Search results for 'Entrenchment' (try it on Scholar)

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  1.  14
    Hans Rott (1992). Preferential Belief Change Using Generalized Epistemic Entrenchment. Journal of Logic, Language and Information 1 (1):45-78.
    A sentence A is epistemically less entrenched in a belief state K than a sentence B if and only if a person in belief state K who is forced to give up either A or B will give up A and hold on to B. This is the fundamental idea of epistemic entrenchment as introduced by Gärdenfors (1988) and elaborated by Gärdenfors and Makinson (1988). Another distinguishing feature of relations of epistemic entrenchment is that they permit particularly simple (...)
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  2.  17
    Sten Lindström & Wlodek Rabinowicz (1991). Epistemic Entrenchment with Incomparabilities and Relational Belief Revision. In André Fuhrmann & Michael Morreau (eds.), The Logic of Theory Change. Springer
    In earlier papers (Lindstrrm & Rabinowicz, 1989. 1990), we proposed a generalization of the AGM approach to belief revision. Our proposal was to view belief revision as a relation rather thanas a function on theories (or belief sets). The idea was to allow for there being several equally reasonable revisions of a theory with a given proposition. In the present paper, we show that the relational approach is the natural result of generalizing in a certain way an approach to belief (...)
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  3.  95
    Nathaniel Jason Goldberg (2009). Historicism, Entrenchment, and Conventionalism. Journal for General Philosophy of Science / Zeitschrift für Allgemeine Wissenschaftstheorie 40 (2):259 - 276.
    W. V. Quine famously argues that though all knowledge is empirical, mathematics is entrenched relative to physics and the special sciences. Further, entrenchment accounts for the necessity of mathematics relative to these other disciplines. Michael Friedman challenges Quine’s view by appealing to historicism, the thesis that the nature of science is illuminated by taking into account its historical development. Friedman argues on historicist grounds that mathematical claims serve as principles constitutive of languages within which empirical claims in physics and (...)
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  4.  13
    Thomas Andreas Meyer, Willem Adrian Labuschagne & Johannes Heidema (2000). Refined Epistemic Entrenchment. Journal of Logic, Language and Information 9 (2):237-259.
    Epistemic entrenchment, as presented by Gärdenfors and Makinson (1988) and Gärdenfors (1988), is a formalisation of the intuition that, when forced to choose between two beliefs, an agent will giveup the less entrenched one. While their formalisation satisfactorilycaptures the intuitive notion of the entrenchment of beliefs in a number ofaspects, the requirement that all wffs be comparable has drawn criticismfrom various quarters. We define a set of refined versions of theirentrenchment orderings that are not subject to the same (...)
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  5.  3
    Hans Rott (2004). Basic Entrenchment. Studia Logica 73 (2):257-280.
    In contrast to other prominent models of belief change, models based on epistemic entrenchment have up to now been applicable only in the context of very strong packages of requirements for belief revision. This paper decomposes the axiomatization of entrenchment into independent modules. Among other things it is shown how belief revision satisfying only the 'basic' postulates of Alchourrón, Gärdenfors and Makinson can be represented in terms of entrenchment.
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  6.  26
    Horacio Arló-Costa & Isaac Levi (2006). Contraction: On the Decision-Theoretical Origins of Minimal Change and Entrenchment. Synthese 152 (1):129 - 154.
    We present a decision-theoretically motivated notion of contraction which, we claim, encodes the principles of minimal change and entrenchment. Contraction is seen as an operation whose goal is to minimize loses of informational value. The operation is also compatible with the principle that in contracting A one should preserve the sentences better entrenched than A (when the belief set contains A). Even when the principle of minimal change and the latter motivation for entrenchment figure prominently among the basic (...)
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  7.  2
    Nathaniel Jason Goldberg (2009). Historicism, Entrenchment, and Conventionalism. Journal for General Philosophy of Science / Zeitschrift für Allgemeine Wissenschaftstheorie 40 (2):259-276.
