Search results for 'Epistemology of Science' (try it on Scholar)

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  1. Jeffrey W. Roland (2009). A Euthyphronic Problem for Kitcher's Epistemology of Science. Southern Journal of Philosophy 47 (2):205-223.
    Philip Kitcher has advanced an epistemology of science that purports to be naturalistic. For Kitcher, this entails that his epistemology of science must explain the correctness of belief-regulating norms while endorsing a realist notion of truth. This paper concerns whether or not Kitcher's epistemology of science is naturalistic on these terms. I find that it is not but that by supplementing the account we can secure its naturalistic standing.
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  2. Alexander Bird (2010). The Epistemology of Science—a Bird's-Eye View. Synthese 175 (1):5 - 16.
    In this paper I outline my conception of the epistemology of science, by reference to my published papers, showing how the ideas presented there fit together. In particular I discuss the aim of science, scientific progress, the nature of scientific evidence, the failings of empiricism, inference to the best (or only) explanation, and Kuhnian psychology of discovery. Throughout, I emphasize the significance of the concept of scientific knowledge.
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  3.  1
    Mark A. Winstanley (forthcoming). Genetic Epistemology, a Universalist Approach to the History of Science. New Content is Available for Journal of the Philosophy of History.
    _ Source: _Page Count 30 GER Lloyd discerns two conflicting hypotheses concerning human cognition: cross-cultural universality and cultural relativity. The history of science is one discipline among many actively contributing to our understanding of human cognition at present. Not surprisingly, then, the dichotomy is also present in the history of science. In contrast to current approaches to the history of science, which highlight cultural relativity, genetic epistemology, which is conceived by Jean Piaget as (...)
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  4. Jonathan Y. Tsou (2006). Genetic Epistemology and Piaget's Philosophy of Science: Piaget Vs. Kuhn on Scientific Progress. Theory and Psychology 16 (2):203-224.
    This paper concerns Jean Piaget's (1896–1980) philosophy of science and, in particular, the picture of scientific development suggested by his theory of genetic epistemology. The aims of the paper are threefold: (1) to examine genetic epistemology as a theory concerning the growth of knowledge both in the individual and in science; (2) to explicate Piaget's view of ‘scientific progress’, which is grounded in his theory of equilibration; and (3) to juxtapose Piaget's notion of progress with Thomas (...)
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  5.  2
    Mark A. Winstanley (forthcoming). Genetic Epistemology, a Universalist Approach to the History of Science. Brill.
    _ Source: _Page Count 30 GER Lloyd discerns two conflicting hypotheses concerning human cognition: cross-cultural universality and cultural relativity. The history of science is one discipline among many actively contributing to our understanding of human cognition at present. Not surprisingly, then, the dichotomy is also present in the history of science. In contrast to current approaches to the history of science, which highlight cultural relativity, genetic epistemology, which is conceived by Jean Piaget as a science (...)
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  6. Stephen R. Grimm, Christoph Baumberger & Sabine Ammon (eds.) (2016). Explaining Understanding: New Perspectives From Epistemology and Philosophy of Science. Routledge.
    What does it mean to understand something? What types of understanding can be distinguished? Is understanding always provided by explanations? And how is it related to knowledge? Such questions have attracted considerable interest in epistemology recently. These discussions, however, have not yet engaged insights about explanations and theories developed in philosophy of science. Conversely, philosophers of science have debated the nature of explanations and theories, while dismissing understanding as a psychological by-product. In this book, epistemologists and philosophers (...)
     
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  7. Stephen R. Grimm, Christoph Baumberger & Sabine Ammon (eds.) (2016). Explaining Understanding: New Perspectives From Epistemology and Philosophy of Science. Routledge.
    What does it mean to understand something? What types of understanding can be distinguished? Is understanding always provided by explanations? And how is it related to knowledge? Such questions have attracted considerable interest in epistemology recently. These discussions, however, have not yet engaged insights about explanations and theories developed in philosophy of science. Conversely, philosophers of science have debated the nature of explanations and theories, while dismissing understanding as a psychological by-product. In this book, epistemologists and philosophers (...)
     
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  8.  10
    Alisa Bokulich & William J. Devlin (2015). Kuhn’s Social Epistemology and the Sociology of Science. In William J. Devlin & Alisa Bokulich (eds.), Kuhn's Structure of Scientific Revolutions - 50 Years On. Springer 167-183.
