Search results for 'Environmental ethics' (try it on Scholar)

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  1. Ben A. Minteer, Elizabeth A. Corley & Robert E. Manning (2004). Environmental Ethics Beyond Principle? The Case for a Pragmatic Contextualism. Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 17 (2):131-156.score: 270.0
    Many nonanthropocentric environmental ethicists subscribe to a ``principle-ist'''' approach to moral argument, whereby specific natural resource and environmental policy judgments are deduced from the prior articulation of a general moral principle. More often than not, this principle is one requiring the promotion of the intrinsic value of nonhuman nature. Yet there are several problems with this method of moral reasoning, including the short-circuiting of reflective inquiry and the disregard of the complex nature of specific environmental problems and (...)
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  2. Martin Drenthen (1999). The Paradox of Environmental Ethics: Nietzsche's View of Nature and the Wild. Environmental Ethics 21 (2):163-175.score: 270.0
    In this paper, I offer a systematic inquiry into the significance of Nietzsche’s philosophy to environmental ethics. Nietzsche’s philosophy of nature is, I believe, relevant today because it makes explicit a fundamental ambiguity that is also characteristic of our current understanding of nature. I show how the current debate between traditional environmental ethics and postmodern environmental philosophycan be interpreted as a symptom of this ambiguity. I argue that, in light of Nietzsche’s critique of morality, (...) ethics is a highly paradoxical project. According to Nietzsche, each moral interpretation of nature implies a conceptual seizure of power over nature. On the other hand, Nietzsche argues, the concept of nature is indispensable in ethics because we have to interpret nature in order to have a meaningful relation with reality. I show that awareness of this paradox opens a way for a form of respect for nature as radical otherness. (shrink)
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  3. Humberto D. Rosa & Jorge Marques Da Silva (2005). From Environmental Ethics to Nature Conservation Policy: Natura 2000 and the Burden of Proof. [REVIEW] Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 18 (2):107-130.score: 270.0
    Natura 2000 is a network of natural sites whose aim is to preserve species and habitats of relevance in the European Union. The policy underlying Natura 2000 has faced widespread opposition from land users and received extensive support from environmentalists. This paper addresses the ethical framework for Natura 2000 and the probable moral assumptions of its main stakeholders. Arguments for and against Natura 2000 were analyzed and classified according to “strong” or “weak” versions of the three main theories of (...) ethics – anthropocentrism, biocentrism, and ecocentrism. Weak (intergenerational) anthropocentrism was found to underlie the Natura 2000 network itself and the positions of environmentalists, while strong (traditional) anthropocentrism pervaded the positions of economic developers. Land users seemed to fall somewhere between weak and strong anthropocentrism. The paper discusses the relation between ethics and different attitudes towards Natura 2000, highlighting some of the implications for the network’s ongoing implementation. It is shown that Natura 2000 achieves a strong reversal of the burden of proof from conservation to economic development and land use change under anthropocentrism. It is argued that the alleged theoretical divide between anthropocentrism and non-anthropocentrism in relation to the burden of proof does not seem to hold in practice. Finally, it is predicted that the weak versions of anthropocentrism, biocentrism, and ecocentrism, are likely to converge extensively in respect to nature conservation policy measures. (shrink)
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  4. Karyn L. Lai (2003). Conceptual Foundations for Environmental Ethics: A Daoist Perspective. Environmental Ethics 25 (3):247-266.score: 252.0
    The concepts dao and de in the Daodejing may be evoked to support a distinctive and plausible account of environmental holism. Dao refers to the totality of particulars, including the relations that hold between them, and the respective roles and functions of each within the whole. De refers to the distinctiveness of each particular, realized meaningfully only within the context of its interdependence with others, and its situatedness within the whole. Together, dao and de provide support for an ethical (...)
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  5. William J. McKinney (1996). Prediction and Rolston's Environmental Ethics: Lessons From the Philosophy of Science. Science and Engineering Ethics 2 (4):429-440.score: 246.0
    Rolston (1988) argues that in order to act ethically in the environment, moral agents must assume that their actions are potentially harmful, and then strive to prove otherwise before implementing that action. In order to determine whether or not an action in the environment is harmful requires the tools of applied epistemology in order to act in accord with Rolston’s ethical prescription. This link between ethics and epistemology demands a closer look at the relationship between confirmation theory, particularly notions (...)
