Search results for 'Enlightenment Sources' (try it on Scholar)

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  1. John P. McCormick (2011). Post-Enlightenment Sources of Political Authority: Biblical Atheism, Political Theology and the Schmitt–Strauss Exchange. History of European Ideas 37 (2):175-180.score: 150.0
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  2. Gordana Djeric (2006). European-Enlightenment and National-Romanticist Sources of Cultural Memory: Reflections in Contemporary Debates. Filozofija I Drustvo 30:77-88.score: 132.0
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  3. Ronald de Sousa (1994). Bashing the Enlightenment: A Discussion of Charles Taylor's Sources of the Self. Dialogue 33 (01):109-.score: 120.0
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  4. Gordana Đerić (2006). European-Enlightenment and National-Romanticist Sources of Cultural Memory: Reflections in Contemporary Debates. Filozofija I Društvo 30:77-88.score: 120.0
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  5. Knud Haakonssen (1996). Natural Law and Moral Philosophy: From Grotius to the Scottish Enlightenment. Cambridge University Press.score: 96.0
    This major contribution to the history of philosophy provides the most comprehensive guide to modern natural law theory available, sets out the full background to liberal ideas of rights and contractarianism, and offers an extensive study of the Scottish Enlightenment. The time span covered is considerable: from the natural law theories of Grotius and Suarez in the early seventeenth century to the American Revolution and the beginnings of utilitarianism. After a detailed survey of modern natural law theory, the book (...)
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  6. Jèssica Jaques Pi (2013). Kant's Aesthetic Reading of Aristotle's "Philia": Disinterestedness and the Mood of the Late Enlightenment. Revista de Filosofía (Madrid) 37 (2):55-68.score: 66.0
    This article roots Kant’s concept of disinterestedness, as he uses it in the Critique of Judgment, in Aristotle’s notion of philia by establishing a path from ethics to aesthetics and back. In this way, the third Critique turns out to be one of the main sources for a new ideal of humanity: the ideal suitable for late Enlightenment. This article argues that Kant reaches this fruitful use of disinterestedness by giving to Aristotle’s concept of philia an aesthetic turn.
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  7. Charles T. Wolfe (2007). “Determinism/Spinozism in the Radical Enlightenment: The Cases of Anthony Collins and Denis Diderot”. International Review of Eighteenth-Century Studies 1 (1):37-51.score: 54.0
    In his Philosophical Inquiry concerning Human Liberty (1717), the English deist Anthony Collins proposed a complete determinist account of the human mind and action, partly inspired by his mentor Locke, but also by elements from Bayle, Leibniz and other Continental sources. It is a determinism which does not neglect the question of the specific status of the mind but rather seeks to provide a causal account of mental activity and volition in particular; it is a ‘volitional determinism’. Some decades (...)
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  8. James Fieser & James Oswald (eds.) (2000). Scottish Common Sense Philosophy: Sources and Origins. Thoemmes Press.score: 54.0
    The Scottish Common Sense School of philosophy emerged during the Scottish Enlightenment of the second half of the eighteenth century. The School’s principal proponents were Thomas Reid, James Oswald, James Beattie and Dugald Stewart. They believed that we are all naturally implanted with an array of common sense intuitions and these intuitions are in fact the foundation of truth. Their approach dominated philosophical thought in Great Britain and the United States until the mid nineteenth century. In recent years philosophers (...)
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  9. Adam J. Chmielewski (2007). The Enlightenment's Concept of the Individual and its Contemporary Criticism. Polish Journal of Philosophy 1 (2):41-59.score: 54.0
    Communitarian social philosophy was born in opposition to some tenets of liberalism. Liberal individualism has been among its most strongly contested claims. In their criticisms, the communitarians point to the Enlightenment’s sources of the individualist vision of society and morality. The aim of this paper is to demonstrate that, even if the communitarian line of argument has been justified in more than one way, it is at the same time important to remember that the greatest figure of the (...)
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  10. Martin Mulsow (ed.) (2011). Between Philology and Radical Enlightenment: Hermann Samuel Reimarus (1694-1768). Brill.score: 54.0
    Drawing on new manuscript sources, this volume offers seven contributions on Hermann Samuel Reimarus, the most significant biblical critic in eighteenth-century Germany, as well as an eminent Enlightenment philosopher, a renowned classicist ...
