Search results for 'Entrenchment' (try it on Scholar)

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  1. Nathaniel Jason Goldberg (2009). Historicism, Entrenchment, and Conventionalism. Journal for General Philosophy of Science 40 (2):259 - 276.score: 24.0
    W. V. Quine famously argues that though all knowledge is empirical, mathematics is entrenched relative to physics and the special sciences. Further, entrenchment accounts for the necessity of mathematics relative to these other disciplines. Michael Friedman challenges Quine’s view by appealing to historicism, the thesis that the nature of science is illuminated by taking into account its historical development. Friedman argues on historicist grounds that mathematical claims serve as principles constitutive of languages within which empirical claims in physics and (...)
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  2. Sten Lindström & Wlodek Rabinowicz (1991). Epistemic Entrenchment with Incomparabilities and Relational Belief Revision. In André Fuhrmann & Michael Morreau (eds.), The Logic of Theory Change. Springer.score: 24.0
    In earlier papers (Lindstrrm & Rabinowicz, 1989. 1990), we proposed a generalization of the AGM approach to belief revision. Our proposal was to view belief revision as a relation rather thanas a function on theories (or belief sets). The idea was to allow for there being several equally reasonable revisions of a theory with a given proposition. In the present paper, we show that the relational approach is the natural result of generalizing in a certain way an approach to belief (...)
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  3. Horacio Arlo-Costa & Isaac Levi, Contraction: On the Decision Theoretical Origins of Minimal Change and Entrenchment.score: 24.0
    Horacio Arlo-Costa and Issac Levi. Contraction: On the Decision Theoretical Origins of Minimal Change and Entrenchment.
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  4. Alexander Bochman (2002). Entrenchment Versus Dependence: Coherence and Foundations in Belief Change. [REVIEW] Journal of Logic, Language and Information 11 (1):3-27.score: 24.0
    We describe the relation between coherence and foundations approaches to belief change in terms of a correspondence between epistemic entrenchment relations(Gärdenfors and Makinson, 1988; Rott, 1992) and dependence consequence relations from Bochman (1999, 2000a).The general conclusion of the study is that dependence consequence relations are sufficiently expressive to subsume the notion of an epistemic entrenchment and its generalizations.
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  5. Horacio Arló-Costa & Isaac Levi (2006). Contraction: On the Decision-Theoretical Origins of Minimal Change and Entrenchment. Synthese 152 (1):129 - 154.score: 24.0
    We present a decision-theoretically motivated notion of contraction which, we claim, encodes the principles of minimal change and entrenchment. Contraction is seen as an operation whose goal is to minimize loses of informational value. The operation is also compatible with the principle that in contracting A one should preserve the sentences better entrenched than A (when the belief set contains A). Even when the principle of minimal change and the latter motivation for entrenchment figure prominently among the basic (...)
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  6. Alessandro Ferrara (2011). Ferrajoli's Argument for Structural Entrenchment. Res Publica 17 (4):377-383.score: 24.0
    This paper engages with Ferrajoli’s contribution to the philosophical debate on constitutional democracy and in particular his conception of ‘structural entrenchment’, or the basis upon which one can defend the normativity of the Constitution as ‘higher law’, which can trump or limit legislation, without infringing democratic principles. Ferrajoli’s own understanding of ‘structural entrenchment’ is compared to Rawls’s and Dworkin’s arguments in support of it. Ferrajoli’s position is neither grounded on a philosophy of history, as in Rawls, nor on (...)
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  7. Hans Rott (1992). Preferential Belief Change Using Generalized Epistemic Entrenchment. Journal of Logic, Language and Information 1 (1):45-78.score: 24.0
    A sentence A is epistemically less entrenched in a belief state K than a sentence B if and only if a person in belief state K who is forced to give up either A or B will give up A and hold on to B. This is the fundamental idea of epistemic entrenchment as introduced by Gärdenfors (1988) and elaborated by Gärdenfors and Makinson (1988). Another distinguishing feature of relations of epistemic entrenchment is that they permit particularly simple (...)
