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  1. Athina Demertzi, Eric Racine, Marie-Aurélie Bruno, Didier Ledoux, Olivia Gosseries, Audrey Vanhaudenhuyse, Marie Thonnard, Andrea Soddu, Gustave Moonen & Steven Laureys (forthcoming). Pain Perception in Disorders of Consciousness: Neuroscience, Clinical Care, and Ethics in Dialogue. Neuroethics.
  2. Veljko Dubljević, Sebastian Sattler & Éric Racine (forthcoming). Cognitive Enhancement and Academic Misconduct: A Study Exploring Their Frequency and Relationship. Ethics and Behavior:131202143002003.
  3. Eric Racine, Emily Bell, Natalie Zizzo & Courtney Green (forthcoming). Public Discourse on the Biology of Alcohol Addiction: Implications for Stigma, Self-Control, Essentialism, and Coercive Policies in Pregnancy. Neuroethics:1-10.
    International media have reported cases of pregnant women who have had their children apprehended by social services, or who were incarcerated or forced into treatment programs based on a history of substance use or lack of adherence to addiction treatment programs. Public discourse on the biology of addiction has been criticized for generating stigma and a diminished perception of self-control in individuals with an addiction, potentially contributing to coercive approaches and criminalization of women who misuse substances during pregnancy. We explored (...)
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  4. Emily Bell, Natalie Zizzo & Eric Racine (2015). Caution! Warning Labels About Alcohol and Pregnancy: Unintended Consequences and Questionable Effectiveness. American Journal of Bioethics 15 (3):18-20.
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  5. Emily Bell, Eric Racine, Paula Chiasson, Maya Dufourcq-Brana & Laura Macdonald (2014). Beyond Consent in Research: Revisiting Vulnerability in Deep Brain Stimulation for Psychiatric Disorders. Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 23 (3):361-368.
    Vulnerability is an important criterion to assess the ethical justification of the inclusion of participants in research trials. Currently, vulnerability is often understood as an attribute inherent to a participant by nature of a diagnosed condition. Accordingly, a common ethical concern relates to the participant’s decisionmaking capacity and ability to provide free and informed consent. We propose an expanded view of vulnerability that moves beyond a focus on consent and the intrinsic attributes of participants. We offer specific suggestions for how (...)
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  6. Eric Racine (2014). Defining Death Without Science? A Pragmatic Rebuttal. American Journal of Bioethics 14 (8):41-43.
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  7. Lucie Wade, Cynthia Forlini & Eric Racine (2014). Generating Genius: How an Alzheimer's Drug Became Considered a 'Cognitive Enhancer' for Healthy Individuals. BMC Medical Ethics 15 (1):37.
    Donepezil, an acetylcholinesterase inhibitor used in the treatment of Alzheimer's disease, has been widely cited in media and bioethics literature on cognitive enhancement (CE) as having the potential to improve the cognitive ability of healthy individuals. In both literatures, this claim has been repeatedly supported by the results of a small study published by Yesavage et al. in 2002 on non-demented pilots (30-70 years old). The factors contributing to this specific interpretation of this study's results are unclear.
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  8. Emily Bell, Veljko Dubljevic & Eric Racine (2013). Nudging Without Ethical Fudging: Clarifying Physician Obligations to Avoid Ethical Compromise. American Journal of Bioethics 13 (6):18-19.
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  9. Jennifer A. Chandler, Alexandra Mogyoros, Tristana Martin Rubio & Eric Racine (2013). Another Look at the Legal and Ethical Consequences of Pharmacological Memory Dampening: The Case of Sexual Assault. Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 41 (4):859-871.
    Research on the use of propranolol as a pharmacological memory dampening treatment for post-traumatic stress disorder is continuing and justifies a second look at the legal and ethical issues raised in the past. We summarize the general ethical and legal issues raised in the literature so far, and we select two for in-depth reconsideration. We address the concern that a traumatized witness may be less effective in a prosecution emerging from the traumatic event after memory dampening treatment. We analyze this (...)
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  10. Cynthia Forlini, Eric Racine, Jochen Vollmann & Jan Schildmann (2013). How Research on Stakeholder Perspectives Can Inform Policy on Cognitive Enhancement. American Journal of Bioethics 13 (7):41 - 43.
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  11. Nicole Palmour, Brandy L. Vanderbyl, Emma Zimmerman, Serge Gauthier & Eric Racine (2013). Alzheimer's Disease Dietary Supplements in Websites. HEC Forum 25 (4):361-382.
  12. Eric Racine (2013). Pragmatism and the Contribution of Neuroscience to Ethics. Essays in the Philosophy of Humanism 21 (1):13-30.