    W. V. Quine famously argues that though all knowledge is empirical, mathematics is entrenched relative to physics and the special sciences. Further, entrenchment accounts for the necessity of mathematics relative to these other disciplines. Michael Friedman challenges Quine’s view by appealing to historicism, the thesis that the nature of science is illuminated by taking into account its historical development. Friedman argues on historicist grounds that mathematical claims serve as principles constitutive of languages within which empirical claims in physics and (...)
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  8.  17
    Alessandro Ferrara (2011). Ferrajoli's Argument for Structural Entrenchment. Res Publica 17 (4):377-383.
    This paper engages with Ferrajoli’s contribution to the philosophical debate on constitutional democracy and in particular his conception of ‘structural entrenchment’, or the basis upon which one can defend the normativity of the Constitution as ‘higher law’, which can trump or limit legislation, without infringing democratic principles. Ferrajoli’s own understanding of ‘structural entrenchment’ is compared to Rawls’s and Dworkin’s arguments in support of it. Ferrajoli’s position is neither grounded on a philosophy of history, as in Rawls, nor on (...)
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  9.  16
    Alexander Bochman (2002). Entrenchment Versus Dependence: Coherence and Foundations in Belief Change. [REVIEW] Journal of Logic, Language and Information 11 (1):3-27.
    We describe the relation between coherence and foundations approaches to belief change in terms of a correspondence between epistemic entrenchment relations(Gärdenfors and Makinson, 1988; Rott, 1992) and dependence consequence relations from Bochman (1999, 2000a).The general conclusion of the study is that dependence consequence relations are sufficiently expressive to subsume the notion of an epistemic entrenchment and its generalizations.
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  10.  24
    Abhaya C. Nayak (1994). Iterated Belief Change Based on Epistemic Entrenchment. Erkenntnis 41 (3):353-390.
    In this paper it is argued that, in order to solve the problem of iterated belief change, both the belief state and its input should be represented as epistemic entrenchment (EE) relations. A belief revision operation is constructed that updates a given EE relation to a new one in light of an evidential EE relation. It is shown that the operation in question satisfies generalized versions of the Gärdenfors revision postulates. The account offered is motivated by Spohn's ordinal conditionalization (...)
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  11.  23
    Hans Rott (2003). Basic Entrenchment. Studia Logica 73 (2):257 - 280.
    In contrast to other prominent models of belief change, models based on epistemic entrenchment have up to now been applicable only in the context of very strong packages of requirements for belief revision. This paper decomposes the axiomatization of entrenchment into independent modules. Among other things it is shown how belief revision satisfying only the ‘basic’ postulates of Alchourrón, Gärdenfors and Makinson can be represented in terms of entrenchment.
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  12.  31
    Jeffrey C. Schank & William C. Wimsatt (1986). Generative Entrenchment and Evolution. PSA: Proceedings of the Biennial Meeting of the Philosophy of Science Association 1986:33 - 60.
    The generative entrenchment of an entity is a measure of how much of the generated structure or activity of a complex system depends upon the presence or activity of that entity. It is argued that entities with higher degrees of generative entrenchment are more conservative in evolutionary changes of such systems. A variety of models of complex structures incorporating the effects of generative entrenchment are presented and we demonstrate their relevance in analyzing and explaining a variety of (...)
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  13.  33
    Abhaya C. Nayak, Paul Nelson & Hanan Polansky (1996). Belief Change as Change in Epistemic Entrenchment. Synthese 109 (2):143 - 174.
    In this paper, it is argued that both the belief state and its input should be represented as epistemic entrenchment (EE) relations. A belief revision operation is constructed that updates a given EE relation to a new one in light of an evidential EE relation, and an axiomatic characterization of this operation is given. Unlike most belief revision operations, the one developed here can handle both multiple belief revision and iterated belief revision.
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  14.  83
    William C. Wimsatt (2006). Generative Entrenchment and an Evolutionary Developmental Biology for Culture. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 29 (4):364-366.
    Mesoudi et al.'s new synthesis for cultural evolution closely parallels the evolutionary synthesis of Neo-Darwinism. It too draws inspiration from population genetics, recruits other fields, and, unfortunately, also ignores development. Enculturation involves many serially acquired skills and dependencies that allow us to build a rich cumulative culture. The newer synthesis, evolutionary developmental biology, provides a key tool, generative entrenchment, to analyze them. (Published Online November 9 2006).