    This chapter discusses Kuhn’s conception of the history of science by focussing on two respects in which Kuhn is an historicist historian and philosopher of science. I identify two distinct, but related, aspects of historicism in the work of Hegel and show how these are also found in Kuhn’s work. First, Kuhn held tradition to be important for understanding scientific change and that the tradition from which a scientific idea originates must be understood in evaluating that idea. This (...)
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  9.  59
    Kelly James Clark (2010). Reformed Epistemology and the Cognitive Science of Religion. In Faith and Philosophy. Wiley-Blackwell 500--513.
    This chapter contains sections titled: * Introduction * The Cognitive Science of Religion * The Internal Witness: The Sensus Divinitatis * Reformed Epistemology * Reformed Epistemology and Cognitive Science * Obstinacy in Belief * The External Witness: The Order of the Cosmos * The External Witness and the Cognitive Science of Religion * Conclusion * Notes * Bibliography.
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  10.  1
    Stephen M. Contakes & Christopher Kyle (2011). Josiah Parsons Cooke Jr.: Epistemology in the Service of Science, Pedagogy, and Natural Theology. Hyle 17 (1):1 - 23.
    Josiah Parsons Cooke established chemistry education at Harvard University, initiated an atomic weight research program, and broadly impacted American chemical education through his students, the introduction of laboratory instruction, textbooks, and influence on Harvard's admissions requirements. The devoutly Unitarian Cooke also articulated and defended a biogeochemical natural theology, which he defended by arguing for commonalities between the epistemologies of science and religion. Cooke's pre-Mendeleev classification scheme for the elements and atomic weight research were motivated by his interest in numerical (...)
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  11. Alexander Bird (2010). The Epistemology of Science—a Bird’s-Eye View. Synthese 175 (S1):5-16.
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  12. Christopher Norris (2000). Minding the Gap Epistemology & Philosophy of Science in the Two Traditions.
    In this sweeping volume, Christopher Norris challenges the view that there is no room for productive engagement between mainstream analytic philosophers and thinkers In the post-Kantian continental line of descent. On the contrary, he argues, this view is simply the product of a limiting perspective that accompanied the rise of logical positivism. Norris reveals the various shared concerns that have often been obscured by parochial interests or the desire to stake out separate philosophical territory. He examines the problems that emerged (...)
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  13. Darrell P. Rowbottom (2010). Evolutionary Epistemology and the Aim of Science. Australasian Journal of Philosophy 88 (2):209-225.
    Both Popper and van Fraassen have used evolutionary analogies to defend their views on the aim of science, although these are diametrically opposed. By employing Price's equation in an illustrative capacity, this paper considers which view is better supported. It shows that even if our observations and experimental results are reliable, an evolutionary analogy fails to demonstrate why conjecture and refutation should result in: (1) the isolation of true theories; (2) successive generations of theories of increasing truth-likeness; (3) empirically (...)
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  14. Cassandra L. Pinnick (1994). Feminist Epistemology: Implications for Philosophy of Science. Philosophy of Science 61 (4):646-657.
    This article examines the best contemporary arguments for a feminist epistemology of scientific knowledge as found in recent works by S. Harding. I argue that no feminist epistemology of science is worthy of the name, because such an epistemology fails to escape well-known vicissitudes of epistemic relativism. But feminist epistemology merits attention from philosophers of science because it is part of a larger relativist turn in the social sciences and humanities that now aims to (...)
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  15.  5
    Kristine Hays Lynning & Anja Skaar Jacobsen (2011). Grasping the Spirit in Nature: Anschauung in Ørsted's Epistemology of Science and Beauty. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 42 (1):45-57.
    The intersection between art, poetry, philosophy and science was the leitmotif which guided the lives and careers of romantic natural philosophers including that of the Danish natural philosopher, H. C. Ørsted. A simple model of Ørsted’s career would be one in which it was framed by two periods of philosophical speculation: the youth’s curious and idealistic interest in new attractive thoughts and the experienced man’s mature reflections at the end of his life. We suggest that a closer look at (...)
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  16.  2
    Anastasios Brenner (2016). Is There a Cultural Barrier Between Historical Epistemology and Analytic Philosophy of Science? International Studies in the Philosophy of Science 29 (2):201-214.
