Search results for 'Ends and means' (try it on Scholar)

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  1. Christopher Hitchcock (2012). Events and Times: A Case Study in Means-Ends Metaphysics. Philosophical Studies 160 (1):79-96.score: 144.0
    There is a tradition, tracing back to Kant, of recasting metaphysical questions as questions about the utility of a conceptual scheme, linguistic framework, or methodological rule for achieving some particular end. Following in this tradition, I propose a ‘means-ends metaphysics’, in which one rigorously demonstrates the suitability of some conceptual framework for achieving a specified goal. I illustrate this approach using a debate about the nature of events. Specifically, the question is whether the time at which an event (...)
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  2. Rajendra Prasad (ed.) (1989). Ends and Means in Private and Public Life. Indian Institute of Advanced Study in Association with Indus Pub. Co., New Delhi.score: 120.0
     
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  3. C. G. Shah (1972). Ends and Means: Their Dialectical Unity. Bombay,Popular Prakashan.score: 120.0
     
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  4. Robert Bass, Maximizing, Satisficing and the Normative Distinction Between Means and Ends.score: 96.0
    Decision theory, understood as providing a normative account of rationality in action, is often thought to be an adequate formalization of instrumental reasoning. As a model, there is much to be said for it. However, if decision theory is to adequately account for correct instrumental reasoning, then the axiomatic conditions by which it links preference to action must be normative for choice. That is, a choice must be rationally defective unless it proceeds from a preference set that satisfies the axiomatic (...)
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  5. Daniel Steel, What If the Principle of Induction is Normative? Means-Ends Epistemology and Hume's Problem.score: 96.0
    I develop a critique of Hume’s infamous problem of induction based upon the idea that the principle of induction (PI) is a normative rather than descriptive claim. I argue that Hume’s problem is a false dilemma, since the PI might be neither a “relation of ideas” nor a “matter of fact” but rather what I call a contingent normative statement. In this case, the PI could be justified by a means-ends argument in which the link between means (...)
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  6. Daniel J. O'Keefe (2012). Conviction, Persuasion, and Argumentation: Untangling the Ends and Means of Influence. [REVIEW] Argumentation 26 (1):19-32.score: 96.0
    This essay offers a start on sorting out the relationships of argumentation and persuasion by identifying two systematic ways in which definitions of argumentation differ, namely, their descriptions of the ends and of the means involved in argumentative discourse. Against that backdrop, the traditional “conviction-persuasion” distinction is reassessed. The essay argues that the traditional distinction correctly recognizes the difference between the end of influencing attitudes and that of influencing behavior—but that it misanalyzes the means of achieving the (...)
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  7. O. Schulte (1999). Means-Ends Epistemology. British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 50 (1):1-31.score: 96.0
    This paper describes the corner-stones of a means-ends approach to the philosophy of inductive inference. I begin with a fallibilist ideal of convergence to the truth in the long run, or in the 'limit of inquiry'. I determine which methods are optimal for attaining additional epistemic aims (notably fast and steady convergence to the truth). Means-ends vindications of (a version of) Occam's Razor and the natural generalizations in a Goodmanian Riddle of Induction illustrate the power of (...)
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  8. Garrath Williams (2012). Children as Means and Ends in Large-Scale Medical Research. Bioethics 26 (8):422-430.score: 96.0
    This paper considers the often-expressed fear that medical research may use children merely as means, and not respect them as ends in themselves – especially insofar as they are deemed less able to consent than adults. The main focus is on large-scale genetic, socio-medical and epidemiological research. The theoretical starting point of the paper is that to be treated as an end in oneself is to be regarded as – and to act as – a participant in cooperative (...)
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  9. Frank Hofmann (2005). Epistemic Means and Ends: In Defense of Some Sartwellian Insights. Synthese 146 (3):357 - 369.score: 96.0
    The question of what means-and-ends structure our epistemic endeavors have is an important issue in recent epistemology, and is fundamental for understanding epistemic matters in principle. Crispin Sartwell has proposed arguments for the view that knowledge is our only ultimate goal, and justification is no part of it. An important argument is his instrumentality argument which is concerned with the conditions under which something could belong to our ultimate epistemic goal. Recently, this argument has been reconstructed and criticized (...)