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  11. Robert Louden (2010). The World We Want: How and Why The Ideals of the Enlightenment Still Elude Us. OUP USA.score: 54.0
    The World We Want compares the future world that Enlightenment intellectuals had hoped for with our own world at present. In what respects do the two worlds differ, and why are they so different? To what extent is and isn't our world the world they wanted, and to what extent do we today still want their world? Unlike previous philosophical critiques and defenses of the Enlightenment, the present study focuses extensively on the relevant historical and empirical record first, (...)
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  12. Mircea Platon (2010). Robespierre's Éloge De Gresset: Sources of Robespierre's Anti‐Philosophe Discourse. Intellectual History Review 20 (4):479-502.score: 54.0
    One of the most important debates in the field of eighteenth?century French intellectual history concerns the ideological significance of the rise of the cult of the Great Frenchmen. Taking this debate as a frame of reference, the paper attempts a close reading of Robespierre's Éloge de Gresset (written in 1784, published in 1785). Usually dismissed by Robespierre scholars, this text is, in fact, a very important document offering clues not only to Robespierre's intellectual formation, but also his appropriation of what (...)
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  13. Nathaniel Wolloch (2013). Barbarian Tribes, American Indians and Cultural Transmission: Changing Perspectives From the Enlightenment to Tocqueville. History of Political Thought 34 (3):507-539.score: 54.0
    This article examines the change which occurred in discussions of cultural transmission between the Enlightenment and the liberal outlook of the nineteenth century. The former is exemplified mainly by eighteenth-century historical discussions, the latter by the thought of Alexis de Tocqueville. An interest in the influence of advanced Western cultures on seemingly inferior non-Western societies was consistent throughout the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. It was manifested mainly in discussions of the barbarian conquest of the Roman Empire on the one (...)
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  14. M. A. Stewart (ed.) (1990). Studies in the Philosophy of the Scottish Enlightenment. Oxford University Press.score: 48.0
    This collection of new papers on Scottish philosophy in the age of Hutcheson and Hume pays close attention to the study of context and the use of original historical sources as a key to philosophical interpretation. The book includes revolutionary new research on Hume's early reading in science and religion and its impact of his thought.
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  15. Barend Christoffel Labuschagne & Reinhard Sonnenschmidt (eds.) (2009). Religion, Politics and Law: Philosophical Reflections on the Sources of Normative Order in Society. Brill.score: 42.0
    Exploring the pre-political en pre-legal spiritual infrastructure from which modern, liberal democracies in the West live, but cannot guarantee, this book ...
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  16. Georg Cavallar (2014). Sources of Kant's Cosmopolitanism: Basedow, Rousseau, and Cosmopolitan Education. Studies in Philosophy and Education 33 (4):369-389.score: 42.0
    The goal of this essay is to analyse the influence of Johann Bernhard Basedow and Rousseau on Kant’s cosmopolitanism and concept of cosmopolitan education. It argues that both Basedow and Kant defined cosmopolitan education as non-denominational moral formation or Bildung, encompassing—in different forms—a thin version of moral religion following the core tenets of Christianity. Kant’s encounter with Basedow and the Philanthropinum in Dessau helps to understand the development of Kant’s concept of cosmopolitanism and educational theory ‘in weltbürgerlicher Absicht’. Rousseau’s role (...)
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  17. Niccolò Guasti (2006). Antonio Genovesi'sDiceosina: Source of the Neapolitan Enlightenment. History of European Ideas 32 (4):385-405.score: 40.0
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  18. Joerg U. Noller (2012). Enlightenment at the Source of Idealism; Tendencies of the Most Recent Reinhold-Studies. Philosophische Rundschau 59 (2):160 - 184.score: 40.0
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  19. Charles W. J. Withers (2007). Placing the Enlightenment: Thinking Geographically About the Age of Reason. University of Chicago Press.score: 38.0
    The Enlightenment was the age in which the world became modern, challenging tradition in favor of reason, freedom, and critical inquiry. While many aspects of the Enlightenment have been rigorously scrutinized—its origins and motivations, its principal characters and defining features, its legacy and modern relevance—the geographical dimensions of the era have until now largely been ignored. Placing the Enlightenment contends that the Age of Reason was not only a period of pioneering geographical investigation but also an age (...)