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  6. Ching-Hsun Chang (2011). The Influence of Corporate Environmental Ethics on Competitive Advantage: The Mediation Role of Green Innovation. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 104 (3):361-370.score: 246.0
    This study utilizes structural equation modeling (SEM) to explore the positive effect of corporate environmental ethics on competitive advantage in the Taiwanese manufacturing industry via the mediator: green innovation performance. This study divides green innovation into green product innovation and green process innovation. The empirical results show that corporate environmental ethics positively affects green product innovation and green process innovation. In addition, this study verifies that green product innovation mediates the positive relationship between corporate environmental (...)
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  7. Mirjam de Groot, Martin Drenthen & Wouter T. de Groot (2011). Public Visions of the Human/Nature Relationship and Their Implications for Environmental Ethics. Environmental Ethics 33 (1):25-44.score: 246.0
    A social scientific survey on visions of human/nature relationships in western Europe shows that the public clearly distinguishes not only between anthropocentrism and ecocentrism, but also between two nonanthropocentric types of thought, which may be called “partnership with nature” and “participation in nature.” In addition, the respondents distinguish a form of human/nature relationship that is allied to traditional stewardship but has a more ecocentric content, labeled here as “guardianship of nature.” Further analysis shows that the general public does not subscribe (...)
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  8. James B. Gerrie (2003). Environmental Ethics: Should We Preserve the Red Herring and Flounder? [REVIEW] Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 16 (1):63-76.score: 246.0
    Based on a survey of some popularintroductory anthologies and texts, I arguefrom my experience as a philosopher oftechnology that environmental philosophy mightbe conceived by some researchers in the fieldin terms of an overly narrow theoreticalfoundation. Many of the key figures in thefield take as a basic assumption that theenvironmental crisis is fundamentally bestexplained in terms of some failing in themetaphysical outlooks of most people. However,philosophers of technology typically present atleast two additional types of generalexplanation of the crisis. Environmentalethicists might (...)
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  9. Gary E. Varner (1998). In Nature's Interests?: Interests, Animal Rights, and Environmental Ethics. Oxford University Press.score: 240.0
    This book offers a powerful response to what Varner calls the "two dogmas of environmental ethics"--the assumptions that animal rights philosophies and anthropocentric views are each antithetical to sound environmental policy. Allowing that every living organism has interests which ought, other things being equal, to be protected, Varner contends that some interests take priority over others. He defends both a sentientist principle giving priority to the lives of organisms with conscious desires and an anthropocentric principle giving (...)
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  10. Christine James (2005). Sonar Technology and Shifts in Environmental Ethics. Essays in Philosophy 6 (1).score: 240.0
    The history of sonar technology provides a fascinating case study for philosophers of science. During the first and second World Wars, sonar technology was primarily associated with activity on the part of the sonar technicians and researchers. Usually this activity is concerned with creation of sound waves under water, as in the classic “ping and echo”. The last fifteen years have seen a shift toward passive, ambient noise “acoustic daylight imaging” sonar. Along with this shift a new relationship has begun (...)
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  11. Pragati Sahni (2008). Environmental Ethics in Buddhism: A Virtues Approach. Routledge.score: 240.0
    This work gives an innovative approach to the subject, which puts forward a distinctly Buddhist environmental ethics that is in harmony with traditional ...
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  12. John Benson (2000). Environmental Ethics: An Introduction with Readings. Routledge.score: 240.0
    Presupposing no prior knowledge of philosophy, John Benson introduces the reader to one fundamental question--whether a concern with human well-being is an adequate basis for environmental ethics. The book explores this question by considering some of the techniques that have been used to value the environment and by critically examining "light green" to "deep green" environmentalism. Each chapter is then helpfully linked to a reading from key thinkers in the field and with the use of exercises, readers are (...)
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  13. Douglas J. Buege (1996). An Ecologically-Informed Ontology for Environmental Ethics. Biology and Philosophy 12 (1):1-20.score: 240.0
    Since the inception of their subject as a distinct area of study in philosophy, environmental ethicists have quarreled over the choice of entities with which an environmental ethic should be concerned. A dichotomous ontology has arisen with the ethical atomists, e.g., Singer and Taylor, arguing for moral consideration of individual organisms and the holists, e.g., Rolston and Callicott, focussing on moral consideration of systems. This dichotomous view is ecologically misinformed and should be abandoned. In this paper, I argue (...)
