Search results for 'Ends and means' (try it on Scholar)

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  1.  48
    Christopher Hitchcock (2012). Events and Times: A Case Study in Means-Ends Metaphysics. Philosophical Studies 160 (1):79-96.
    There is a tradition, tracing back to Kant, of recasting metaphysical questions as questions about the utility of a conceptual scheme, linguistic framework, or methodological rule for achieving some particular end. Following in this tradition, I propose a ‘means-ends metaphysics ’, in which one rigorously demonstrates the suitability of some conceptual framework for achieving a specified goal. I illustrate this approach using a debate about the nature of events. Specifically, the question is whether the time at which an (...)
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  2. Rajendra Prasad (ed.) (1989). Ends and Means in Private and Public Life. Indian Institute of Advanced Study in Association with Indus Pub. Co., New Delhi.
     
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  3. C. G. Shah (1972). Ends and Means: Their Dialectical Unity. Bombay,Popular Prakashan.
     
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  4.  23
    Susanne Gibson (1995). Reasons for Having Children: Ends, Means and 'Family Values'. Journal of Applied Philosophy 12 (3):231-240.
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  5.  18
    H. M. Giebel (2007). Ends, Means, and Character: Recent Critiques of the Intended-Versus-Forseen Distinction and the Principle of Double Effect. American Catholic Philosophical Quarterly 81 (3):447-468.
    In this essay I first provide a brief explanation of the principle of double effect (PDE) and the propositions that it entails regarding the distinction betweenintention and foresight (I/F distinction) and the distinction’s relevance to ethical evaluation. Then I address several recent critiques of PDE and the I/F distinctionby influential ethicists including Judith Jarvis Thomson, Tom Beauchamp and James Childress, and Jonathan Bennett. I argue that none of these critiques issuccessful. In the process of refuting the critiques, I also give (...)
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  6.  9
    E. J. Kenney (1969). Ends, Means, and Values Gordon Williams: Tradition and Originality in Roman Poetry. Pp. X+811. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1968. Cloth, £4. 10s. Net. [REVIEW] The Classical Review 19 (03):294-298.
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  7.  6
    E. J. Kenney (1969). Ends, Means, and Values. The Classical Review 19 (03):294-.
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  8.  7
    James J. Walter (1976). Joseph Fletcher and the Ends-Means Problematic. Heythrop Journal 17 (1):50–63.
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  9. L. Clayton (1997). Ends & Means: Journal of the University of Aberdeen Centre for Philosophy, Technology, and Society. Journal of Scottish Philosophy 2 (1).
     
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  10.  24
    Garrath Williams (2012). Children as Means and Ends in Large-Scale Medical Research. Bioethics 26 (8):422-430.
    This paper considers the often-expressed fear that medical research may use children merely as means, and not respect them as ends in themselves – especially insofar as they are deemed less able to consent than adults. The main focus is on large-scale genetic, socio-medical and epidemiological research. The theoretical starting point of the paper is that to be treated as an end in oneself is to be regarded as – and to act as – a participant in cooperative (...)
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  11.  45
    Daniel J. O'Keefe (2012). Conviction, Persuasion, and Argumentation: Untangling the Ends and Means of Influence. [REVIEW] Argumentation 26 (1):19-32.
    This essay offers a start on sorting out the relationships of argumentation and persuasion by identifying two systematic ways in which definitions of argumentation differ, namely, their descriptions of the ends and of the means involved in argumentative discourse. Against that backdrop, the traditional “conviction-persuasion” distinction is reassessed. The essay argues that the traditional distinction correctly recognizes the difference between the end of influencing attitudes and that of influencing behavior—but that it misanalyzes the means of achieving the (...)
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  12. Daniel Steel, What If the Principle of Induction is Normative? Means-Ends Epistemology and Hume's Problem.
    I develop a critique of Hume’s infamous problem of induction based upon the idea that the principle of induction (PI) is a normative rather than descriptive claim. I argue that Hume’s problem is a false dilemma, since the PI might be neither a “relation of ideas” nor a “matter of fact” but rather what I call a contingent normative statement. In this case, the PI could be justified by a means-ends argument in which the link between means (...)
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  13.  29
    O. Schulte (1999). Means-Ends Epistemology. British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 50 (1):1-31.
    This paper describes the corner-stones of a means-ends approach to the philosophy of inductive inference. I begin with a fallibilist ideal of convergence to the truth in the long run, or in the 'limit of inquiry'. I determine which methods are optimal for attaining additional epistemic aims (notably fast and steady convergence to the truth). Means-ends vindications of (a version of) Occam's Razor and the natural generalizations in a Goodmanian Riddle of Induction illustrate the power of (...)