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  8. Thomas Andreas Meyer, Willem Adrian Labuschagne & Johannes Heidema (2000). Refined Epistemic Entrenchment. Journal of Logic, Language and Information 9 (2):237-259.score: 24.0
    Epistemic entrenchment, as presented by Gärdenfors and Makinson (1988) and Gärdenfors (1988), is a formalisation of the intuition that, when forced to choose between two beliefs, an agent will giveup the less entrenched one. While their formalisation satisfactorilycaptures the intuitive notion of the entrenchment of beliefs in a number ofaspects, the requirement that all wffs be comparable has drawn criticismfrom various quarters. We define a set of refined versions of theirentrenchment orderings that are not subject to the same (...)
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  9. William C. Wimsatt (2006). Generative Entrenchment and an Evolutionary Developmental Biology for Culture. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 29 (4):364-366.score: 18.0
    Mesoudi et al.'s new synthesis for cultural evolution closely parallels the evolutionary synthesis of Neo-Darwinism. It too draws inspiration from population genetics, recruits other fields, and, unfortunately, also ignores development. Enculturation involves many serially acquired skills and dependencies that allow us to build a rich cumulative culture. The newer synthesis, evolutionary developmental biology, provides a key tool, generative entrenchment, to analyze them. (Published Online November 9 2006).
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  10. Abhaya C. Nayak, Paul Nelson & Hanan Polansky (1996). Belief Change as Change in Epistemic Entrenchment. Synthese 109 (2):143 - 174.score: 18.0
    In this paper, it is argued that both the belief state and its input should be represented as epistemic entrenchment (EE) relations. A belief revision operation is constructed that updates a given EE relation to a new one in light of an evidential EE relation, and an axiomatic characterization of this operation is given. Unlike most belief revision operations, the one developed here can handle both multiple belief revision and iterated belief revision.
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  11. Abhaya C. Nayak (1994). Iterated Belief Change Based on Epistemic Entrenchment. Erkenntnis 41 (3):353-390.score: 18.0
    In this paper it is argued that, in order to solve the problem of iterated belief change, both the belief state and its input should be represented as epistemic entrenchment (EE) relations. A belief revision operation is constructed that updates a given EE relation to a new one in light of an evidential EE relation. It is shown that the operation in question satisfies generalized versions of the Gärdenfors revision postulates. The account offered is motivated by Spohn's ordinal conditionalization (...)
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  12. Jeffrey C. Schank & William C. Wimsatt (1986). Generative Entrenchment and Evolution. PSA: Proceedings of the Biennial Meeting of the Philosophy of Science Association 1986:33 - 60.score: 18.0
    The generative entrenchment of an entity is a measure of how much of the generated structure or activity of a complex system depends upon the presence or activity of that entity. It is argued that entities with higher degrees of generative entrenchment are more conservative in evolutionary changes of such systems. A variety of models of complex structures incorporating the effects of generative entrenchment are presented and we demonstrate their relevance in analyzing and explaining a variety of (...)
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  13. Hans Rott (2003). Basic Entrenchment. Studia Logica 73 (2):257 - 280.score: 18.0
    In contrast to other prominent models of belief change, models based on epistemic entrenchment have up to now been applicable only in the context of very strong packages of requirements for belief revision. This paper decomposes the axiomatization of entrenchment into independent modules. Among other things it is shown how belief revision satisfying only the ‘basic’ postulates of Alchourrón, Gärdenfors and Makinson can be represented in terms of entrenchment.
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  14. Robert Klee (2000). Problems with Formal Models of Epistemic Entrenchment as Applied to Scientific Theories. Synthese 122 (3):313 - 320.score: 18.0
    Formal models of theory contraction entered the philosophicalliterature with the prototype model by Alchourrón, Gärdenfors,and Makinson (Alchourrón et al. 1985). One influential modelinvolves theory contraction with respect to a relation calledepistemic entrenchment which orders the propositions of a theoryaccording to their relative degrees of theoretical importance.Various postulates have been suggested for characterizingepistemic entrenchment formally. I argue here that threesuggested postulates produce inappropriately bizarre results whenapplied to scientific theories. I argue that the postulates callednoncovering, continuing up, and continuing down, (...)