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  20. Roderick Graham (2004/2006). The Great Infidel: A Life of David Hume. Birlinn.score: 36.0
    This complete life story of David Hume, one of Scotland’s greatest thinkers, follows the Enlightenment from its early roots to its full blossoming in 18th-century Edinburgh. Using original sources, many for the first time, this biography details every aspect of the philosopher’s life—from the lukewarm reception of his now pivotal work, Treatise of Human Nature, to the fame and near excommunication brought about by his famous Essays and History. Also detailed are the stories behind his nickname, “The Great (...)
     
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  21. Egidijus Jarašiūnas (2009). The Prehistory of Constitutionalism: the Sources or the Archetype? Jurisprudence 118 (4):21-46.score: 36.0
    The following categories can be found in the analysis of the prehistory of constitutionalism: the early constitutionalism, the ancient constitutionalism, the medieval or canonical constitutionalism. The usage of these categories raises the question: is constitutionalism the product of the Age of Enlightenment or is it an older phenomenon? The author of the article approaches this problem from another point of view: maybe the usage of the mentioned categories is an anachronism? In this case the elements taken form different contexts (...)
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  22. Michael L. Frazer (2007). John Rawls: Between Two Enlightenments. Political Theory 35 (6):756 - 780.score: 34.0
    John Rawls shares the Enlightenment's commitment to finding moral and political principles which can be reflectively endorsed by all individuals autonomously. He usually presents reflective autonomy in Kantian, rationalist terms: autonomy is identified with the exercise of reason, and principles of justice must be constructed which are acceptable to all on the basis of reason alone. Yet David Hume, Adam Smith and many other Enlightenment thinkers rejected such rationalism, searching instead for principles which can be endorsed by all (...)
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  23. Axel Gelfert (2010). Kant and the Enlightenment's Contribution to Social Epistemology. Episteme 7 (1):79-99.score: 30.0
    The present paper argues for the relevance of Immanuel Kant and the German Enlightenment to contemporary social epistemology. Rather than distancing themselves from the alleged ‘individualism’ of Enlightenment philosophers, social epistemologists would be well-advised to look at the substantive discussion of social-epistemological questions in the works of Kant and other Enlightenment figures. After a brief rebuttal of the received view of the Enlightenment as an intrinsically individualist enterprise, this paper charts the historical trajectory of philosophical discussions (...)
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  24. Henry McDonald (2002). The Ontological Turn: Philosophical Sources of American Literary Theory. Inquiry 45 (1):3 – 33.score: 30.0
    The most important sources of contemporary American literary theory are neither the linguistics-based movement of French structuralism, as the term 'poststructuralism' implies, nor a 'modernity' that has been superseded, as the term 'postmodernism' implies, but rather a modernist tradition of aesthetics shaped by eighteenth- and early nineteenth-century German romanticism and idealism, movements that culminated in the work of Heidegger during the Weimar period between the World Wars and afterward, exercising an increasingly dominant influence on French theorists after World War (...)
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  25. John Davenport (1998). Piety, MacIntyre, and Kierkegaardian Choice. Faith and Philosophy 15 (3):352-365.score: 30.0
    This paper concerns a debate between two previous articles in Faith and Philosophy. In 1995, Bruce Ballard criticized Marilyn Piety’s argument that the Kierkegaardian “choice” between the ‘aesthetic’ and ‘ethical’ modes of existence is not an irrational or criterionless leap. Instead, Ballard defended MacIntyre’s view that Kierkegaard’s position succumbs to the tensions inherited from its opposing enlightenment sources. I argue in response that Ballard sets up a false dilemma for Kierkegaard and misunderstands Kierkegaardianpathos. To bolster Piety’s position, I (...)
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  26. Bernard Yack (2013). The Significance of Isaiah Berlin's Counter-Enlightenment. European Journal of Political Theory 12 (1):49-60.score: 30.0
    This paper takes a close look at Berlin’s claim that the emergence of Counter-Enlightenment pluralism marks a momentous historical watershed. It concludes that Berlin is right to draw our attention to the importance of this event, but that he seriously misinterprets its significance. He has good reason, in particular, to treat Herder as ‘the most formidable adversary of the French philosophes and their German disciples’, but not because Herder put a stop to the ancient creed of monism on which (...)