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  14.  66
    Robert Bass, Maximizing, Satisficing and the Normative Distinction Between Means and Ends.
    Decision theory, understood as providing a normative account of rationality in action, is often thought to be an adequate formalization of instrumental reasoning. As a model, there is much to be said for it. However, if decision theory is to adequately account for correct instrumental reasoning, then the axiomatic conditions by which it links preference to action must be normative for choice. That is, a choice must be rationally defective unless it proceeds from a preference set that satisfies the axiomatic (...)
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  15. Arthur Ripstein (2015). The Jurisprudence Annual Lecture 2015—Means and Ends. Jurisprudence 6 (1):1-23.
    Legal doctrine often focuses on means rather than ends. In an action for breach of contract, the court asks only whether promisor performed as promised, and takes no account of what either promisor or promisee expected to gain by the transaction. The criminal law inquires into how the criminal was trying to accomplish some purpose, not what the purpose was. Most crimes are committed to get money, a purpose of which the law otherwise approves. This focus on (...) is often said to be superficial, and to be the manifestation of an underlying concern either with the ends sought by a person or the ends that are served by placing legal restrictions on which means a person may use, or the manner in which they may be used. In this paper Professor Ripstein takes up Kant's suggestion that 'right abstracts from all ends' to explain the law's focus on means rather than ends, exploring its application to both public and private law. (shrink)
     
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  16.  17
    Frank Hofmann (2005). Epistemic Means and Ends: In Defense of Some Sartwellian Insights. Synthese 146 (3):357 - 369.
    The question of what means-and-ends structure our epistemic endeavors have is an important issue in recent epistemology, and is fundamental for understanding epistemic matters in principle. Crispin Sartwell has proposed arguments for the view that knowledge is our only ultimate goal, and justification is no part of it. An important argument is his instrumentality argument which is concerned with the conditions under which something could belong to our ultimate epistemic goal. Recently, this argument has been reconstructed and criticized (...)
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  17.  5
    Shashi Motilal (2015). Sustainable Development Goals and Human Moral Obligations: The Ends and Means Relation. Journal of Global Ethics 11 (1):24-31.
    This paper aims at understanding Sustainable Development Goals as normative ends to be achieved by normative means in the context of global ethics. It distinguishes the descriptive and the normative senses of sustainability and development and puts forward a case for exploring the role of human moral obligations as the normative means to attain the goals of sustainable development. It argues that it is only when basic human moral obligations and role-related obligations are fulfilled that human well-being (...)
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  18. Morgan Marietta (2010). Value Representation—the Dominance of Ends Over Means in Democratic Politics: Reply to Murakami. Critical Review 22 (2-3):311-329.
    American democracy is not unconstrained or autonomous, but instead achieves what could be termed value representation. Rather than affording representation on policy issues, elections transmit priorities among competing normative ends, while elite politics address the more complex matching of ends and means within the value boundaries established by voters. This results in neither policy representation nor state autonomy, but instead in a specific and limited form of democratic representation.
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  19.  20
    Dongming Xu (2010). Beyond Simon's Means-Ends Analysis: Natural Creativity and the Unanswered 'Why' in the Design of Intelligent Systems for Problem-Solving. [REVIEW] Minds and Machines 20 (3):327-347.
    Goal-directed problem solving as originally advocated by Herbert Simon’s means-ends analysis model has primarily shaped the course of design research on artificially intelligent systems for problem-solving. We contend that there is a definite disregard of a key phase within the overall design process that in fact logically precedes the actual problem solving phase. While systems designers have traditionally been obsessed with goal-directed problem solving, the basic determinants of the ultimate desired goal state still remain to be fully understood (...)
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  20.  15
    Allan Peachment, Margaret McNeil, Geoff Soutar & Caron Molster (1995). Means or Ends? Ethical Decision Frameworks in the Western Australian Public Service. Journal of Business Ethics 14 (8):629 - 641.
    The paper analyses results from a questionnaire-based survey of ethical behavior of members of the Western Australian Senior Executive Service. Relating to definitions of deontology (duty) and teleology (ends over means) the study examines the validity of three hypotheses on ethical behaviour/decision making frameworks. Longitudinal data is related to the 1983–90WA Inc period. The study establishes that SES managers apply ethical frameworks in order to understand the meaning of: ethical behaviour and that there are groups of managers with (...)