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  15.  15
    Horacio Arló-Costa & Isaac Levi (2006). Contraction: On the Decision-Theoretical Origins of Minimal Change and Entrenchment. Synthese 152 (1):129-154.
    Horacio Arlo-Costa and Issac Levi. Contraction: On the Decision Theoretical Origins of Minimal Change and Entrenchment.
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  16.  6
    Eduardo Fermé & Maurício D. L. Reis (2013). Epistemic Entrenchment-Based Multiple Contractions. Review of Symbolic Logic 6 (3):460-487.
    In this article we present a new class of multiple contraction functionswhich are a generalization of the epistemic entrenchment-based contractions (Grdenfors & Makinson, 1988) to the case of contractions by (possibly nonsingleton) sets of sentences and provide an axiomatic characterization for that class of functions. Moreover, we show that the class of epistemic entrenchment-based multiple contractions coincides with the class of system of spheres-based multiple contractions introduced in Fermé & Reis (2012).
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  17.  16
    Robert Klee (2000). Problems with Formal Models of Epistemic Entrenchment as Applied to Scientific Theories. Synthese 122 (3):313 - 320.
    Formal models of theory contraction entered the philosophicalliterature with the prototype model by Alchourrón, Gärdenfors,and Makinson (Alchourrón et al. 1985). One influential modelinvolves theory contraction with respect to a relation calledepistemic entrenchment which orders the propositions of a theoryaccording to their relative degrees of theoretical importance.Various postulates have been suggested for characterizingepistemic entrenchment formally. I argue here that threesuggested postulates produce inappropriately bizarre results whenapplied to scientific theories. I argue that the postulates callednoncovering, continuing up, and continuing down, (...)
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  18.  12
    Catherine Caldwell-Harris & Shimon Edelman, Tracks in the Mind: Differential Entrenchment of Common and Rare Liturgical and Everyday Multiword Phrases in Religious and Secular Hebrew Speakers.
    We tested the hypothesis that more frequent exposure to multiword phrases results in deeper entrenchment of their representations, by examining the performance of subjects of different religiosity in the recognition of briefly presented liturgical and secular phrases drawn from several frequency classes. Three of the sources were prayer texts that religious Jews are required to recite on a daily, weekly, and annual basis, respectively; two others were common and rare expressions encountered in the general secular Israeli culture. As expected, (...)
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  19.  33
    Johannes Lenhard & Eric Winsberg (2010). Holism, Entrenchment, and the Future of Climate Model Pluralism. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part B 41 (3):253-262.
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  20.  80
    William C. Wimsatt (1986). Developmental Constraints, Generative Entrenchment, and the Innate-Acquired Distinction. In William Bechtel (ed.), Integrating Scientific Disciplines. 185--208.
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  21.  5
    Sten Lindström & Wlodzimierz Rabinowicz (1991). Epistemic Entrenchment with Incomparabilities and Relational Belief Revision. In André Fuhrmann & Michael Morreau (eds.), The Logic of Theory Change. Springer 93--126.
  22. Kenneth Friedman (1973). Son of Grue: Simplicity Vs. Entrenchment. Noûs 7 (4):366-378.
  23.  1
    Johannes Lenhard & Eric Winsberg (2010). Holism, Entrenchment, and the Future of Climate Model Pluralism. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part B: Studies in History and Philosophy of Modern Physics 41 (3):253-262.
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  24.  26
    Hans Rott (1992). Modellings for Belief Change: Prioritization and Entrenchment. Theoria 58 (1):21-57.
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  25.  27
    R. J. Bertolet (1976). On the Merits of Entrenchment. Analysis 37 (1):29 - 31.
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  26.  60
    Michael A. Slote (1974). Entrenchment and Validity. Analysis 34 (6):204 - 207.
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  27.  63
    Johannes Lenhard & Eric Winsberg (2011). Holism and Entrenchment in Climate Model Validation. In M. Carrier & A. Nordmann (eds.), Science in the Context of Application. Springer 115--130.