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  14. James Dwyer (2009). How to Connect Bioethics and Environmental Ethics: Health, Sustainability, and Justice. Bioethics 23 (9):497-502.score: 240.0
    In this paper, I explore one way to bring bioethics and environmental ethics closer together. I focus on a question at the interface of health, sustainability, and justice: How well does a society promote health with the use of no more than a just share of environmental capacity? To address this question, I propose and discuss a mode of assessment that combines a measurement of population health, an estimate of environmental sustainability, and an assumption about what (...)
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  15. Benjamin Hale (2008). Private Property and Environmental Ethics:. Some New Directions. Metaphilosophy 39 (3):402–421.score: 240.0
    This article argues that teachers of environmental ethics must more aggressively entertain questions of private property in their work and in their teaching. To make this case, it first introduces the three primary positions on property: occupation arguments, labor theory of value arguments, and efficiency arguments. It then contextualizes these arguments in light of the contemporary U.S. wise-use movement, in an attempt to make sense of the concerns that motivate wise-use activists, and also to demonstrate how intrinsic value (...)
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  16. Martin Drenthen (2002). Nietzsche and the Paradox of Environmental Ethics: Nietzsche's View of Nature and Morality. New Nietzsche Studies 5 (1/2):12-25.score: 240.0
    -/- In this paper, I offer a systematic inquiry into the significance of Nietzsche's philosophy to environmental ethics. Nietzsche's philosophy of nature is, I believe, relevant today because it makes explicit a fundamental ambiguity that is also characteristic of our current understanding of nature. I show how the current debate between traditional environmental ethics and postmodern environmental philosophy can be interpreted as a symptom of this ambiguity. I argue that, in light of Nietzsche's critique of (...)
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  17. Toby Svoboda (2012). Duties Regarding Nature: A Kantian Approach to Environmental Ethics. Kant Yearbook 4 (1):143-163.score: 240.0
    Many philosophers have objected to Kant’s account of duties regarding non-human nature, arguing that it does not ground adequate moral concern for non-human natural entities. However, the traditional interpretation of Kant on this issue is mistaken, because it takes him to be arguing merely that humans should abstain from animal cruelty and wanton destruction of flora solely because such actions could make one more likely to violate one’s duties to human beings. Instead, I argue, Kant’s account of duties regarding nature (...)
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  18. Christopher G. Framarin (2014). HInduism and Environmental Ethics: Law, Literature, and Philosophy. Routledge.score: 240.0
    ... the Earth, San Francisco, CA: Sierra Club Books. Hill Jr., T. (2006)aFinding Value inNature«, Environmental Values 15(3): 331¥41. ¦¦(1983) aIdeals of Human Excellence and Preserving Natural Environments«, Environmental Ethics 5(3): ...
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  19. Francis Noortgaete & Johan Tavernier (2014). Affected by Nature: A Hermeneutical Transformation of Environmental Ethics. Zygon 49 (3):572-592.score: 240.0
    The value-action gap poses a considerable challenge to normative environmental ethics. Because of the wide array of empirical research results that have become available in the fields of environmental psychology, education, and anthropology, ethicists are at present able to take into account insights on what effectively motivates proenvironmental behavior. The emotional aspect apparently forms a key element within a transformational process that leads to an internalization of nature within one's identity structure. We compare these findings with studies (...)
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  20. Jeffrey G. York (2009). Pragmatic Sustainability: Translating Environmental Ethics Into Competitive Advantage. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 85 (1):97 - 109.score: 234.0
    In this article, I propose a business paradigm that allows and enables the integration of environmental ethics into business decisions while creating a competitive advantage through the use of an ethical framework based on classical American pragmatism. Environmental ethics could be useful as an alternative paradigm for business ethics by offering new perspectives and methodologies to grant consideration of the natural environment. An approach based on classical American pragmatism provides a superior framework for businesses by (...)
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  21. Nin Kirkham (2013). Transcending Our Biology: A Virtue Ethics Interpretation of the Appeal to Nature in Technological and Environmental Ethics. Zygon 48 (4):875-889.score: 234.0
    “Arguments from nature” are used, and have historically been used, in popular responses to advances in technology and to environmental issues—there is a widely shared body of ethical intuitions that nature, or perhaps human nature, sets some limits on the kinds of ends that we should seek, the kinds of things that we should do, or the kinds of lives that we should lead. Virtue ethics can provide the context for a defensible form of the argument from nature, (...)