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  21.  7
    AIdo Leopold (1990). Means and Ends in Wild Life Management. Environmental Ethics 12 (4):329-332.
    [Although research in wildlife management is repeating the history of agriculture, unlike agricultural research, which employs scientific means for economic ends, the ends of wildlife research are judged in terms of aesthetic satisfactions as governed by “good taste.” Wild animals and plants are economically valuable only in the sense that human performers and works of art are: the means are of the brain, but the ends are of the heart. Wildlife management has forged ahead of (...)
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  22. Robert Audi (2015). Means, Ends, and Persons: The Meaning and Psychological Dimensions of Kant's Humanity Formula. Oxford University Press Usa.
    This book is a full-scale account of the morally important ideas of treating persons merely as means and treating them as ends. Audi clarifies these independently of Kant, but with implications for understanding him, and presents a theory of conduct that enhances their usefulness both in ethical theory and in practical ethics.
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  23. Lydia G. Cochrane (ed.) (2010). Architecture, Means and Ends. University of Chicago Press.
    Vittorio Gregotti—the architect of Barcelona’s Olympic Stadium, Milan’s Arcimboldi Opera Theater, and Lisbon’s Centro Cultural de Belém, among many other noted constructions—is not only a designer of international repute but an acclaimed theorist and critic. _Architecture, Means and Ends _is his practical and imaginative reflection on the role of the technical aspects of architectural design, both as part of the larger process of innovation and in relation to the mythic opposition between vision and construction. Interweaving the seemingly irreconcilable (...)
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  24. Ted Honderich (1977). Social Ends and Political Means. Philosophy 52 (200):243-245.
    Leading British, American and European philosophers contribute to this collection of essays, first published in 1976, in political philosophy. They are essays which have to do in different ways with better societies than the ones we have, and with ways of getting them. They exemplify what can fairly be called real political philosophy. Its past makers have been Plato, Hobbes, Locke, Rousseau, Hegel, Mill and Marx, and it consists in advocacy of certain social ends and of certain means, (...)
     
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  25. Ted Honderich (ed.) (2015). Social Ends and Political Means. Routledge.
    Leading British, American and European philosophers contribute to this collection of essays, first published in 1976, in political philosophy. They are essays which have to do in different ways with better societies than the ones we have, and with ways of getting them. They exemplify what can fairly be called real political philosophy. Its past makers have been Plato, Hobbes, Locke, Rousseau, Hegel, Mill and Marx, and it consists in advocacy of certain social ends and of certain means, (...)
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  26. Oliver Schulte, Means-Ends Rationality and Categorical Imperatives in Empirical Inquiry.
    Kant taught us that there are two kinds of norms: Categorical imperatives that one ought to follow regardless of one's personal aims and circumstances, and hypothetical imperatives that direct us to employ the means towards our chosen ends. Kant's distinction separates two approaches to normative epistemology. On the one hand, we have principles of "inductive rationality", typically supported by considerations such as intuitive plausibility, conformity with exemplary practice, and internal consistency. On the other hand, we may assess rules (...)
     
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  27. Garrath Williams, Children as Means and Ends in Large-Scale Medical Research.
    This paper considers the often-expressed fear that medical research may use children merely as means, and not respect them as ends in themselves – especially insofar as they are deemed less able to consent than adults. The main focus is on large-scale genetic, socio-medical and epidemiological research. The theoretical starting point of the paper is that to be treated as an end in oneself is to be regarded as – and to act as – a participant in cooperative (...)
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  28. Jon Pike, Geras on Means and Ends: The Case for a Prefigurative Constraint.
    Norman Geras argues for the incorporation of elements from the just war tradition into the ethics of social change. But this does not go far enough. In this paper I argue for a prefigurative constraint: that action intended to bring about social transformation ought to prefigure that transformation, and bear those properties of the future state of affairs that make the future state of affairs morally valuable. I defend the idea of a prefigurative constraint against some objections and introduce a (...)
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  29.  12
    Joaquín Jareño-Alarcón (2008). The Proportionality of Means and Ends. Proceedings of the Xxii World Congress of Philosophy 50:279-291.
    Over the last few years, in part due to the political impact of terrorist activities, the debate on the moral significance of torture as a useful means of obtaining information from enemy combatants has arisen with an urgency not seen in many years. Stressing the importance of exceptional cases, the defenders of torture attempt to justify its acceptance by and back its use in the judicial system of Western democracies. Yet what is at stake here are the basic moral (...)