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  28. David Lyons (2008). The Legal Entrenchment of Illegality. In Matthew H. Kramer (ed.), The Legacy of H.L.A. Hart: Legal, Political, and Moral Philosophy. Oxford University Press
     
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  29.  10
    Hans-Jörg Schmid (2010). Does Frequency in Text Instantiate Entrenchment in the Cognitive System. In Dylan Glynn & Kerstin Fischer (eds.), Quantitative Methods in Cognitive Semantics: Corpus-Driven Approaches. De Gruyter Mouton 101--133.
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  30.  17
    Jon Wheatley (1967). Entrenchment and Engagement. Analysis 27 (4):119 - 127.
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  31.  24
    Howard Kahane (1965). Nelson Goodman's Entrenchment Theory. Philosophy of Science 32 (3/4):377-383.
  32.  8
    William C. Wimsatt (1999). Generativity, Entrenchment, Evolution, and Innateness: Philosophy, Evolutionary Biology, and Conceptual Foundations of Science. In V. Harcastle (ed.), Where Biology Meets Psychology. 137--179.
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  33.  5
    Arturo Hernandez, Ping Li & Brian MacWhinney (2005). Competition, Resonance, Parasitism and Entrenchment. Trends in Cognitive Sciences 9 (5):220-225.
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  34.  13
    Catherine Caldwell-Harris & Shimon Edelman, Measuring Mental Entrenchment of Phrases with Perceptual Identification, Familiarity Ratings, and Corpus Frequency Statistics.
    Word recognition is the Petri dish of the cognitive sciences. The processes hypothesized to govern naming, identifying and evaluating words have shaped this field since its origin in the 1970s. Techniques to measure lexical processing are not just the back-bone of the typical experimental psychology laboratory, but are now routinely used by cognitive neuroscientists to study brain processing and increasingly by social and clinical psychologists (Eder, Hommel, and De Houwer 2007). Models developed to explain lexical processing have also aspired to (...)
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  35.  2
    Corey Brettschneider (2008). This Book Provocatively Inquires Into Whether Some Aspects of Law Should Be Regarded as Beyond the Purview of Dem-Ocratic Procedures. On Melissa Schwartzberg's Account,“Entrenchment,”—Her Term for Those Aspects of Law Thought. ARGUMENT 6 (2):363.
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  36.  3
    Shimon Edelman (2012). Measuring Mental Entrenchment of Phrases with Perceptual Identification, Familiarity Ratings, and Corpus Frequency Statistics Catherine Caldwell-Harris, Jonathan Berant And. In Dagmar Divjak & Stefan Thomas Gries (eds.), Frequency Effects in Language Representation. De Gruyter Mouton 2--165.
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  37.  3
    Charles Nussbaum (1996). Majoritarianism, Autonomy, and 'Entrenchment'. Southwest Philosophy Review 12 (1):85-102.
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  38.  7
    Peter Miller (1998). Entrenchment and Vision in Canadian Forest Policy. Business and Professional Ethics Journal 17 (1/2):29-45.
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  39. B. Grunstra (1969). The Plausibility of the Entrenchment Concept. American Philosophical Quarterly Monograph Series 3:100-127.
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  40.  8
    Richard Creath (1978). A Query on Entrenchment. Philosophy of Science 45 (3):474-477.
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  41.  5
    C. Caldwellharris & A. Morris (2008). Fast Pairs: A Visual Word Recognition Paradigm for Measuring Entrenchment, Top-Down Effects, and Subjective Phenomenology☆. Consciousness and Cognition 17 (4):1063-1081.
    When word pairs having a familiar order are sequentially flashed on a computer in their non-familiar order, , observers have a strong phenomenology of seeing them in familiar order . Reversal errors remained frequent even when participants obtained perceptual experience of reverse-display items by beginning with a block of longer-duration trials. A forced-choice order-detection procedure reduced but did not eliminate reversal errors, showing that “fast pairs” is a robust perceptual illusion. Even adjective + noun pairs showed reversal errors, and reversal (...)
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  42. Robert Ackermann (1966). Discussion: Howard Kahane's Entrenchment Theory. Philosophy of Science 33 (1/2):70.
