry: A Few Notes. Poetics for N30. Continent 2 (1):29-35.score: 18.0
    continent. 2.1 (2012): 29–35. Translated by Vincent W.J. van Gerven Oei from Jeroen Mettes. "Politieke Poëzie: Enige aantekeningen, Poëtica bij N30 (versie 2006)." In Weerstandbeleid: Nieuwe kritiek . Amsterdam: De wereldbibliotheek, 2011. Published with permission of Uitgeverij Wereldbibliotheek, Amsterdam. L’égalité veut d’autres lois . —Eugène Pottier The modern poem does not have form but consistency (that is sensed), no content but a problem (that is developed). Consistency + problem = composition. The problem of modern poetry is capitalism. Capitalism—which has no (...)
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  22. Guy A. M. Widdershoven & Berghmans & L. P. Ron (2005). Meaning-Making in Dementia: A Hermeneutic Perspective. In Julian Hughes, Stephen Louw & Steven R. Sabat (eds.), Dementia: Mind, Meaning, and the Person. Oup Oxford.score: 18.0
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  23. Mark A. Harwell, Victoria Myers, Terry Young, Ann Bartuska, Nancy Gassman, John H. Gentile, Christine C. Harwell, Stuart Appelbaum, John Barko, Billy Causey, Christine Johnson, Agnes McLean, Ron Smola, Paul Templet & Stephen Tosini (1999). A Framework for an Ecosystem Integrity Report Card. BioScience 49 (7):543.score: 18.0
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  24. Jody D. Martens, Mirjam J. Werkhoven, Johan L. Severens & Ron A. G. Winkens (2007). Effects of a Behaviour Independent Financial Incentive on Prescribing Behaviour of General Practitioners. Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 13 (3):369-373.score: 18.0
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  25. David Pryor, Mark Hatfield, Ron Wyden & Henry A. Waxman (1996). A Word to Varmus. Hastings Center Report 26 (4):46-47.score: 18.0
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  26. Guy A. M. Widdershoven & Ron L. P. Berghmans (2006). Meaning-Making in Dementia: A Hermeneutic Perspective. In Julian C. Hughes, Stephen J. Louw & Steven R. Sabat (eds.), Dementia: Mind, Meaning, and the Person. Oxford University Press.score: 18.0
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  27. Ron McClamrock (1991). Methodological Individualism Considered as a Constitutive Principle of Scientific Inquiry. Philosophical Psychology 4 (3):343-54.score: 14.0
    The issue of methodological solipsism in the philosophy of mind and psychology has received enormous attention and discussion in the decade since the appearance Jerry Fodor's "Methodological Solipsism" [Fodor 1980]. But most of this discussion has focused on the consideration of the now infamous "Twin Earth" type examples and the problems they present for Fodor's notion of "narrow content". I think there is deeper and more general moral to be found in this issue, particularly in light of Fodor's more recent (...)
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  28. Ron Mallon (2007). A Field Guide to Social Construction. Philosophy Compass 2 (1):93–108.score: 14.0
    forthcoming in Philosophy Compass [penultimate draft .pdf file] A survey of the contemporary social constructionist landscape.
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  29. Ron Aboodi, Adi Borer & and David Enoch (2008). Deontology, Individualism, and Uncertainty, a Reply to Jackson and Smith. Journal of Philosophy 105 (5).score: 14.0
    1. The Problem, and Two Examples Discussions of deontological moral theories typically focus on the advantages and disadvantages of deontological constraints, rules to the effect that some actions should not be performed – at least sometimes – even when performing them will maximize the good. And, of course, the jury is still out on whether deontological constraints can be defended. But in their recent paper "Absolutist Moral Theories and Uncertainty", Frank Jackson and Michael Smith1 emphasize not the general and well-known (...)