    One of the difficulties facing the philosopher of science today is the divide between historical epistemology and analytic philosophy of science. For over half a century these two traditions have followed independent and divergent paths. Historical epistemology, which originated in France in the early twentieth century, has recently been reformulated by a number of scholars such as Lorraine Daston, Ian Hacking, and Hans-Jörg Rheinberger. Elaborating novel historical methods, they seek to provide answers to major questions in (...)
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  17.  6
    Justin B. Biddle (2014). Can Patents Prohibit Research? On the Social Epistemology of Patenting and Licensing in Science. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 45 (1):14-23.
    A topic of growing importance within philosophy of science is the epistemic implications of the organization of research. This paper identifies a promising approach to social epistemology—nonideal systems design—and uses it to examine one important aspect of the organization of research, namely the system of patenting and licensing and its role in structuring the production and dissemination of knowledge. The primary justification of patenting in science and technology is consequentialist in nature. Patenting should incentivize research and thereby (...)
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  18.  2
    Matti Sintonen (ed.) (1997). Knowledge and Inquiry: Essays on Jaakko Hintikka's Epistemology and Philosophy of Science. Rodopi.
    Contents: Matti SINTONEN: From the Science of Logic to the Logic of Science. I: HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVES. Zev BECHLER: Hintikka on Plenitude in Aristotle. Marja-Liisa KAKKURI-KNUUTTILA: What Can the Sciences of Man Learn from Aristotle? Martin KUSCH: Theories of Questions in German-Speaking Philosophy Around the Turn of the Century. Nils-Eric SAHLIN: 'HE IS NO GOOD FOR MY WORK': On the Philosophical Relations between Ramsey and Wittgenstein. II: FORMAL TOOLS: INDUCTION, OBSERVATION AND IDENTIFIABILITY. Theo A.F. KUIPERS: The Carnap-Hintikka Programme in (...)
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  19.  27
    Jordi Vallverdú I. Segura (2009). Computational Epistemology and E-Science: A New Way of Thinking. [REVIEW] Minds and Machines 19 (4):557-567.
    Recent trends towards an e-Science offer us the opportunity to think about the specific epistemological changes created by computational empowerment in scientific practices. In fact, we can say that a computational epistemology exists that requires our attention. By ‘computational epistemology’ I mean the computational processes implied or required to achieve human knowledge. In that category we can include AI, supercomputers, expert systems, distributed computation, imaging technologies, virtual instruments, middleware, robotics, grids or databases. Although several authors talk about (...)
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  20.  21
    Jordi Vallverdú I. Segura (2009). Computational Epistemology and E-Science: A New Way of Thinking. [REVIEW] Minds and Machines 19 (4):557-567.
    Recent trends towards an e-Science offer us the opportunity to think about the specific epistemological changes created by computational empowerment in scientific practices. In fact, we can say that a computational epistemology exists that requires our attention. By ‘computational epistemology’ I mean the computational processes implied or required to achieve human knowledge. In that category we can include AI, supercomputers, expert systems, distributed computation, imaging technologies, virtual instruments, middleware, robotics, grids or databases. Although several authors talk about (...)
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  21. Elizabeth Anderson (2007). Feminist Epistemology and Philosophy of Science. In Edward N. Zalta (ed.), The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
    Feminist epistemology and philosophy of science studies the ways in which gender does and ought to influence our conceptions of knowledge, the knowing subject, and practices of inquiry and justification. It identifies ways in which dominant conceptions and practices of knowledge attribution, acquisition, and justification systematically disadvantage women and other subordinated groups, and strives to reform these conceptions and practices so that they serve the interests of these groups. Various practitioners of feminist epistemology and philosophy of (...) argue that dominant knowledge practices disadvantage women by (1) excluding them from inquiry, (2) denying them epistemic authority, (3) denigrating their “feminine” cognitive styles and modes of knowledge, (4) producing theories of women that represent them as inferior, deviant, or significant only in the ways they serve male interests, (5) producing theories of social phenomena that render women's activities and interests, or gendered power relations, invisible, and (6) producing knowledge (science and technology) that is not useful for people in subordinate positions, or that reinforces gender and other social hierarchies. Feminist epistemologists trace these failures to flawed conceptions of knowledge, knowers, objectivity, and scientific methodology. They offer diverse accounts of how to overcome these failures. They also aim to (1) explain why the entry of women and feminist scholars into different academic disciplines, especially in biology and the social sciences, has generated new questions, theories, and methods, (2) show how gender has played a.. (shrink)
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  22.  29
    Kristian Camilleri (2014). Toward a Constructivist Epistemology of Thought Experiments in Science. Synthese 191 (8):1697-1716.