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  10. Allan Peachment, Margaret McNeil, Geoff Soutar & Caron Molster (1995). Means or Ends? Ethical Decision Frameworks in the Western Australian Public Service. Journal of Business Ethics 14 (8):629 - 641.score: 96.0
    The paper analyses results from a questionnaire-based survey of ethical behavior of members of the Western Australian Senior Executive Service. Relating to definitions of deontology (duty) and teleology (ends over means) the study examines the validity of three hypotheses on ethical behaviour/decision making frameworks. Longitudinal data is related to the 1983–90WA Inc period. The study establishes that SES managers apply ethical frameworks in order to understand the meaning of: ethical behaviour and that there are groups of managers with (...)
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  11. Dongming Xu (2010). Beyond Simon's Means-Ends Analysis: Natural Creativity and the Unanswered 'Why' in the Design of Intelligent Systems for Problem-Solving. [REVIEW] Minds and Machines 20 (3):327-347.score: 96.0
    Goal-directed problem solving as originally advocated by Herbert Simon’s means-ends analysis model has primarily shaped the course of design research on artificially intelligent systems for problem-solving. We contend that there is a definite disregard of a key phase within the overall design process that in fact logically precedes the actual problem solving phase. While systems designers have traditionally been obsessed with goal-directed problem solving, the basic determinants of the ultimate desired goal state still remain to be fully understood (...)
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  12. AIdo Leopold (1990). Means and Ends in Wild Life Management. Environmental Ethics 12 (4):329-332.score: 96.0
    [Although research in wildlife management is repeating the history of agriculture, unlike agricultural research, which employs scientific means for economic ends, the ends of wildlife research are judged in terms of aesthetic satisfactions as governed by “good taste.” Wild animals and plants are economically valuable only in the sense that human performers and works of art are: the means are of the brain, but the ends are of the heart. Wildlife management has forged ahead of (...)
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  13. Morgan Marietta (2010). Value Representation—the Dominance of Ends Over Means in Democratic Politics: Reply to Murakami. Critical Review 22 (2-3):311-329.score: 96.0
    American democracy is not unconstrained or autonomous, but instead achieves what could be termed value representation. Rather than affording representation on policy issues, elections transmit priorities among competing normative ends, while elite politics address the more complex matching of ends and means within the value boundaries established by voters. This results in neither policy representation nor state autonomy, but instead in a specific and limited form of democratic representation.
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  14. Oliver Schulte, Means-Ends Rationality and Categorical Imperatives in Empirical Inquiry.score: 96.0
    Kant taught us that there are two kinds of norms: Categorical imperatives that one ought to follow regardless of one's personal aims and circumstances, and hypothetical imperatives that direct us to employ the means towards our chosen ends. Kant's distinction separates two approaches to normative epistemology. On the one hand, we have principles of "inductive rationality", typically supported by considerations such as intuitive plausibility, conformity with exemplary practice, and internal consistency. On the other hand, we may assess rules (...)
     
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  15. Susanne Gibson (1995). Reasons for Having Children: Ends, Means and 'Family Values'. Journal of Applied Philosophy 12 (3):231-240.score: 90.0
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  16. H. M. Giebel (2007). Ends, Means, and Character: Recent Critiques of the Intended-Versus-Forseen Distinction and the Principle of Double Effect. American Catholic Philosophical Quarterly 81 (3):447-468.score: 90.0
    In this essay I first provide a brief explanation of the principle of double effect (PDE) and the propositions that it entails regarding the distinction betweenintention and foresight (I/F distinction) and the distinction’s relevance to ethical evaluation. Then I address several recent critiques of PDE and the I/F distinctionby influential ethicists including Judith Jarvis Thomson, Tom Beauchamp and James Childress, and Jonathan Bennett. I argue that none of these critiques issuccessful. In the process of refuting the critiques, I also give (...)