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  30.  13
    Joaquín Jareño-Alarcón (2008). The Proportionality of Means and Ends. Proceedings of the Xxii World Congress of Philosophy 50:279-291.
    Over the last few years, in part due to the political impact of terrorist activities, the debate on the moral significance of torture as a useful means of obtaining information from enemy combatants has arisen with an urgency not seen in many years. Stressing the importance of exceptional cases, the defenders of torture attempt to justify its acceptance by and back its use in the judicial system of Western democracies. Yet what is at stake here are the basic moral (...)
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  31.  7
    Joaquín Jareño-Alarcón (2008). The Proportionality of Means and Ends. Proceedings of the Xxii World Congress of Philosophy 50:279-291.
    Over the last few years, in part due to the political impact of terrorist activities, the debate on the moral significance of torture as a useful means of obtaining information from enemy combatants has arisen with an urgency not seen in many years. Stressing the importance of exceptional cases, the defenders of torture attempt to justify its acceptance by and back its use in the judicial system of Western democracies. Yet what is at stake here are the basic moral (...)
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  32.  25
    Pierre Le Morvan (2008). Epistemic Means and Ends: A Reply to Hofmann. Synthese 162 (2):251-264.
    How is epistemic justification related to knowledge? Is it, as widely thought, constitutive of knowledge? Is it merely a means to knowledge, or merely a means to something else, such as truth? In a recent article in this journal, Hofmann (2005, Synthese, 146(3), 357–369) addresses these questions in attempting to defend an important argument articulated by Sartwell (1992, The Journal of Philosophy, 89(4), 167–180) and reconstructed and criticized by Le Morvan (2002, Erkenntnis: An International Journal of Analytic Philosophy, (...)
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  33.  6
    Barry L. Gan (2008). Means and Ends, Nonviolence and Politics. Proceedings of the Xxii World Congress of Philosophy 50:177-184.
    During the latter half of the twentieth century political realism dominated national and international landscapes. The twenty-first century has seen the rise of neo‐conservatism, what Charles Krauthammer has called “democratic realism” and what others see as a re-birth of Wilsonianism—making the world safe for democracy. Robert M. Gates, U.S. Secretary of Defense, in a speech on Sept. 17, 2007 in Williamsburg, VA, at the World Forum on the Future of Democracy, acknowledged these different strains of current U.S. policy, saying that (...)
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  34.  19
    Radu J. Bogdan (1994). By Way of Means and Ends. In Grounds for Cognition. Lawrence Erlbaum
    This chapter provides the teleological foundations for our analysis of guidance to goal. Its objective is to ground goal-directedness genetically. The basic suggestion is this. Organisms are small things, with few energy resources and puny physical means, battling a ruthless physical and biological nature. How do they manage to survive and multiply? CLEVERLY, BY ORGANIZING.
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  35.  3
    Joaquín Jareño-Alarcón (2008). The Proportionality of Means and Ends. Proceedings of the Xxii World Congress of Philosophy 50:279-291.
    Over the last few years, in part due to the political impact of terrorist activities, the debate on the moral significance of torture as a useful means of obtaining information from enemy combatants has arisen with an urgency not seen in many years. Stressing the importance of exceptional cases, the defenders of torture attempt to justify its acceptance by and back its use in the judicial system of Western democracies. Yet what is at stake here are the basic moral (...)
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  36.  3
    Joaquín Jareño-Alarcón (2008). The Proportionality of Means and Ends. Proceedings of the Xxii World Congress of Philosophy 50:279-291.
    Over the last few years, in part due to the political impact of terrorist activities, the debate on the moral significance of torture as a useful means of obtaining information from enemy combatants has arisen with an urgency not seen in many years. Stressing the importance of exceptional cases, the defenders of torture attempt to justify its acceptance by and back its use in the judicial system of Western democracies. Yet what is at stake here are the basic moral (...)
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  37.  3
    Joaquín Jareño-Alarcón (2008). The Proportionality of Means and Ends. Proceedings of the Xxii World Congress of Philosophy 50:279-291.
    Over the last few years, in part due to the political impact of terrorist activities, the debate on the moral significance of torture as a useful means of obtaining information from enemy combatants has arisen with an urgency not seen in many years. Stressing the importance of exceptional cases, the defenders of torture attempt to justify its acceptance by and back its use in the judicial system of Western democracies. Yet what is at stake here are the basic moral (...)
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  38.  3
    Joaquín Jareño-Alarcón (2008). The Proportionality of Means and Ends. Proceedings of the Xxii World Congress of Philosophy 50:279-291.