    This paper presents a critical analysis of Tamar Szabó Gendler’s view of thought experiments, with the aim of developing further a constructivist epistemology of thought experiments in science. While the execution of a thought experiment cannot be reduced to standard forms of inductive and deductive inference, in the process of working though a thought experiment, a logical argument does emerge and take shape. Taking Gendler’s work as a point of departure, I argue that performing a thought experiment involves (...)
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  23.  21
    Joel Katzav (2014). The Epistemology of Climate Models and Some of its Implications for Climate Science and the Philosophy of Science. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part B: Studies in History and Philosophy of Modern Physics 46 (2):228-238.
    I bring out the limitations of four important views of what the target of useful climate model assessment is. Three of these views are drawn from philosophy. They include the views of Elisabeth Lloyd and Wendy Parker, and an application of Bayesian confirmation theory. The fourth view I criticise is based on the actual practice of climate model assessment. In bringing out the limitations of these four views, I argue that an approach to climate model assessment that neither demands too (...)
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  24.  19
    Mark R. Discher (2002). Michael Polanyi's Epistemology Of Science And Its Implications For A Problem In Moral Philosophy. Tradition and Discovery 29 (1):49-59.
    Ethical particularists allege that there are, on account of epistemological limitations, no such things as general moral principles. This paper defends the existence of general moral principles by adapting and appropriating Polanyi’s epistemology of science to this problem in moral philosophy.
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  25. Thomas Mormann (2005). Mathematical Metaphors in Natorp’s Neo-Kantian Epistemology and Philosophy of Science. In Falk Seeger, Johannes Lenard & Michael H. G. Hoffmann (eds.), Activity and Sign. Grounding Mathematical Education. Springer
    A basic thesis of Neokantian epistemology and philosophy of science contends that the knowing subject and the object to be known are only abstractions. What really exists, is the relation between both. For the elucidation of this “knowledge relation ("Erkenntnisrelation") the Neokantians of the Marburg school used a variety of mathematical metaphors. In this con-tribution I reconsider some of these metaphors proposed by Paul Natorp, who was one of the leading members of the Marburg school. It is shown (...)
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  26.  34
    Valentín A. Bazhanov (2008). Social Milieu and Evolution of Logic, Epistemology, and the History of Science: The Case of Marxism. Poznan Studies in the Philosophy of the Sciences and the Humanities 96 (1):157-169.
    The impact of social factors upon the philosophical investigations in a broad sense is quite evident. Nevertheless their impact upon epistemology as a branch of philosophy, logic, and history of science as fields of research with noticeable philosophical content is not evident enough. We are keen to claim that this impact exists within some limits, although it is not so overtly evident. Moreover in the case of Marxism it is of a paradoxical nature. Marxism always puts the accent (...)
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  27.  4
    Greg Yudin (2008). Sense in Epistemology of Social Science. Proceedings of the Xxii World Congress of Philosophy 46:109-115.
    There has been recently a substantial rise of relativism in the epistemology of social science. It has seriously discredited normative function of the epistemology and changed the context of epistemological discussion. Some hold that the problem of relativism cannot be solved by scientific means, because it ultimately depends on personal beliefs. However, present paper shows that there are different scientific strategies of coping with relativism. The key argument is that the epistemological stance towards relativism is closely related (...)
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  28. No Authorship Indicated (2001). Review of Minding the Gap: Epistemology and Philosophy of Science in the Two Traditions. [REVIEW] Journal of Theoretical and Philosophical Psychology 21 (2):181-181.
    Reviews the book, Minding the gap: Epistemology and philosophy of science in the two traditions by Christopher Norris . In this book, the author takes issue with the all-too-frequently held view that there can be no productive engagement between mainstream analytic philosophers and thinkers in the contemporary Continental tradition. The main focus here is to reveal the various concerns each of these two traditions share—concerns that have often been obscured by narrowly parochial interests and the desire to stake (...)