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  22. Gillian Rice (2006). Pro-Environmental Behavior in Egypt: Is There a Role for Islamic Environmental Ethics? [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 65 (4):373 - 390.score: 230.0
    Egypt, a less affluent, predominantly Muslim country, suffers from numerous forms of environmental pollution, some severe. This study investigates pro-environmental behaviors of citizens in Cairo, Egypt’s largest metropolis, and studies the relationship between pro-environmental behavior and demographic variables, beliefs, values, and religiosity. Analysis shows that three types of pro-environmental behavior are present: Public Sphere, Private Sphere, and Activist Behavior, with the latter occurring less frequently. Importantly, the study identifies an ecocentric value among respondents which is correlated (...)
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  23. Lori Gruen & William Ruddick (2009). Biomedical and Environmental Ethics Alliance: Common Causes and Grounds. [REVIEW] Journal of Bioethical Inquiry 6 (4):457-466.score: 228.0
    In the late 1960s Van Rensselaer Potter, a biochemist and cancer researcher, thought that our survival was threatened by the domination of military policy makers and producers of material goods ignorant of biology. He called for a new field of Bioethics—“a science of survival.” Bioethics did develop, but with a narrower focus on medical ethics. Recently there have been attempts to broaden that focus to bring biomedical ethics together with environmental ethics. Though the two have many (...)
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  24. Katie McShane (2011). Neosentimentalism and Environmental Ethics. Environmental Ethics 33 (1):5-23.score: 222.0
    Neosentimentalism provides environmental ethics with a theory of value that might be particularly useful for solving many of the problems that have plagued the field since its early days. In particular, a neosentimentalist understanding of value offers us hope for making sense of (1) what intrinsic value might be and how we could know whether parts of the natural world have it; (2) the extent to which value is an essentially anthropocentric concept; and (3) how our understanding of (...)
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  25. Anna Peterson (2000). In and of the World? Christian Theological Anthropology and Environmental Ethics. Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 12 (3):237-261.score: 222.0
    Mainstream currents within Christianity havelong insisted that humans, among all creatures, areneither fully identified with their physical bodiesnor fully at home on earth. This essay outlines theparticular characteristics of Christian notions ofhuman nature and the implications of this separationfor environmental ethics. It then examines recentefforts to correct some damaging aspects oftraditional Christian understandings of humanity''splace in nature, especially the notions of physicalembodiment and human embeddedment in earth. Theprimary goal of the essay is not to offer acomprehensive evaluation of (...)
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  26. Daniel Gregorowius, Petra Lindemann-Matthies & Markus Huppenbauer (2012). Ethical Discourse on the Use of Genetically Modified Crops: A Review of Academic Publications in the Fields of Ecology and Environmental Ethics. [REVIEW] Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 25 (3):265-293.score: 222.0
    The use of genetically modified plants in agriculture (GM crops) is controversially discussed in academic publications. Important issues are whether the release of GM crops is beneficial or harmful for the environment and therefore acceptable, and whether the modification of plants is ethically permissible per se . This study provides a comprehensive overview of the moral reasoning on the use of GM crops expressed in academic publications from 1975 to 2008. Environmental ethical aspects in the publications were investigated. Overall, (...)
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  27. Willis Jenkins (2009). After Lynn White: Religious Ethics and Environmental Problems. Journal of Religious Ethics 37 (2):283-309.score: 216.0
    The fields of environmental ethics and of religion and ecology have been shaped by Lynn White Jr.'s thesis that the roots of ecological crisis lie in religious cosmology. Independent critical movements in both fields, however, now question this methodological legacy and argue for alternative ways of inquiry. For religious ethics, the twin controversies cast doubt on prevailing ways of connecting environmental problems to religious deliberations because the criticisms raise questions about what counts as an environmental (...)
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  28. Judith Kimerling (2001). Corporate Ethics in the Era of Globalization: The Promise and Peril of International Environmental Standards. [REVIEW] Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 14 (4):425-455.score: 216.0
    The growing assumption thattransnational corporations (TNCs) will apply``best practice'''' and ``international standards''''in their operations in developing countries hasseldom been checked against close observationof corporate behavior. In this article, Ipresent a case study, based on field research,of one voluntary initiative to useinternational standards and best practice forenvironmental protection in the AmazonRainforest, by a US-based oil company,Occidental Petroleum (Oxy) in Ecuador. The moststriking finding is that the company refuses todisclose the precise standards that apply toits operations. This, and the refusal todisclose other (...)