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  15. Catherine Caldwell-Harris & Shimon Edelman, Tracks in the Mind: Differential Entrenchment of Common and Rare Liturgical and Everyday Multiword Phrases in Religious and Secular Hebrew Speakers.score: 18.0
    We tested the hypothesis that more frequent exposure to multiword phrases results in deeper entrenchment of their representations, by examining the performance of subjects of different religiosity in the recognition of briefly presented liturgical and secular phrases drawn from several frequency classes. Three of the sources were prayer texts that religious Jews are required to recite on a daily, weekly, and annual basis, respectively; two others were common and rare expressions encountered in the general secular Israeli culture. As expected, (...)
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  16. Eduardo Fermé & Maurício D. L. Reis (2013). Epistemic Entrenchment-Based Multiple Contractions. Review of Symbolic Logic 6 (3):460-487.score: 18.0
    In this article we present a new class of multiple contraction functionswhich are a generalization of the epistemic entrenchment-based contractions (Grdenfors & Makinson, 1988) to the case of contractions by (possibly nonsingleton) sets of sentences and provide an axiomatic characterization for that class of functions. Moreover, we show that the class of epistemic entrenchment-based multiple contractions coincides with the class of system of spheres-based multiple contractions introduced in Fermé & Reis (2012).
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  17. William C. Wimsatt (1986). Developmental Constraints, Generative Entrenchment, and the Innate-Acquired Distinction. In William Bechtel (ed.), Integrating Scientific Disciplines. 185--208.score: 15.0
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  18. Johannes Lenhard & Eric Winsberg (2011). Holism and Entrenchment in Climate Model Validation. In M. Carrier & A. Nordmann (eds.), Science in the Context of Application. Springer. 115--130.score: 15.0
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  19. Johannes Lenhard & Eric Winsberg (2010). Holism, Entrenchment, and the Future of Climate Model Pluralism. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part B 41 (3):253-262.score: 15.0
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  20. Howard Kahane (1965). Nelson Goodman's Entrenchment Theory. Philosophy of Science 32 (3/4):377-383.score: 15.0
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  21. Hans Rott (1992). Modellings for Belief Change: Prioritization and Entrenchment. Theoria 58 (1):21-57.score: 15.0
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  22. Catherine Caldwell-Harris & Shimon Edelman, Measuring Mental Entrenchment of Phrases with Perceptual Identification, Familiarity Ratings, and Corpus Frequency Statistics.score: 15.0
    Word recognition is the Petri dish of the cognitive sciences. The processes hypothesized to govern naming, identifying and evaluating words have shaped this field since its origin in the 1970s. Techniques to measure lexical processing are not just the back-bone of the typical experimental psychology laboratory, but are now routinely used by cognitive neuroscientists to study brain processing and increasingly by social and clinical psychologists (Eder, Hommel, and De Houwer 2007). Models developed to explain lexical processing have also aspired to (...)
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  23. C. Caldwellharris & A. Morris (2008). Fast Pairs: A Visual Word Recognition Paradigm for Measuring Entrenchment, Top-Down Effects, and Subjective Phenomenology☆. Consciousness and Cognition 17 (4):1063-1081.score: 15.0
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  24. Richard Creath (1978). A Query on Entrenchment. Philosophy of Science 45 (3):474-477.score: 15.0
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  25. Kenneth Friedman (1973). Son of Grue: Simplicity Vs. Entrenchment. Noûs 7 (4):366-378.score: 15.0
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  26. Peter Miller (1998). Entrenchment and Vision in Canadian Forest Policy. Business and Professional Ethics Journal 17 (1/2):29-45.score: 15.0
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  27. William C. Wimsatt (1999). Generativity, Entrenchment, Evolution, and Innateness: Philosophy, Evolutionary Biology, and Conceptual Foundations of Science. In V. Harcastle (ed.), Where Biology Meets Psychology. 137--179.score: 15.0
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  28. Michael A. Slote (1974). Entrenchment and Validity. Analysis 34 (6):204 - 207.score: 15.0
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  29. Jon Wheatley (1967). Entrenchment and Engagement. Analysis 27 (4):119 - 127.score: 15.0
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  30. R. J. Bertolet (1976). On the Merits of Entrenchment. Analysis 37 (1):29 - 31.score: 15.0