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  29. S. Pihlstrom (1999). What Shall We Do with Emergence? A Survey of a Fundamental Issue in the Metaphysics and Epistemology of Science. South African Journal of Philosophy 18 (2):192-210.
     
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  30.  16
    Alessandra Tanesini, Feminist Epistemology and Philosophy of Science.
    Feminist epistemology and philosophy of science is the study of the significance of gender for the acquisition and justification of knowledge. At its inception, feminist epistemology was in large part concerned with science and showed more affinity with the history and philosophy of science and with social and cultural studies of science than with mainstream epistemology. Since the early 2000s, however, significant new trends have led to the production of extremely innovative work, such (...)
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  31. Paul Dicken (2010). Constructive Empiricism: Epistemology and the Philosophy of Science. Palgrave Macmillan.
  32.  10
    Cliff Hooker (2013). Georg Simmel and Naturalist Interactivist Epistemology of Science. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 44 (3):311-317.
    In 1895 sociologist and philosopher Georg Simmel published a paper: ‘On a connection of selection theory to epistemology’. It was focussed on the question of how behavioural success and the evolution of the cognitive capacities that underlie it are to be related to knowing and truth. Subsequently, Simmel’s ideas were largely lost, but recently an English translation was published by Coleman in this journal. While Coleman’s contextual remarks are solely concerned with a preceding evolutionary epistemology, it will be (...)
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  33.  11
    Vitaly Gorokhov & Elena Trufanova (2014). Epistemology and the Philosophy of Science and Technology in Contemporary Russian Philosophy: A Survey of the Literature From the Late 1980s to the Present. Studies in East European Thought 66 (3 - 4):195-210.
    The present article provides an overview of the key subjects of scholarly research in the areas of epistemology and the philosophy of science and technology conducted in Russia between the 1980s and the present. These disciplines are shown to be deeply rooted in Soviet philosophy and still developed by contemporary Russian philosophers, with both the historical experience of the Russian philosophical thought and foreign conceptions and schools, classical as well as modern, drawn upon. The corollary is that (...) and the philosophy of science have been the most widely studied philosophical disciplines in Russia over the last couple of decades and retain this status to date. (shrink)
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  34.  85
    Todd A. Grantham (2000). Evolutionary Epistemology, Social Epistemology, and the Demic Structure of Science. Biology and Philosophy 15 (3):443-463.
    One of the principal difficulties in assessing Science as aProcess (Hull 1988) is determining the relationship between the various elements of Hull's theory. In particular, it is hard to understand precisely how conceptual selection is related to Hull's account of the social dynamics of science. This essay aims to clarify the relation between these aspects of his theory by examining his discussion of the``demic structure'' of science. I conclude that the social account cando significant explanatory work independently (...)
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  35.  3
    Shahid Rahman & John Symons (2004). Logic, Epistemology and the Unity of Science: An Encyclopedic Project in the Spirit of Neurath and Diderot. In S. Rahman J. Symons (ed.), Logic, Epistemology, and the Unity of Science. Kluwer Academic Publisher 3--15.
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  36.  8
    S. Rahman (ed.) (2004). Logic, Epistemology, and the Unity of Science. Dordrecht, Kluwer.
    The aim of the series Logic, Epistemology, and the Unity of Science, of which this is the first volume, is to take up anew the challenge of considering the ...
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  37.  32
    Richard F. Kitchener (1985). Genetic Epistemology, History of Science and Genetic Psychology. Synthese 65 (1):3 - 31.
    Genetic epistemology analyzes the growth of knowledge both in the individual person (genetic psychology) and in the socio-historical realm (the history of science). But what the relationship is between the history of science and genetic psychology remains unclear. The biogenetic law that ontogeny recapitulates phylogeny is inadequate as a characterization of the relation. A critical examination of Piaget's Introduction à l'Épistémologie Généntique indicates these are several examples of what I call stage laws common to both areas. Furthermore, (...)
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  38.  7
    Harold Kincaid & Jennifer McKitrick, Introduction to Establishing Medical Reality: Essays in the Metaphysics and Epistemology of Biomedical Science.
    Medicine has been a very fruitful source of significant issues for philosophy over the last 30 years. The vast majority of the issues discussed have been normative—they have been problems in morality and political philosophy that now make up the field called bioethics. However, biomedical science presents many other philosophical questions that have gotten relatively little attention, particularly topics in metaphysics, epistemology and philosophy of science. This volume focuses on problems in these areas as they surface in (...)