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  29. Ben A. Minteer (ed.) (2009). Nature in Common?: Environmental Ethics and the Contested Foundations of Environmental Policy. Temple University Press.score: 216.0
    This important book brings together leading environmental thinkers to debate a central conflict within environmental philosophy: Should we appreciate nature ...
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  30. Xinran Wang & Michael N. Young (2014). Does Collectivism Affect Environmental Ethics? A Multi-Level Study of Top Management Teams From Chemical Firms in China. Journal of Business Ethics 122 (3):387-394.score: 216.0
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  31. Tim Henning (2014). Alienation—New Perspectives From Environmental Ethics, Social Philosophy, and Action Theory; an Introduction. Ethical Theory and Moral Practice 17 (1):7-11.score: 212.0
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  32. Judith N. Scoville (1995). Value Theory and Ecology in Environmental Ethics: A Comparison of Rolston and Niebuhr. Environmental Ethics 17 (2):115-133.score: 210.0
    The objective of Holmes Rolston, III’s writings has been the development of an “ecologically formed” environmental ethics based both on environmental values and ecological description. I show how recasting Rolston’s value theory in terms of H. Richard Niebuhr’s relational value theory can clarify and strengthen this project. Niebuhr developed a theory of value in which value is found in relationships and value systems are constructed in relation to centers of value. Niebuhr’s contextual method, with which Rolston’s methodology (...)
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  33. Anthony Weston (1985). Beyond Intrinsic Value: Pragmatism in Environmental Ethics. Environmental Ethics 7 (4):321-339.score: 210.0
    In this essay I propose an environmental ethic in the pragmatic vein. I begin by suggesting that the contemporary debate in environmental ethics is forced into a familiar but highly restrictive set of distinctions and problems by the traditional notion of intrinsic value, particularly by its demands that intrinsic values be self-sufficient, abstract, and justified in special ways. I criticize this notion and develop an alternativewhich stresses the interdependent structure of values, a structure which at once roots (...)
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  34. Bryan G. Norton (1984). Environmental Ethics and Weak Anthropocentrism. Environmental Ethics 6 (2):131-148.score: 210.0
    The assumption that environmental ethics must be nonanthropocentric in order to be adequate is mistaken. There are two forms of anthropocentrism, weak and strong, and weak anthropocentrism is adequate to support an environmental ethic. Environmental ethics is, however, distinctive vis-a-vis standard British and American ethical systems because, in order to be adequate, it must be nonindividualistic.Environmental ethics involves decisions on two levels, one kind of which differs from usual decisions affecting individual fairness while (...)
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  35. Padmasiri De Silva (1998). Environmental Philosophy and Ethics in Buddhism. St. Martin's Press.score: 210.0
    This work introduces the reader to the central issues and theories in Western environmental ethics, and against this background develops a Buddhist environmental philosophy and ethics. Drawing material from original sources, there is a lucid exposition of Buddhist environmentalism, its ethics, economics and Buddhist perspectives for environmental education. The work is focused on a diagnosis of the contemporary environmental crisis and a Buddhist contribution for positive solutions. Replete with stories and illustrations from original (...)
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  36. Jim Cheney (1989). Postmodern Environmental Ethics: Ethics of Bioregional Narrative. Environmental Ethics 11 (2):117-134.score: 210.0
    Recent developments in ethics and postmodemist epistemology have set the stage for a reconceptualization of environmental ethics. In this paper, I sketch a path for postmodemism which makes use of certain notions current in contemporary environmentalism. At the center of my thought is the idea of place: (1) place as the context of our lives and the setting in which ethical deliberation takes place; and (2)the epistemological function of place in the construction of our understandings of self, (...)
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  37. Robert Heeger & Frans W. A. Brom (2001). Intrinsic Value and Direct Duties: From Animal Ethics Towards Environmental Ethics? [REVIEW] Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 14 (2):241-252.score: 210.0
    Three types of concern for animal welfare are widelyheld: Animals should feel well, they should function well, andthey should lead natural lives. The paper deals with a well-knownanswer to the question of why such concerns are morallyappropriate: Human beings have direct duties towards animals,because animals are beings that can flourish, the flourishing ofanimals is intrinsically or inherently valuable, and that whichis conducive to their flourishing is a legitimate object of moralconcern. Looking for a tenable conception of direct dutiestowards animals, the (...)