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  17. James J. Walter (1976). Joseph Fletcher and the Ends-Means Problematic. Heythrop Journal 17 (1):50–63.score: 90.0
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  18. E. J. Kenney (1969). Ends, Means, and Values Gordon Williams: Tradition and Originality in Roman Poetry. Pp. X+811. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1968. Cloth, £4. 10s. Net. [REVIEW] The Classical Review 19 (03):294-298.score: 90.0
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  19. E. J. Kenney (1969). Ends, Means, and Values. The Classical Review 19 (03):294-.score: 90.0
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  20. L. Clayton (1997). Ends & Means: Journal of the University of Aberdeen Centre for Philosophy, Technology, and Society. Journal of Scottish Philosophy 2 (1).score: 90.0
     
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  21. Jesse Hughes, Albert Esterline & Bahram Kimiaghalam (2006). Means-End Relations and a Measure of Efficacy. Journal of Logic, Language and Information 15 (1-2):83-108.score: 84.0
    Propositional dynamic logic (PDL) provides a natural setting for semantics of means-end relations involving non-determinism, but such models do not include probabilistic features common to much practical reasoning involving means and ends. We alter the semantics for PDL by adding probabilities to the transition systems and interpreting dynamic formulas 〈α〉 ϕ as fuzzy predicates about the reliability of α as a means to ϕ. This gives our semantics a measure of efficacy for means-end relations.
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  22. Barry L. Gan (2008). Means and Ends, Nonviolence and Politics. Proceedings of the Xxii World Congress of Philosophy 50:177-184.score: 84.0
    During the latter half of the twentieth century political realism dominated national and international landscapes. The twenty-first century has seen the rise of neo‐conservatism, what Charles Krauthammer has called “democratic realism” and what others see as a re-birth of Wilsonianism—making the world safe for democracy. Robert M. Gates, U.S. Secretary of Defense, in a speech on Sept. 17, 2007 in Williamsburg, VA, at the World Forum on the Future of Democracy, acknowledged these different strains of current U.S. policy, saying that (...)
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  23. Giuliano Pontara (1967). Does the End Justify the Means? Stockholm, Filosofiska Institutionen Vid Stockholms Universitet.score: 84.0
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  24. Thomas Scanlon (2008). Moral Dimensions: Permissibility, Meaning, Blame. Belknap Press of Harvard University Press.score: 78.0
    The illusory appeal of double effect -- The significance of intent -- Means and ends -- Blame.
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  25. Radu J. Bogdan (1994). By Way of Means and Ends. In , Grounds for Cognition. Lawrence Erlbaum.score: 78.0
    This chapter provides the teleological foundations for our analysis of guidance to goal. Its objective is to ground goal-directedness genetically. The basic suggestion is this. Organisms are small things, with few energy resources and puny physical means, battling a ruthless physical and biological nature. How do they manage to survive and multiply? CLEVERLY, BY ORGANIZING.
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  26. Pierre Le Morvan (2008). Epistemic Means and Ends: A Reply to Hofmann. Synthese 162 (2):251-264.score: 78.0
    How is epistemic justification related to knowledge? Is it, as widely thought, constitutive of knowledge? Is it merely a means to knowledge, or merely a means to something else, such as truth? In a recent article in this journal, Hofmann (2005, Synthese, 146(3), 357–369) addresses these questions in attempting to defend an important argument articulated by Sartwell (1992, The Journal of Philosophy, 89(4), 167–180) and reconstructed and criticized by Le Morvan (2002, Erkenntnis: An International Journal of Analytic Philosophy, (...)
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  27. Michael Hodges (1980). Means/Ends and the Nature of Engineering. PSA: Proceedings of the Biennial Meeting of the Philosophy of Science Association 1980:456 - 463.score: 78.0
    Aristotle's distinction between the practical life and the contemplative life has been of central importance in fixing the sort of justification that is required for engineering activity. As practical it must be justified by its products, while intellect's activity claims intrinsic worth. Most philosophers of technology accept this model of justification. However, engineering is not essentially practical in the relevant sense. To claim that it is overlooks a distinction between "structuring ends" and "products" which when made allows engineering to (...)