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  30. Amit Ron (2006). Rawls as a Critical Theorist: Reflective Equilibrium After the ‘Deliberative Turn’. Philosophy and Social Criticism 32 (2):173-191.score: 14.0
    An interpretation of John Rawls’ ‘justice as fairness’ as a deliberative critical argumentative strategy for evaluating existing institutions is offered and its plausibility is discussed. I argue that ‘justice as fairness’ aims at synthesizing the moral values claimed by existing social institutions into a coherent model of a well-ordered society in order to demand that these institutions stand up to the values that they promise. Understood in such a way, ‘justice as fairness’ provides a set of idealizing ‘mirrors’ through which (...)
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  31. Ron Sundstrom (2002). Race as a Human Kind. Philosophy and Social Criticism 28 (1):91-115.score: 14.0
    In this article I present a positive ontology of 'race'. Toward this end, I discuss metaphysical pluralism and review the theories of Ian Hacking, John Dupre and Root. Working within Root's framework, I describe the conditions under which a constructed kind like 'race' would be real. I contend these conditions are currently satisfied in the United States. Given the social presence and impact of 'race' and the unique way 'race' operates at differing sites, I will argue that it is site-specific, (...)
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  32. Ron Mallon, Differences Between Interpersonal and Intrapersonal Belief Ascription: A Problem with Block's Argument for Holism.score: 14.0
    instead he argues for a conditional: "if there is such a thing as narrow content, it is holistic," where holism is taken to be "the doctrine that any _substantial_ difference in W-beliefs, whether between two people or between one person at two times, requires a difference in the meaning or content of W" (153, 152).
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  33. Ron Sun (2000). Symbol Grounding: A New Look at an Old Idea. Philosophical Psychology 13 (2):149-172.score: 14.0
    Symbols should be grounded, as has been argued before. But we insist that they should be grounded not only in subsymbolic activities, but also in the interaction between the agent and the world. The point is that concepts are not formed in isolation (from the world), in abstraction, or "objectively." They are formed in relation to the experience of agents, through their perceptual/motor apparatuses, in their world and linked to their goals and actions. This paper takes a detailed look at (...)
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  34. Ron Amundson & Shari Tresky (2007). On a Bioethical Challenge to Disability Rights. Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 32 (6):541 – 561.score: 14.0
    Tensions exist between the disability rights movement and the work of many bioethicists. These reveal themselves in a major recent book on bioethics and genetics, From Chance to Choice: Genetics and Justice. This book defends certain genetic policies against criticisms from disability rights advocates, in part by arguing that it is possible to accept both the genetic policies and the rights of people with impairments. However, a close reading of the book reveals a series of direct moral criticisms of the (...)
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  35. Ron Epstein, Genetic Engineering: A Buddhist Assessment.score: 14.0
    What might it be like to be a Buddhist in a future world where your life started with your parents designing your genes? In addition to screening for unwanted genetic diseases, they would have selected your genes for sex; height; eye, hair, and skin color; and, if your parents are Buddhists, maybe even for genes that allow you to sit easily in the full lotus position. Pressured by current social fads, they may also have chosen genes whose overall functions are (...)
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  36. Ron Epstein, Genetic Engineering: A Major Threat to Vegetarians.score: 14.0
    Imagine a world in which as part of their basic substances tomatoes contain fish and tobacco, potatoes contain chicken, moths and other insects, and corn contains fireflies. Is this science-fiction? No, these plant-animal hybrids already exist today and may soon be on your supermarket shelves without any special labeling to warn you. Furthermore, in a few years the types of these genetically engineered "vegetables" are sure to increase and may very possibly also include human genes. If you are a vegetarian, (...)
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  37. Ron Sun, Incubation, Insight, and Creative Problem Solving: A Unified Theory and a Connectionist Model.score: 14.0
    This article proposes a unified framework for understanding creative problem solving, namely, the explicit–implicit interaction theory. This new theory of creative problem solving constitutes an attempt at providing a more unified explanation of relevant phenomena (in part by reinterpreting/integrating various fragmentary existing theories of incubation and insight). The explicit–implicit interaction theory relies mainly on 5 basic principles, namely, (a) the coexistence of and the difference between explicit and implicit knowledge, (b) the simultaneous involvement of implicit and explicit processes in most (...)
