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Eric Hammer [11]Eric M. Hammer [3]
  1. Eric Hammer (2011). Linear Notation for Existential Graphs. Semiotica 2011 (186):129-140.
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  2. Eric Hammer, Peirce's Logic. Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
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  3. Eric M. Hammer (1998). Semantics for Existential Graphs. Journal of Philosophical Logic 27 (5):489-503.
    This paper examines Charles Peirce's graphical notation for first-order logic with identity. The notation forms a part of his system of "existential graphs," which Peirce considered to be his best work in logic. In this paper a Tarskian semantics is provided for the graphical system.
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  4. Eric Hammer & Sun-Joo Shin (1998). Euler's Visual Logic. History and Philosophy of Logic 19 (1):1-29.
    The evolution of Euler diagrams is examined from Euler's original system through the modifications made by Venn and Peirce. It is shown that these modifications were motivated by an attempt to increase the expressivity of the diagrams, but that a side effect of these modifications was a loss of the visual clarity of Euler's original system. Euler's original system is reconstructed from a modern, logical point of view. Formal semantics and rules of inference are provided for this reconstruction of Euler's (...)
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  5. Eric Hammer & Edward N. Zalta (1997). A Solution to the Problem of Updating Encyclopedias. Computers and the Humanities 31 (1):47-60.
    This paper describes a way of creating and maintaining a `dynamic encyclopedia', i.e., an encyclopedia whose entries can be improved and updated on a continual basis without requiring the production of an entire new edition. Such an encyclopedia is therefore responsive to new developments and new research. We discuss our implementation of a dynamic encyclopedia and the problems that we had to solve along the way. We also discuss ways of automating the administration of the encyclopedia.
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  6. Jon Barwise & Eric Hammer (1996). Diagrams and the Concept of Logical System. In Gerard Allwein & Jon Barwise (eds.), Logical Reasoning with Diagrams. Oxford University Press.
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  7. Eric Hammer (1996). Peircean Graphs for Propositional Logic. In Gerard Allwein & Jon Barwise (eds.), Logical Reasoning with Diagrams. Oxford University Press.
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  8. Eric Hammer (1996). Symmetry as a Method of Proof. Journal of Philosophical Logic 25 (5):523 - 543.
    This paper is a logical study of valid uses of symmetry in deductive reasoning, of what underlying principles make some appeals to symmetry legitimate but others illegitimate. The issue is first motivated informally. A framework is then given covering a fairly broad range of symmetry arguments, and the formulation of symmetry provided is shown to be a valid principle of reasoning, as is a slightly stronger principle of reasoning, one that is shown to be in some sense as strong as (...)
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  9. Eric M. Hammer (1996). Review: Sun-Joo Shin, The Logical Status of Diagrams. [REVIEW] Journal of Symbolic Logic 61 (1):341-342.
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  10. Eric M. Hammer (1996). The Truths of Logic. Synthese 109 (1):27 - 45.
    Several accounts of logical truth are compared and shown to define distinct concepts. Nevertheless, conditions are given under which they happen to declare exactly the same sentences logically true. These conditions involve the variety of objects in the domain, the richness of the language, and the logical resources available. It is argued that the class of sentences declared logically true by each of the accounts depends on particularities of the actual world.
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  11. Eric Hammer & Norman Danner (1996). Towards a Model Theory of Diagrams. Journal of Philosophical Logic 25 (5):463 - 482.
    A logical system is studied whose well-formed representations consist of diagrams rather than formulas. The system, due to Shin [2, 3], is shown to be complete by an argument concerning maximally consistent sets of diagrams. The argument is complicated by the lack of a straight forward counterpart of atomic formulas for diagrams, and by the lack of a counterpart of negation for most diagrams.
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  12. Eric Hammer (1995). Peirce on Logical Diagrams. Transactions of the Charles S. Peirce Society 31 (4):807 - 827.
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  13. Eric Hammer (1995). The Calculations of Peirce's 4.453. Transactions of the Charles S. Peirce Society 31 (4):829 - 839.
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  14. Eric Hammer (1994). Reasoning with Sentences and Diagrams. Notre Dame Journal of Formal Logic 35 (1):73-87.
    A formal system is studied having both sentences and diagrams as well-formed representations. Proofs in the system allow inference back and forth between sentences and diagrams, as well as between diagrams and diagrams, and between sentences and sentences. This sort of heterogeneous system is of interest because external representations other than linguistic ones occur commonly in actual reasoning in conjunction with language. Syntax, semantics, and rules of inference for the system are given and it is shown to be sound and (...)
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