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  28. Pierre Le Morvan (2008). Epistemic Means and Ends: A Reply to Hofmann. Synthese 162 (2):251 - 264.score: 78.0
    How is epistemic justification related to knowledge? Is it, as widely thought, constitutive of knowledge? Is it merely a means to knowledge, or merely a means to something else, such as truth? In a recent article in this journal, Hofmann (2005, "Synthese," 146(3), 357—369) addresses these questions in attempting to defend an important argument articulated by Sartwell (1992, "The Journal of Philosophy," 89(4), 167—180) and reconstructed and criticized by Le Morvan (2002, "Erkenntnis: An International Journal of Analytic Philosophy," (...)
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  29. Joaquín Jareño-Alarcón (2008). The Proportionality of Means and Ends. Proceedings of the Xxii World Congress of Philosophy 50:279-291.score: 78.0
    Over the last few years, in part due to the political impact of terrorist activities, the debate on the moral significance of torture as a useful means of obtaining information from enemy combatants has arisen with an urgency not seen in many years. Stressing the importance of exceptional cases, the defenders of torture attempt to justify its acceptance by and back its use in the judicial system of Western democracies. Yet what is at stake here are the basic moral (...)
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  30. Christine James (2012). Prisons for Profit in the United States: Retribution and Means Vs. Ends. Journal for Human Rights 6 (1):76-93.score: 74.0
    The recent trend toward privately owned and operated prisons calls attention to a variety of issues involving human rights. The growing number of corporatized correctional institutions is especially notable in the United States, but it is also a global phenomenon in many countries. The reasons cited for privatizing prisons are usually economic; the opportunity to outsource prison services enables local political leaders to save tax revenue, and local communities are promised a chance to create new jobs and bring in a (...)
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  31. Jon Pike, Geras on Means and Ends: The Case for a Prefigurative Constraint.score: 74.0
    Norman Geras argues for the incorporation of elements from the just war tradition into the ethics of social change. But this does not go far enough. In this paper I argue for a prefigurative constraint: that action intended to bring about social transformation ought to prefigure that transformation, and bear those properties of the future state of affairs that make the future state of affairs morally valuable. I defend the idea of a prefigurative constraint against some objections and introduce a (...)
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  32. Sven Ove Hansson (2010). The Harmful Influence of Decision Theory on Ethics. Ethical Theory and Moral Practice 13 (5):585-593.score: 72.0
    In the last half century, decision theory has had a deep influence on moral theory. Its impact has largely been beneficial. However, it has also given rise to some problems, two of which are discussed here. First, issues such as risk-taking and risk imposition have been left out of ethics since they are believed to belong to decision theory, and consequently the ethical aspects of these issues have not been treated in either discipline. Secondly, ethics has adopted the decision-theoretical idea (...)
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  33. John Brunero (2010). Self‐Governance, MeansEnds Coherence, and Unalterable Ends. Ethics 120 (3):579-591.score: 72.0
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  34. Deborah Mayo & Jean Miller (2008). The Error Statistical Philosopher as Normative Naturalist. Synthese 163 (3):305 - 314.score: 72.0
    We argue for a naturalistic account for appraising scientific methods that carries non-trivial normative force. We develop our approach by comparison with Laudan’s (American Philosophical Quarterly 24:19–31, 1987, Philosophy of Science 57:20–33, 1990) “normative naturalism” based on correlating means (various scientific methods) with ends (e.g., reliability). We argue that such a meta-methodology based on meansends correlations is unreliable and cannot achieve its normative goals. We suggest another approach for meta-methodology based on a conglomeration of tools and (...)
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  35. Henry S. Richardson (1994). Practical Reasoning About Final Ends. Cambridge University Press.score: 72.0
    Henry Richardson argues that we can determine our ends rationally. He constructs a rich and original theory of how we can reason about our final goals. Richardson defuses the counter-arguments for the limits of rational deliberation, and develops interesting ideas about how his model might be extended to interpersonal deliberation of ends, taking him to the borders of political theory. Along the way Richardson offers illuminating discussions of, inter alia, Aristotle, Aquinas, Sidgwick, and Dewey, as well as the (...)
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  36. Nancy Nyquist Potter (2011). What It Means to Treat People as Ends-in-Themselves. American Journal of Bioethics 11 (10):6 - 7.score: 72.0
    The American Journal of Bioethics, Volume 11, Issue 10, Page 6-7, October 2011.