    Over the last few years, in part due to the political impact of terrorist activities, the debate on the moral significance of torture as a useful means of obtaining information from enemy combatants has arisen with an urgency not seen in many years. Stressing the importance of exceptional cases, the defenders of torture attempt to justify its acceptance by and back its use in the judicial system of Western democracies. Yet what is at stake here are the basic moral (...)
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  39.  5
    Michael Hodges (1980). Means/Ends and the Nature of Engineering. PSA: Proceedings of the Biennial Meeting of the Philosophy of Science Association 1980:456 - 463.
    Aristotle's distinction between the practical life and the contemplative life has been of central importance in fixing the sort of justification that is required for engineering activity. As practical it must be justified by its products, while intellect's activity claims intrinsic worth. Most philosophers of technology accept this model of justification. However, engineering is not essentially practical in the relevant sense. To claim that it is overlooks a distinction between "structuring ends" and "products" which when made allows engineering to (...)
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  40.  2
    Joaquín Jareño-Alarcón (2008). The Proportionality of Means and Ends. Proceedings of the Xxii World Congress of Philosophy 50:279-291.
    Over the last few years, in part due to the political impact of terrorist activities, the debate on the moral significance of torture as a useful means of obtaining information from enemy combatants has arisen with an urgency not seen in many years. Stressing the importance of exceptional cases, the defenders of torture attempt to justify its acceptance by and back its use in the judicial system of Western democracies. Yet what is at stake here are the basic moral (...)
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  41.  2
    Pierre Le Morvan (2008). Epistemic Means and Ends: A Reply to Hofmann. Synthese 162 (2):251 - 264.
    How is epistemic justification related to knowledge? Is it, as widely thought, constitutive of knowledge? Is it merely a means to knowledge, or merely a means to something else, such as truth? In a recent article in this journal, Hofmann (2005, "Synthese," 146(3), 357—369) addresses these questions in attempting to defend an important argument articulated by Sartwell (1992, "The Journal of Philosophy," 89(4), 167—180) and reconstructed and criticized by Le Morvan (2002, "Erkenntnis: An International Journal of Analytic Philosophy," (...)
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  42. Christine James (2012). Prisons for Profit in the United States: Retribution and Means Vs. Ends. Journal for Human Rights 6 (1):76-93.
    The recent trend toward privately owned and operated prisons calls attention to a variety of issues involving human rights. The growing number of corporatized correctional institutions is especially notable in the United States, but it is also a global phenomenon in many countries. The reasons cited for privatizing prisons are usually economic; the opportunity to outsource prison services enables local political leaders to save tax revenue, and local communities are promised a chance to create new jobs and bring in a (...)
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  43.  7
    Paul Formosa (forthcoming). Means, Ends, and Persons: The Meaning and Psychological Dimensions of Kant's Humanity Formula, by Robert Audi. Australasian Journal of Philosophy:1-1.
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  44. R. M. Frumkina (1979). Means and Ends in Psycholinguistics. Diogenes 27 (105):116-137.
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  45.  22
    Josh Whitford (2002). Pragmatism and the Untenable Dualism of Means and Ends: Why Rational Choice Theory Does Not Deserve Paradigmatic Privilege. [REVIEW] Theory and Society 31 (3):325-363.
  46.  3
    Ronald Bayer & Amy L. Fairchild (forthcoming). Means, Ends and the Ethics of Fear-Based Public Health Campaigns. Journal of Medical Ethics:medethics-2016-103621.
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  47. Mary Carman Rose (1954). Value Experience and the "Means-Ends Continuum". Ethics 65 (1):44-54.
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  48.  9
    Matthew Weinshall (2003). Means, Ends, and Public Ignorance in Habermas's Theory of Democracy. Critical Review 15 (1-2):23-58.
    Abstract According to the principles derived from his theory of discourse ethics, Habermas's model of deliberative democracy is justified only if the public is capable of making political decisions that advance the common good. Recent public?opinion research demonstrates that the public's overwhelming ignorance of politics precludes it from having such capabilities, even if radical measures were taken to thoroughly educate the public about politics or to increase the salience of politics in their lives.
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  49.  58
    John Brunero (2010). Self‐Governance, MeansEnds Coherence, and Unalterable Ends. Ethics 120 (3):579-591.
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  50.  10
    T. C. H. (1951). Ends and Means in Education: A Midcentury Appraisal. [REVIEW] Journal of Philosophy 48 (9):312-313.
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