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  27. Ian Hacking (2011). Why is There Philosophy of Mathematics AT ALL? South African Journal of Philosophy 30 (1):1-15.score: 24.0
    Mathematics plays an inordinate role in the work of many of famous Western philosophers, from the time of Plato, through Husserl and Wittgenstein, and even to the present. Why? This paper points to the experience of learning or making mathematics, with an emphasis on proof. It distinguishes two sources of the perennial impact of mathematics on philosophy. They are classified as Ancient and Enlightenment. Plato is emblematic of the former, and Kant of the latter. The Ancient fascination arises (...)
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  28. Jesse Prinz, Is Morality Innate?score: 24.0
    Thus declares Francis Hutcheson, expressing a view widespread during the Enlightenment, and throughout the history of philosophy. According to this tradition, we are by nature moral, and ourS concern for good and evil is as natural to us as our capacity to feel pleasure and pain. The link between morality and human nature has been a common theme since ancient times, and, with the rise of modern empirical moral psychology, it remains equally popular today. Evolutionary ethicists, ethologists, developmental psychologists, (...)
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  29. Ian Hunter (2012). Kant's Political Thought in the Prussian Enlightenment. In Elisabeth Ellis (ed.), Kant's Political Theory: Interpretations and Applications. Pennsylvania State University Press.score: 24.0
    This article provides an historical account of Kant's political, legal, and religious thought in the context of the Prussian Enlightenment.
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  30. Melissa McBay Merritt (2009). Reflection, Enlightenment, and the Significance of Spontaneity in Kant. British Journal for the History of Philosophy 17 (5):981-1010.score: 24.0
    Existing interpretations of Kant’s appeal to the spontaneity of the mind focus almost exclusively on the discussion of pure apperception in the Transcendental Deduction. The risk of such a strategy lies in the considerable degree of abstraction at which the argument of the Deduction is carried out: existing interpretations fail to reconnect adequately with any ground-level perspective on our cognitive lives. This paper works in the opposite direction. Drawing on Kant’s suggestion that the most basic picture we can have of (...)
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  31. J. B. Schneewind (2010). Essays on the History of Moral Philosophy. Oxford University Press.score: 24.0
    Theory. Moral knowledge and moral principles -- Victorian Matters. First principles and common-sense morality in Sidgwick's ethics ; Moral problems and moral philosophy in the Victorian Period -- On the historiography of moral philosophy. Moral crisis and the history of ethics ; Modern moral philosophy : from beginning to end? : No discipline, no history : the case of moral philosophy ; Teaching the history of moral philosophy -- Seventeenth- and eighteenth-century moral philosophy. The divine corporation and the history of (...)
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  32. Nicholas Maxwell (2006). The Enlightenment Programme and Karl Popper. In I. I. Jarvie, K. Milford & D. Miller (eds.), Karl Popper: A Centenary Assessment. Volume 1: Life and Times, Values in a World of Facts. Ashgate.score: 24.0
    Popper first developed his theory of scientific method – falsificationism – in his The Logic of Scientific Discovery, then generalized it to form critical rationalism, which he subsequently applied to social and political problems in The Open Society and Its Enemies. All this can be regarded as constituting a major development of the 18th century Enlightenment programme of learning from scientific progress how to achieve social progress towards a better world. Falsificationism is, however, defective. It misrepresents the real, problematic (...)
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  33. Thaddeus Metz (2011). The Good, the True and the Beautiful: Toward a Unified Account of Great Meaning in Life. Religious Studies 47 (4):389-409.score: 24.0
    Three of the great sources of meaning in life are the good, the true, and the beautiful, and I aim to make headway on the grand Enlightenment project of ascertaining what, if anything, they have in common. Concretely, if we take a (stereotypical) Mother Teresa, Mandela, Darwin, Einstein, Dostoyevsky, and Picasso, what might they share that makes it apt to deem their lives to have truly mattered? I provide reason to doubt two influential answers, noting a common flaw (...)
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  34. T. J. Hochstrasser (2000). Natural Law Theories in the Early Enlightenment. Cambridge University Press.score: 24.0
    This major addition to Ideas in Context examines the development of natural law theories in the early stages of the Enlightenment in Germany and France. T. J. Hochstrasser investigates the influence exercised by theories of natural law from Grotius to Kant, with a comparative analysis of the important intellectual innovations in ethics and political philosophy of the time. Hochstrasser includes the writings of Samuel Pufendorf and his followers who evolved a natural law theory based on human sociability and reason, (...)