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  38. Ron Amundson (1983). E. C. Tolman and the Intervening Variable: A Study in the Epistemological History of Psychology. Philosophy of Science 50 (2):268-282.score: 14.0
    E. C. Tolman's 'purposive behaviorism' is commonly interpreted as an attempt to operationalize a cognitivist theory of learning by the use of the 'Intervening Variable' (IV). Tolman would thus be a counterinstance to an otherwise reliable correlation of cognitivism with realism, and S-R behaviorism with operationalism. A study of Tolman's epistemological background, with a careful reading of his methodological writings, shows the common interpretation to be false. Tolman was a cognitivist and a realist. His 'IV' has been systematically misinterpreted by (...)
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  39. Ron Sun (1999). Accounting for the Computational Basis of Consciousness: A Connectionist Approach. Consciousness and Cognition 8 (4):529-565.score: 14.0
    This paper argues for an explanation of the mechanistic (computational) basis of consciousness that is based on the distinction between localist (symbolic) representation and distributed representation, the ideas of which have been put forth in the connectionist literature. A model is developed to substantiate and test this approach. The paper also explores the issue of the functional roles of consciousness, in relation to the proposed mechanistic explanation of consciousness. The model, embodying the representational difference, is able to account for the (...)
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  40. Ron Amundson (1983). The Epistemological Status of a Naturalized Epistemology. Inquiry 26 (3):333 – 344.score: 14.0
    Philosophically inclined psychologists and psychologically inclined philosophers often hold that the substantive discoveries of psychology can provide an empirical foundation for epistemology. In this paper it is argued that the ambition to found epistemology empirically faces certain unnoticed difficulties. Empirical theories concerned with knowledge?gaining abilities have been historically associated with specific epistemological views such that the epistemology gives preferential support to the substantive theory, while the theory empirically supports the epistemology. Theories attribute to the subject just those epistemic abilities which (...)
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  41. Ron Mallon, Ought We to Abandon a Domain-General Treatment of "Ought"?[I].score: 14.0
    Leda Cosmides and John Tooby have some advice for moral philosophers and deontic logicians trying to understand deontic notions like ought: give up trying to provide a univocal, domain-general treatment. The domain-specific character of human cognition means that such a research program is probably fruitless and probably pointless. It is probably fruitless, since a univocal account of the meaning of "ought" will not capture the multiple inferential patterns of deontic reasoning exhibited in different contexts (and similarly for lots of other (...)
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  42. Ron Sun, Xi Zhang & Robert Mathews, Modeling Meta-Cognition in a Cognitive Architecture.score: 14.0
    This paper describes how meta-cognitive processes (i.e., the self monitoring and regulating of cognitive processes) may be captured within a cognitive architecture Clarion. Some currently popular cognitive architectures lack sufficiently complex built-in meta-cognitive mechanisms. However, a sufficiently complex meta-cognitive mechanism is important, in that it is an essential part of cognition and without it, human cognition may not function properly. We contend that such a meta-cognitive mechanism should be an integral part of a cognitive architecture. Thus such a mechanism has (...)
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  43. James W. Boyd & Ron G. Williams (2005). Japanese Shinto: An Interpretation of a Priestly Perspective. Philosophy East and West 55 (1):33-63.score: 14.0
    : This is an interpretation of the experiential/religious meaning of Japanese Shrine Shintō as taught us primarily by the priests at Tsubaki Grand Shrine, Suzuka, Mie Prefecture. As a heuristic device, we suggest lines of comparison between the thought and practice of the Tsubaki priests and two Western thinkers: the Jewish philosopher Martin Buber and the French philosopher Georges Bataille. This in turn allows the construction of three interpretive categories that we believe illuminate both the Shintō worldview and Shintō ritual (...)