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  38. Janna Thompson (1990). A Refutation of Environmental Ethics. Environmental Ethics 12 (2):147-160.score: 210.0
    An environmental ethic holds that some entities in nature or in natural states of affairs are intrinsically valuable. I argue that proposals for an environmental ethic either fail to satisfy requirements which any ethical system must satisty to be an ethic or they fail to give us reason to suppose that the values they promote are intrinsic values. If my arguments are correct, then environmental ethics is not properly ethics at all.
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  39. Andrew Light (2002). Contemporary Environmental Ethics From Metaethics to Public Philosophy. Metaphilosophy 33 (4):426-449.score: 210.0
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  40. J. Baird Callicott (1985). Intrinsic Value, Quantum Theory, and Environmental Ethics. Environmental Ethics 7 (3):257-275.score: 210.0
    The central and most recalcitrant problem for environmental ethics is the problem of constructing an adequate theory of intrinsic value for nonhuman natural entities and for nature as a whole. In part one, I retrospectively survey the problem, review certain classical approaches to it, and recommend one as an adequate, albeit only partial, solution. In part two, I show that the classical theory of inherent value for nonhuman entities and nature as a whole outlined in part one is (...)
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  41. Ben A. Minteer & Robert E. Manning (1999). Pragmatism in Environmental Ethics: Democracy, Pluralism, and the Management of Nature. Environmental Ethics 21 (2):191-207.score: 210.0
    A growing number of contributors to environmental philosophy are beginning to rethink the field’s mission and practice. Noting that the emphasis of protracted conceptual battles over axiology may not get us very far in solving environmental problems, many environmental ethicists have begun to advocate a more pragmatic, pluralistic, and policy-based approach in philosophical discussions abouthuman-nature relationships. In this paper, we argue for the legitimacy of this approach, stressing that public deliberation and debate over alternative environmental (...) is necessary for a culture of democracy to be upheld in decision making and policy formulation. Then we argue for a democratically tempered environmental ethics that is grounded in a practical understanding of the character of moral claims regarding the natural world. We offer the results of an empirical study of environmental ethics held by the public to illustrate the diversity in their moral commitments to nature. Finally, we conclude with a discussion of the implications of this ethical pluralism for policy discussions about the management of American public lands. (shrink)
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  42. David Lulka (2008). Social Splinters and Cross-Cultural Leanings: A Cartographic Method for Examining Environmental Ethics. [REVIEW] Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 21 (3):275-296.score: 210.0
    This paper combines the interests of geography, anthropology, and philosophy in order to examine the factors that affect environmental ethics. In particular, this paper examines some of the geographical variables that impact tribal attitudes toward bison in the contemporary world. These factors influence the position of bison within the environmental and agricultural landscape. An emphasis is placed upon networks, places, and movement in order to show how these variables redefine what is acceptable and ethical with regard to (...)
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  43. Po-Keung Ip (1983). Taoism and the Foundations of Environmental Ethics. Environmental Ethics 5 (4):335-343.score: 210.0
    I show how the Taoist philosophy, as examplified by both Lao Tzu and Chuang Tzu, is capable of providing a metaphysical foundation for environmental ethics. The Taoist concept of nature, the notions of ontological equality and axiological equality of beings, together with the doctrine of Wu Wei can fulfil, at least in a preliminary way, our purpose. The notion of a minimally coherent ethics is introduced and is shown to be pertinent to the construction of an (...) which bears a close relationship to science. (shrink)
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  44. Daniel P. Thero (1995). Rawls and Environmental Ethics. Environmental Ethics 17 (1):93-106.score: 210.0
    The original position contractarian model of ethical reasoning put forth by John Rawls has been examined as a basis for an environmental ethic on three previous occasions in this journal and in Peter Wenz’s Environmental Justice. In this article, I critically examine each of these treatments, analyzing the proposals offered and identifying their shortcomings. I find a total of seven different proposals in this literature for modifying Rawls’ theory to augment its adequacy or as a ground environmental (...)