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  39.  12
    Charles E. Boklage (1998). On the Position of Statistical Significance in the Epistemology of Experimental Science. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 21 (2):195-195.
    Although various statistical measures may have other valid uses, the single purpose served by statistical significance testing in the epistemology of experimental science is as a peremptory rebuttal of one potential alternative interpretation of the data.
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  40. Chris Buskes (1998). The Genealogy of Knowledge a Darwinian Approach to Epistemology and Philosophy of Science. Monograph Collection (Matt - Pseudo).
     
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  41.  11
    Elizabeth Potter (2006). On the Very Idea of a Feminist Epistemology for Science. Metascience 15 (1):1-37.
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  42. Johannes Czermak & Paul Weingartner (1983). Epistemology and Philosophy of Science Proceedings of the 7th International Wittgenstein Symposium, 22nd to 29th August 1982, Kirchberg Am Wechsel. [REVIEW]
     
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  43. Wolfgang Stegmüller (1977). Collected Papers on Epistemology, Philosophy of Science and History of Philosophy of Science and History of Philosophy. Monograph Collection (Matt - Pseudo).
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  44.  10
    Jack A. Rowell (1989). Piagetian Epistemology: Equilibration and the Teaching of Science. Synthese 80 (1):141 - 162.
    That Piagetian epistemology has the dynamics of knowledge growth as its core consideration predetermines a need to consider it as potentially applicable to teaching. This paper addresses that need by first outlining the Piagetian theory of equilibration and then applying it to the construction of methods of teaching science.
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  45.  75
    Sandra G. Harding & Merrill B. Hintikka (eds.) (2003). Discovering Reality: Feminist Perspectives on Epistemology, Metaphysics, Methodology, and Philosophy of Science. Kluwer Academic Publishers.
    This collection of essays, first published two decades ago, presents central feminist critiques and analyses of natural and social sciences and their philosophies. Unfortunately, in spite of the brilliant body of research and scholarship in these fields in subsequent decades, the insights of these essays remain as timely now as they were then: philosophy and the sciences still presume kinds of social innocence to which they are not entitled. The essays focus on Plato, Aristotle, Descartes, Hobbes, Rousseau, and Marx; on (...)
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  46.  9
    Howard Hsueh-Hao Chiang (2009). The Laboratory Technology of Discrete Molecular Separation: The Historical Development of Gel Electrophoresis and the Material Epistemology of Biomolecular Science, 1945-1970. [REVIEW] Journal of the History of Biology 42 (3):495 - 527.
    Preparative and analytical methods developed by separation scientists have played an important role in the history of molecular biology. One such early method is gel electrophoresis, a technique that uses various types of gel as its supporting medium to separate charged molecules based on size and other properties. Historians of science, however, have only recently begun to pay closer attention to this material epistemological dimension of biomolecular science. This paper substantiates the historiographical thread that explores the relationship between (...)
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  47. James H. Fetzer (1993). Glossary of Epistemology/Philosophy of Science. Paragon House.
     
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  48.  14
    Nabeel Hamid (forthcoming). Dilthey on the Unity of Science. British Journal for the History of Philosophy:1-22.
    ABSTRACTThis paper elaborates a conception of the unity of science that emerges in the context of Dilthey’s well-known treatment of the distinction between the Naturwissenschaften and the Geisteswissenschaften. Dilthey’s account of the epistemological foundations of the Geisteswissenschaften presupposes, this paper argues, their continuity with the natural sciences. The unity of the two domains has both a psychological and a biological basis. Whereas the psychological functions at work in scientific thinking, the articulation of which is the task of Dilthey’s proposed (...)
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  49. Carl Gustav Hempel, Wilhelm Karl Essler, Hilary Putnam & Wolfgang Stegmüller (1985). Epistemology, Methodology, and Philosophy of Science Essays in Honour of Carl G. Hempel on the Occasion of His 80th Birthday, January 8th, 1985. [REVIEW]
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  50. Paul Weingartner & Gerhard Schurz (eds.) (1987). Recent Developments in Epistemology and Philosophy of Science: Reports of the 11th International Wittgenstein-Symposium, 4th to 13th August 1986, Kirchberg Am Wechsel, Austria. [REVIEW] Hölder-Pichler-Tempsky.
     
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