     
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  43. Robert Klee (2004). Problems With Formal Models Of Epistemic Entrenchment As Applied To Scientific Theories. Synthese 122 (3):313-320.
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  44. Johan van Benthem, Alice ter Meulen & Heinrich Wansing (1992). Thomas Andreas Meyer, Willem Adrian Labuschagne, and Johannes Heidema/Refined Espistemic Entrenchment 237-259. Journal of Logic, Language, and Information 9 (2):139.
     
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  45. Jonathan Y. Tsou (2010). Putnam's Account of Apriority and Scientific Change: Its Historical and Contemporary Interest. Synthese 176 (3):429-445.
    In the 1960s and 1970s, Hilary Putnam articulated a notion of relativized apriority that was motivated to address the problem of scientific change. This paper examines Putnam’s account in its historical context and in relation to contemporary views. I begin by locating Putnam’s analysis in the historical context of Quine’s rejection of apriority, presenting Putnam as a sympathetic commentator on Quine. Subsequently, I explicate Putnam’s positive account of apriority, focusing on his analysis of the history of physics and geometry. In (...)
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  46.  16
    Ben Ambridge (2013). How Do Children Restrict Their Linguistic Generalizations? An (Un‐)Grammaticality Judgment Study. Cognitive Science 37 (3):508-543.
    A paradox at the heart of language acquisition research is that, to achieve adult-like competence, children must acquire the ability to generalize verbs into non-attested structures, while avoiding utterances that are deemed ungrammatical by native speakers. For example, children must learn that, to denote the reversal of an action, un- can be added to many verbs, but not all (e.g., roll/unroll; close/*unclose). This study compared theoretical accounts of how this is done. Children aged 5–6 (N = 18), 9–10 (N = (...)
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  47.  5
    Hans Rott (2014). Three Floors for the Theory of Theory Change. In Vít Punčochář Michal Dančák (ed.), The Logica Yearbook 2013. College Publications 187-205.
    The theory of theory change due to Alchourrón, Gärdenfors and Makinson ("AGM") has been widely known as being characterized by two sets of postulates, one being very weak and the other being very strong. Commenting on the three classic constructions of partial meet contraction, safe contraction and entrenchment-based construction, I argue that three intermediate levels can be distinguished that play decisive roles within the AGM theory.
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  48.  8
    Hans Rott (2013). Two Concepts of Plausibility in Default Reasoning. Erkenntnis 79 (S6):1219–1252.
    In their unifying theory to model uncertainty, Friedman and Halpern (1995–2003) applied plausibility measures to default reasoning satisfying certain sets of axioms. They proposed a distinctive condition for plausibility measures that characterizes “qualitative” reasoning (as contrasted with probabilistic reasoning). A similar and similarly fundamental, but more general and thus stronger condition was independently suggested in the context of “basic” entrenchment-based belief revision by Rott (1996–2003). The present paper analyzes the relation between the two approaches to formalizing basic notions of (...)
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  49.  4
    Hans Rott (2014). Four Floors for the Theory of Theory Change: The Case of Imperfect Discrimination. In Eduardo Fermé João Leite (ed.), Logics in Artificial Intelligence: 13th European Conference (JELIA 2014). Springer 368-382.
    The classical qualitative theory of belief change due to Alchourrón, Gärdenfors and Makinson has been widely known as being characterised by two packages of postulates. While the basic package consists of six postulates and is very weak, the full package that adds two further postulates is very strong. I revisit two classic constructions of theory contraction, viz., relational possible worlds contraction and entrenchment-based contraction and argue that four intermediate levels can be distinguished that play - or ought to play (...)
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  50.  27
    John Cantwell (1998). Resolving Conflicting Information. Journal of Logic, Language and Information 7 (2):191-220.
    Information received from different sources can be inconsistent. Even when the sources of information can be ordered on the basis of their trustworthiness, it turns out that extracting an acceptable notion of support for information is a non-trivial matter, as is the question what information a rational agent should accept. Here it is shown how a support ordering on the information can be generated and how it can be used to decide what information to accept and what not to accept. (...)
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