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  45. Anna Peterson (1999). Environmental Ethics and the Social Construction of Nature. Environmental Ethics 21 (4):339-357.score: 210.0
    Nature can be understood as socially constructed in two senses: in different cultures’ interpretations of the nonhuman world and in the physical ways that humans have shaped even areas that they think of as “natural.” Both understandings are important for environmental ethics insofar as they highlight the diversity of ways of viewing and living in nature. However, strong versions of the social constructionist argument contend that there is no “nature” apart from human discourse and practices. This claim is (...)
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  46. G. E. Varner (1985). The Schopenhauerian Challenge in Environmental Ethics. Environmental Ethics 7 (3):209-229.score: 210.0
    Environmental holism and environmental individualism are based on incompatible notions of moral considerability, and yield incompatible results. For Schopenhauer, every intelligible character--every irreducible instance of formative nature---defines a distinct moral patient, and for hirn both holistic entities and the individual members of higher species have distinguishable intelligible characters. Schopenhauer’s neglected metaethics thus can be used to generate an environmental ethics which is complete in the sense of synthesizing holism and individualism while simultaneously meeting TomRegan’s (implicit) demand (...)
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  47. Mark Cowell (1993). Ecological Restoration and Environmental Ethics. Environmental Ethics 15 (1):19-32.score: 210.0
    Restoration ecology has recently emerged as a branch of scientific ecology that challenges many of the traditional tenets of environmentalism. Because the restoration of ecosystems, “applied ecology,” has the potential to advance theoretical understanding to such an extent that scientists can extensively manipulate the environment, it encourages increasingly active human participation within ecosystemsand could inhibit the preservation of areas from human influences. Despite the environmentally dangerous possibilities that this form of science and technology present, restoration offers an attractive alternative for (...)
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  48. Geoffrey B. Frasz (1993). Environmental Virtue Ethics: A New Direction for Environmental Ethics. Environmental Ethics 15 (3):259-274.score: 210.0
    In this essay, I first extend the insights of virtue ethics into environmental ethics and examine the possible dangers of this approach. Second, I analyze some qualities of character that an environmentally virtuous person must possess. Third, I evaluate “humility” as an environmental virtue, specifically, the position of Thomas E. Hill, Jr. I conclude that Hill’s conception of “proper” humility can be more adequatelyexplicated by associating it with another virtue, environmental “openness.”.
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  49. Ned Hettinger (1994). Valuing Predation in Rolston's Environmental Ethics: Bambi Lovers Versus Tree Huggers. Environmental Ethics 16 (1):3-20.score: 210.0
    Without modification, Rolston’s environmental ethics is biased in favor of plants, since he gives them stronger protection than animals. Rolston can avoid this bias by extending his principle protecting plants (the principle of the nonloss of goods) to human interactions with animals. Were he to do so, however, he would risk undermining his acceptance of meat eating and certain types of hunting. I argue,nevertheless, that meat eating and hunting, properly conceived, are compatible with this extended ethics. As (...)
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  50. Humberto D. Rosa & Jorge Marques Silvdaa (2005). From Environmental Ethics to Nature Conservation Policy: Natura 2000 and the Burden of Proof. Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 18 (2).score: 210.0
    Natura 2000 is a network of natural sites whose aim is to preserve species and habitats of relevance in the European Union. The policy underlying Natura 2000 has faced widespread opposition from land users and received extensive support from environmentalists. This paper addresses the ethical framework for Natura 2000 and the probable moral assumptions of its main stakeholders. Arguments for and against Natura 2000 were analyzed and classified according to “strong” or “weak” versions of the three main theories of (...) ethics – anthropocentrism, biocentrism, and ecocentrism. Weak (intergenerational) anthropocentrism was found to underlie the Natura 2000 network itself and the positions of environmentalists, while strong (traditional) anthropocentrism pervaded the positions of economic developers. Land users seemed to fall somewhere between weak and strong anthropocentrism. The paper discusses the relation between ethics and different attitudes towards Natura 2000, highlighting some of the implications for the network’s ongoing implementation. It is shown that Natura 2000 achieves a strong reversal of the burden of proof from conservation to economic development and land use change under anthropocentrism. It is argued that the alleged theoretical divide between anthropocentrism and non-anthropocentrism in relation to the burden of proof does not seem to hold in practice. Finally, it is predicted that the weak versions of anthropocentrism, biocentrism, and ecocentrism, are likely to converge extensively in respect to nature conservation policy measures. (shrink)
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