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  37. Göran Hermerén (2012). The Principle of Proportionality Revisited: Interpretations and Applications. [REVIEW] Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 15 (4):373-382.score: 72.0
    The principle of proportionality is used in many different contexts. Some of these uses and contexts are first briefly indicated. This paper focusses on the use of this principle as a moral principle. I argue that under certain conditions the principle of proportionality is helpful as a guide in decision-making. But it needs to be clarified and to be used with some flexibility as a context-dependent principle. Several interpretations of the principle are distinguished, using three conditions as a starting point: (...)
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  38. Morton A. Kaplan (1976). Means/Ends Rationality. Ethics 87 (1):61-65.score: 72.0
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  39. Lucy Barnard & William Y. Lan (2008). Treatment of Missing Data: Beyond Ends and Means. [REVIEW] Journal of Academic Ethics 6 (2):173-176.score: 72.0
    The ethical decision making process behind the treatment of missing data has yet to be examined in the research literature in any discipline. The purpose of the current paper is to begin to discuss this decision-making process in view of a Foucauldian framework. The paper suggests how the ethical treatment of missing data should be considered from the adoption of this theoretical framework.
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  40. Sterling P. Lamprecht (1920). Ends and Means in Ethical Theory. Journal of Philosophy, Psychology and Scientific Methods 17 (19):505-513.score: 72.0
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  41. Rachel Torr (2008). Theoretical Perspectives as Ideal-Types: Typologies as Means Not Ends. Social Epistemology 22 (2):145 – 164.score: 72.0
    In this paper I question the tendency within some feminist circles to criticise attempts to develop typologies that delineate different feminist theoretical perspectives. I agree that many of the criticisms are valid, but only if typologies are viewed in a particular way. This particular way is when typologies are regarded as ahistorical, all-encompassing entities containing discrete categories that are designed for the once and for all fixing of individuals and their work in one box. Reading Max Weber through Karl Mannheim's (...)
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  42. R. M. Frumkina (1979). Means and Ends in Psycholinguistics. Diogenes 27 (105):116-137.score: 72.0
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  43. Oliver Schulte (1999). The Logic of Reliable and Efficient Inquiry. Journal of Philosophical Logic 28 (4):399-438.score: 72.0
    This paper pursues a thorough-going instrumentalist, or means-ends, approach to the theory of inductive inference. I consider three epistemic aims: convergence to a correct theory, fast convergence to a correct theory and steady convergence to a correct theory (avoiding retractions). For each of these, two questions arise: (1) What is the structure of inductive problems in which these aims are feasible? (2) When feasible, what are the inference methods that attain them? Formal learning theory provides the tools for (...)
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  44. Douglas Husak (2009). Convergent Ends, Divergent Means: A Response to My Critics. Criminal Justice Ethics 28 (1):119-134.score: 72.0
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  45. Frank H. Knight (1939). Book Review:Ends and Means. Aldous Huxley. [REVIEW] Ethics 49 (3):358-.score: 72.0
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  46. Rubin Gotesky (1963). Means, Ends-in-View, Anticipations and Outcomes. Educational Theory 13 (2):84-94.score: 72.0
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  47. Todd M. Lekan (1998). Ideals, Practical Reason, and Pessimism: Dewey's Reconstruction of Means and Ends. Transactions of the Charles S. Peirce Society 34 (1):113 - 147.score: 72.0
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  48. Matthew Weinshall (2003). Means, Ends, and Public Ignorance in Habermas's Theory of Democracy. Critical Review 15 (1-2):23-58.score: 72.0
    Abstract According to the principles derived from his theory of discourse ethics, Habermas's model of deliberative democracy is justified only if the public is capable of making political decisions that advance the common good. Recent public?opinion research demonstrates that the public's overwhelming ignorance of politics precludes it from having such capabilities, even if radical measures were taken to thoroughly educate the public about politics or to increase the salience of politics in their lives.
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  49. Mary Carman Rose (1954). Value Experience and the "Means-Ends Continuum". Ethics 65 (1):44-54.score: 72.0
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  50. B. C. Hurst (1984). Means, Ends, Content and Objectives in Curriculum Planning: A Critique of Sockett and Hirst. Journal of Philosophy of Education 18 (1):17–30.score: 72.0
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