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  31. Shimon Edelman (2012). Measuring Mental Entrenchment of Phrases with Perceptual Identification, Familiarity Ratings, and Corpus Frequency Statistics Catherine Caldwell-Harris, Jonathan Berant And. In Dagmar Divjak & Stefan Thomas Gries (eds.), Frequency Effects in Language Representation. De Gruyter Mouton. 2--165.score: 15.0
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  32. Arturo Hernandez, Ping Li & Brian MacWhinney (2005). Competition, Resonance, Parasitism and Entrenchment. Trends in Cognitive Sciences 9 (5):220-225.score: 15.0
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  33. Charles Nussbaum (1996). Majoritarianism, Autonomy, and 'Entrenchment'. Southwest Philosophy Review 12 (1):85-102.score: 15.0
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  34. Hans-Jörg Schmid (2010). Does Frequency in Text Instantiate Entrenchment in the Cognitive System. In Dylan Glynn & Kerstin Fischer (eds.), Quantitative Methods in Cognitive Semantics: Corpus-Driven Approaches. De Gruyter Mouton. 101--133.score: 15.0
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  35. Ben Ambridge, Julian M. Pine, Caroline F. Rowland & Chris R. Young (2008). The Effect of Verb Semantic Class and Verb Frequency (Entrenchment) on Children's and Adults' Graded Judgements of Argument-Structure Overgeneralization Errors. Cognition 106 (1):87-129.score: 15.0
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  36. Corey Brettschneider (2008). This Book Provocatively Inquires Into Whether Some Aspects of Law Should Be Regarded as Beyond the Purview of Dem-Ocratic Procedures. On Melissa Schwartzberg's Account,“Entrenchment,”—Her Term for Those Aspects of Law Thought. ARGUMENT 6 (2):363.score: 15.0
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  37. B. Grunstra (1969). The Plausibility of the Entrenchment Concept. American Philosophical Quarterly Monograph Series 3:100-127.score: 15.0
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  38. Sten Lindström & Wlodzimierz Rabinowicz (1991). Epistemic Entrenchment with Incomparabilities and Relational Belief Revision. In André Fuhrmann & Michael Morreau (eds.), The Logic of Theory Change. Springer. 93--126.score: 15.0
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  39. David Lyons (2008). The Legal Entrenchment of Illegality. In Matthew H. Kramer (ed.), The Legacy of H.L.A. Hart: Legal, Political, and Moral Philosophy. Oxford University Press.score: 15.0
     
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  40. Johan van Benthem, Alice ter Meulen & Heinrich Wansing (1992). Thomas Andreas Meyer, Willem Adrian Labuschagne, and Johannes Heidema/Refined Espistemic Entrenchment 237-259. Journal of Logic, Language, and Information 9 (2):139.score: 15.0
     
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  41. Jonathan Y. Tsou (2010). Putnam's Account of Apriority and Scientific Change: Its Historical and Contemporary Interest. Synthese 176 (3):429-445.score: 9.0
    In the 1960s and 1970s, Hilary Putnam articulated a notion of relativized apriority that was motivated to address the problem of scientific change. This paper examines Putnam’s account in its historical context and in relation to contemporary views. I begin by locating Putnam’s analysis in the historical context of Quine’s rejection of apriority, presenting Putnam as a sympathetic commentator on Quine. Subsequently, I explicate Putnam’s positive account of apriority, focusing on his analysis of the history of physics and geometry. In (...)
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  42. Wlodek Rabinowicz & Sten Lindström (1994). How to Model Relational Belief Revision. In Dag Prawitz & Dag Westerståhl (eds.), Logic and Philosophy of Science in Uppsala. Kluwer.score: 9.0
    This is a short version of Lindström & Rabinowicz 1991.In earlier papers, we proposed a generalization of the AGM approach to belief revision. The proposal was to view belief revision as a relation rather than as a function on theories (or belief sets). Going relational means that one allows for several equally reasonable revisions of a theory with a given proposition. In the present paper, we show that the relational approach is the natural result of generalizing in a certain way (...)
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  43. John Cantwell (1998). Resolving Conflicting Information. Journal of Logic, Language and Information 7 (2):191-220.score: 9.0
    Information received from different sources can be inconsistent. Even when the sources of information can be ordered on the basis of their trustworthiness, it turns out that extracting an acceptable notion of support for information is a non-trivial matter, as is the question what information a rational agent should accept. Here it is shown how a support ordering on the information can be generated and how it can be used to decide what information to accept and what not to accept. (...)