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  35. Daniel Brewer (2008). The Enlightenment Past: Reconstructing Eighteenth-Century French Thought. Cambridge University Press.score: 24.0
    An important reassessment of the afterlife of the Enlightenment and its continuing relevance in twenty-first century France.
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  36. T. J. Hochstrasser & Peter Schröder (eds.) (2003). Early Modern Natural Law Theories: Contexts and Strategies in Early Enlightenment. Kluwer Academic Publishers.score: 24.0
    The study of natural law theories is presently one of the most fruitful areas of research in the studies of early modern intellectual history, and moral and political theory. Likewise the historical significance of the Enlightenment for the development of `modernisation' in many different forms continues to be the subject of controversy. This collection therefore offers a timely opportunity to re-examine both the coherence of the concept of an `early Enlightenment', and the specific contribution of natural law theories (...)
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  37. John O'Neill (2002). The Rhetoric of Deliberation: Some Problems in Kantian Theories of Deliberative Democracy. Res Publica 8 (3):249-268.score: 24.0
    Deliberative or discursive models of democracy have recently enjoyed a revival in both political theory and policy practice. Against the picture of democracy as a procedure for aggregating and effectively meeting the given preference of individuals, deliberative theory offers a model of democracy as a forum through which judgements and preferences are formed and altered through reasoned dialogue between free and equal citizens. Much in the recent revival of deliberative democracy, especially that which comes through Habermas and Rawls, has Kantian (...)
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  38. Charles Taylor (2010). Dilemmas and Connections: Selected Essays. Belknap Press of Harvard University Press.score: 24.0
    Iris Murdoch and moral philosophy -- Understanding the other: a Gadamerian view on conceptual schemes -- Language not mysterious? -- Celan and the recovery of language -- Nationalism and modernity -- Conditions of an unforced consensus on human rights -- Democratic exclusion (and its remedies?) -- Religious mobilizations -- Themes from a secular age -- The immanent counter-enlightenment -- Notes on the sources of violence: perennial and modern -- The future of the religious past -- Disenchantment-re-enchantment -- What (...)
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  39. Stuart C. Brown (ed.) (1996). British Philosophy and the Age of Enlightenment. Routledge.score: 24.0
    European philosophy from the late seventeenth century through most of the eighteenth is broadly conceived as the "Enlightenment," a period of empricist reaction to the great seventeeth century Rationalists. This volume begins with Herbert of Cherbury and the Cambridge Platonists and with Newton and the early English Enlightenment. Locke is a key figure, as a result of his importance both in the development of British and Irish philosophy and because of his seminal influence in the Enlightenment as (...)
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  40. Michael Losonsky (2001). Enlightenment and Action From Descartes to Kant: Passionate Thought. Cambridge University Press.score: 24.0
    Kant believed that true enlightenment is the use of reason freely in public. This is the first book to trace systematically the philosophical origins and development of the idea that the improvement of human understanding requires public activity. Michael Losonsky focuses on seventeenth-century discussions of the problem of irresolution and the closely connected theme of the role of volition in human belief formation. This involves a discussion of the work of Descartes, Hobbes, Locke, Spinoza, and Leibniz. Challenging the traditional (...)
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  41. Jonathan I. Israel (2006/2008). Enlightenment Contested: Philosophy, Modernity, and the Emancipation of Man, 1670-1752. Oxford University Press.score: 24.0
    The first major reassessment of the Western Enlightenment for a generation. Continuing the story he began in Radical Enlightenment, Jonathan Israel now focuses on the first half of the eighteenth century. He traces to their roots the core principles of Western modernity: the primacy of reason, democracy, racial equality, feminism, religious toleration, sexual emancipation, and freedom of expression.
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  42. Carissa Véliz, The 3rd World Conference on Buddhism and Science (WCBS).score: 24.0
    The term mindfulness has become increasingly popular in the West due, in no small part, to contemporary studies of mindfulness-based therapies in psychology. According to the Pali Nik?yas, mindfulness practice is the heart of Buddhism, for it alone can lead one to enlightenment. However, are contemporary and traditional accounts of the practice of mindfulness referring to the same technique? In this paper I will argue that modern accounts of mindfulness in the field of psychology omit important features of the (...)