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  44. Ron Sun (1997). Learning, Action, and Consciousness: A Hybrid Approach Toward Modeling Consciousness. Neural Networks 10:1317-33.score: 14.0
    _role, especially in learning, and through devising hybrid neural network models that (in a qualitative manner) approxi-_ _mate characteristics of human consciousness. In doing so, the paper examines explicit and implicit learning in a variety_ _of psychological experiments and delineates the conscious/unconscious distinction in terms of the two types of learning_ _and their respective products. The distinctions are captured in a two-level action-based model C_larion_. Some funda-_ _mental theoretical issues are also clari?ed with the help of the model. Comparisons with (...)
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  45. Ron Sun, Todd Peterson & Edward Merrill, A Bottom-Up Model of Skill Learning.score: 14.0
    We present a skill learning model CLARION. Different from existing models of high-level skill learning that use a topdown approach (that is, turning declarative knowledge into procedural knowledge), we adopt a bottom-up approach toward low-level skill learning, where procedural knowledge develops first and declarative knowledge develops later. CLAR- ION is formed by integrating connectionist, reinforcement, and symbolic learning methods to perform on-line learning. We compare the model with human data in a minefield navigation task. A match between the model and (...)
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  46. Ron Sun (2005). The Interaction of the Explicit and the Implicit in Skill Learning: A Dual-Process Approach. Psychological Review 112:159-192.score: 14.0
    This article explicates the interaction between implicit and explicit processes in skill learning, in contrast to the tendency of researchers to study each type in isolation. It highlights various effects of the interaction on learning (including synergy effects). The authors argue for an integrated model of skill learning that takes into account both implicit and explicit processes. Moreover, they argue for a bottom-up approach (first learning implicit knowledge and then explicit knowledge) in the integrated model. A variety of qualitative data (...)
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  47. Ron Sun & Isaac Naveh (2007). Social Institution, Cognition, and Survival: A Cognitive–Social Simulation. Mind and Society 6 (2):115-142.score: 14.0
    Although computational models of cognitive agents that incorporate a wide range of cognitive functionalities have been developed in cognitive science, most of the work in social simulation still assumes rudimentary cognition on the part of the agents. In contrast, in this work, the interaction of cognition and social structures/processes is explored, through simulating survival strategies of tribal societies. The results of the simulation demonstrate interactions between cognitive and social factors. For example, we show that cognitive capabilities and tendencies may be (...)
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  48. Ron E. Hassner (2003). The Trial and Crucifixion of Jesus: A Modest Proposal. Theory and Decision 54 (1):1-32.score: 14.0
    I model an attempt by radical parties to topple a modus vivendi between a ruling government and a moderate opposition group. Cooperation between the regime and the moderate opposition is possible if each player prefers mutual cooperation to mutual confrontation. If each player also prefers mutual confrontation to cooperating while the other defects then radical parties have a chance at breaking up this accord. Radical parties can succeed in bringing the government and opposition to mutual confrontation if they can agree (...)
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  49. Ron Novy (2009). What is It Like to Be a Batman? The Philosophers' Magazine 44 (44):97-100.score: 14.0
    For both Batman and the Joker, violence overthrew a coherent picture of the world without installing a replacement; they share this realisation and arebound together in an effort to make sense of it. Like violators of the tabernacle or visitors in Oz, each has glimpsed behind the curtain of appearances.
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  50. Ron Epstein, A Modest Proposal Regarding Genetic Engineering in Mendocino County.score: 14.0
    The new millennium will be ushered in by the biotech century. The earlier we prepare the better. In the short term, we will be affected in these main areas: medical treatment; industrial, agricultural, and forest use; and food. First, let us take a brief look at some problems with the use of genetic engineering in agriculture and in our food. Then I would like to make some simple suggestions about steps we can take to assess the situation here in Mendocino (...)
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