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  44. Ben Ambridge (2013). How Do Children Restrict Their Linguistic Generalizations? An (Un‐)Grammaticality Judgment Study. Cognitive Science 37 (3):508-543.score: 9.0
    A paradox at the heart of language acquisition research is that, to achieve adult-like competence, children must acquire the ability to generalize verbs into non-attested structures, while avoiding utterances that are deemed ungrammatical by native speakers. For example, children must learn that, to denote the reversal of an action, un- can be added to many verbs, but not all (e.g., roll/unroll; close/*unclose). This study compared theoretical accounts of how this is done. Children aged 5–6 (N = 18), 9–10 (N = (...)
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  45. Pavlos Peppas (2012). Comparative Possibility in Set Contraction. Journal of Philosophical Logic 41 (1):53-75.score: 9.0
    In a recent article, Zhang and Foo generalized the AGM postulates for contraction to include infinite epistemic input. The new type of belief change is called set contraction. Zhang and Foo also introduced a constructive model for set contraction, called nicely ordered partition, as a generalization of epistemic entrenchment. It was shown however that the functions induced from nicely ordered partitions do not quite match the postulates for set contraction. The mismatch was fixed with the introduction of an extra (...)
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  46. Yin-Hua Yeh, Tsun-Siou Lee & Pei-Gi Shu (2008). The Agency Problems Embedded in Firm's Equity Investment. Journal of Business Ethics 79 (1/2):151 - 166.score: 9.0
    We find that agency problems are embedded in firm's excess and abnormal equity investments that are mainly dictated by controlling shareholder's motives and ethical choices manifested in ownership and board structure. The excess equity investment is gauged with respect to industry average. The abnormal equity investment is specifically referred to the number of nominal investment companies that are fully controlled by the controlling owners while subject to little governance. Our empirical evidences of 345 Taiwanese non-financial listed firms show that firm's (...)
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  47. Timothy Macklem (2006). Entrenching Bills of Rights. Oxford Journal of Legal Studies 26 (1):107-129.score: 8.0
    The entrenchment of a bill of rights, and the consequent removal of the matters covered in the bill from the domain of the legislature, is commonly thought to constitute a transfer of power from the legislature to the courts. Yet the simple answer to this thought is that, strictly speaking, no such transfer takes place, for in acquiring power to determine the content of a bill of rights the courts do not acquire the power to legislate that the bill (...)
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  48. Alexandra Bradner (2013). Using Structure to Understand Justice and Care as Different Worlds. Topoi 32 (1):111-122.score: 7.0
    When read as a theory that is supposed to mirror, represent or fit some collection of historical data, critics argue that Kuhn’s theory of paradigm shift in Structure of Scientific Revolutions fails by cherry-picking and underdetermination. When read as the ground for a socio-epistemological conception of rationality, critics argue that Kuhn’s theory fails by either the naturalistic fallacy or underarticulation. This paper suggests that we need not view Structure as a historian’s attempt to accurately depict scientific theory change or a (...)
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  49. Guy Dove (2012). Grammar as a Developmental Phenomenon. Biology and Philosophy 27 (5):615-637.score: 7.0
    More and more researchers are examining grammar acquisition from theoretical perspectives that treat it as an emergent phenomenon. In this essay, I argue that a robustly developmental perspective provides a potential explanation for some of the well-known crosslinguistic features of early child language: the process of acquisition is shaped in part by the developmental constraints embodied in von Baer’s law of development. An established model of development, the Developmental Lock, captures and elucidates the probabilistic generalizations at the heart of von (...)
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  50. Alexandra Bradner (2013). Using Structure to Understand Justice and Care as Different Worlds. Topoi 32 (1):111-122.score: 7.0
    When read as a theory that is supposed to mirror, represent or fit some collection of historical data, critics argue that Kuhn’s theory of paradigm shift in Structure of Scientific Revolutions fails by cherry-picking and underdetermination. When read as the ground for a socio-epistemological conception of rationality, critics argue that Kuhn’s theory fails by either the naturalistic fallacy or underarticulation. This paper suggests that we need not view Structure as a historian’s attempt to accurately depict scientific theory change or a (...)
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