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  43. Wenyu Xie (2009). The Enlightenment: Conscience and Authority in Judgment. [REVIEW] Frontiers of Philosophy in China 4 (2):264-281.score: 24.0
    There were two prevailing sentiments in Europe after the Reformation: One opposing papal authority and one advocating individual freedom. This paper analyzes these two sentiments and finds that the concept of conscience is crucial in understanding them. The issue of conscience is about judging truth and good, and in initiating the Reformation, Martin Luther heavily appealed to his conscience while countering Catholic attacks. With the wide dispersal of the Reformation, Luther’s notion of conscience was well received among his supporters throughout (...)
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  44. Darrin M. McMahon (2001). Enemies of the Enlightenment: The French Counter-Enlightenment and the Making of Modernity. Oxford University Press.score: 24.0
    Critics have long treated the most important intellectual movement of modern history--the Enlightenment--as if it took shape in the absence of opposition. In this groundbreaking new study, Darrin McMahon demonstrates that, on the contrary, contemporary resistance to the Enlightenment was a major cultural force, shaping and defining the Enlightenment itself from the moment of inception, while giving rise to an entirely new ideological phenomenon-what we have come to think of as the "Right." McMahon skillfully examines the Counter- (...), showing that it was an extensive, international, and thoroughly modern affair. (shrink)
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  45. Daniel Carey (2006). Locke, Shaftesbury, and Hutcheson: Contesting Diversity in the Enlightenment and Beyond. Cambridge University Press.score: 24.0
    Are human beings linked by a common nature, one that makes them see the world in the same moral way? Or are they fragmented by different cultural practices and values? These fundamental questions of our existence were debated in the Enlightenment by Locke, Shaftesbury, and Hutcheson. Daniel Carey provides an important new historical perspective on their discussion. At the same time, he explores the relationship between these founding arguments and contemporary disputes over cultural diversity and multiculturalism. Our own conflicting (...)
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  46. Donald Rutherford (1995). Leibniz and the Rational Order of Nature. Cambridge University Press.score: 24.0
    This is the most up-to-date and comprehensive interpretation of the philosophy of Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz (1646-1716). Amongst its other virtues, it makes considerable use of unpublished manuscript sources. The book seeks to demonstrate the systematic unity of Leibniz's thought, in which theodicy, ethics, metaphysics and natural philosophy cohere. The key, underlying idea of the system is the conception of nature as an order designed by God to maximise the opportunities for the exercise of reason. From this idea emerges the (...)
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  47. Peter Gilmour (ed.) (1990). Philosophers of the Enlightenment. Barnes & Noble Books.score: 24.0
    PETER GILMOUR Introduction Although the nine philosophers in this volume can be described as Enlightenment philosophers (or, at least, as philosophers who ...
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  48. Jonathan I. Israel (2001). Radical Enlightenment: Philosophy and the Making of Modernity, 1650-1750. Oxford University Press.score: 24.0
    In the wake of the Scientific Revolution, the late seventeenth and eighteenth centuries saw the complete demolition of traditional structures of authority, scientific thought, and belief by the new philosophy and the philosophes, including Voltaire, Diderot, and Rousseau. The Radical Enlightenment played a part in this revolutionary process, which effectively overthrew all justification for monarchy, aristocracy, and ecclesiastical power, as well as man's dominance over woman, theological dominance of education, and slavery. Despite the present day interest in the revolutions (...)
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  49. Charlles T. Wolfe (2013). Vital Materialism and the Problem of Ethics in the Radical Enlightenment. Philosophica 88:31-70.score: 24.0
    From Hegel to Engels, Sartre and Ruyer (Ruyer, 1933), to name only a few, materialism is viewed as a necropolis, or the metaphysics befitting such an abode; many speak of matter’s crudeness, bruteness, coldness or stupidity. Science or scientism, on this view, reduces the living world to ‘dead matter’, ‘brutish’, ‘mechanical, lifeless matter’, thereby also stripping it of its freedom (Crocker, 1959). Materialism is often wrongly presented as ‘mechanistic materialism’ – with ‘Death of Nature’ echoes of de-humanization and hostility to (...)
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  50. Robert Anchor (1967/1979). The Enlightenment Tradition. University of California Press.score: 24.0
    The underlying theme of the inquiry is the real and possible relevance of the Enlightenment tradition to contemporary Western society.
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