    Neuroscience has been described as a revolutionary force that will transform our understanding of common morality and of ethics as a discipline. To such strong naturalistic claims, critiques have responded with an arsenal of antinaturalistic arguments, often negating any contribution of neuroscience. In this paper, I review the terms of the debate between strong naturalists and anti-naturalists and offer a moderate naturalistic approach as a constructive middle-ground position. Inspired by Dewey’s moral philosophy, I offer an alternate account of how neuroscience (...)
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  13. Catherine Rodrigue, Richard J. Riopelle, James L. Bernat & Eric Racine (2013). Perspectives and Experience of Healthcare Professionals on Diagnosis, Prognosis, and End-of-Life Decision Making in Patients with Disorders of Consciousness. Neuroethics 6 (1):25-36.
    In the care of patients with disorders of consciousness (DOC), some ethical difficulties stem from the challenges of accurate diagnosis and the uncertainty of prognosis. Current neuroimaging research on these disorders could eventually improve the accuracy of diagnoses and prognoses and therefore change the context of end-of-life decision making. However, the perspective of healthcare professionals on these disorders remains poorly understood and may constitute an obstacle to the integration of research. We conducted a qualitative study involving healthcare professionals from an (...)
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  14. Catherine Rodrigue, Richard Riopelle, James L. Bernat & Eric Racine (2013). How Contextual and Relational Aspects Shape the Perspective of Healthcare Providers on Decision Making for Patients With Disorders of Consciousness: A Qualitative Interview Study. Narrative Inquiry in Bioethics 3 (3):261-273.
  15. Bruce Maxwell & Eric Racine (2012). Does the Neuroscience Research on Early Stress Justify Responsive Childcare? Examining Interwoven Epistemological and Ethical Challenges. Neuroethics 5 (2):159-172.
    This paper examines interwoven ethical and epistemological issues raised by attempts to promote responsive childcare practices based on neuroscience evidence on the developmental effects of early stress. The first section presents this “neuroscience argument for responsive early childcare”. The second section introduces some evidential challenges posed by the use of evidence from developmental neuroscience as grounds for parental practice recommendations and then advances a set of observations about the limitations of the evidence typically cited. Section three highlights the ethical implications (...)
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  16. Bruce Maxwell & Eric Racine (2012). The Ethics of Neuroeducation: Research, Practice and Policy. [REVIEW] Neuroethics 5 (2):101-103.
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  17. Adrian Carter, Emily Bell, Eric Racine & Wayne Hall (2011). Ethical Issues Raised by Proposals to Treat Addiction Using Deep Brain Stimulation. Neuroethics 4 (2):129-142.
    Deep brain stimulation (DBS) has been proposed as a potential treatment of drug addiction on the basis of its effects on drug self-administration in animals and on addictive behaviours in some humans treated with DBS for other psychiatric or neurological conditions. DBS is seen as a more reversible intervention than ablative neurosurgery but it is nonetheless a treatment that carries significant risks. A review of preclinical and clinical evidence for the use of DBS to treat addiction suggests that more animal (...)
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  18. Cynthia Forlini & Eric Racine (2011). Considering the Causes and Implications of Ambivalence in Using Medicine for Enhancement. American Journal of Bioethics 11 (1):15 - 17.
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  19. Danaë Larivière-Bastien, Annette Majnemer, Michael Shevell & Eric Racine (2011). Perspectives of Adolescents and Young Adults with Cerebral Palsy on the Ethical and Social Challenges Encountered in Healthcare Services. Narrative Inquiry in Bioethics 1 (1):43-54.
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  20. Nicole Palmour, William Affleck, Emily Bell, Constance Deslauriers, Bruce Pike, Julien Doyon & Eric Racine (2011). Informed Consent for MRI and fMRI Research: Analysis of a Sample of Canadian Consent Documents. BMC Medical Ethics 12 (1):1.
    BackgroundResearch ethics and the measures deployed to ensure ethical oversight of research are vested with extremely important ethical and practical goals. Accordingly, these measures need to function effectively in real-world research and to follow high level standards.MethodsWe examined approved consent forms for Magnetic Resonance Imaging and functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging studies approved by Canadian research ethics boards .ResultsWe found evidence of variability in consent forms in matters of physical and psychological risk reporting. Approaches used to tackle the emerging issue of (...)
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  21. Emily Bell, Bruce Maxwell, Mary Pat McAndrews, Abbas Sadikot & Eric Racine (2010). Hope and Patients' Expectations in Deep Brain Stimulation: Healthcare Providers' Perspectives and Approaches. Journal of Clinical Ethics 21 (2):112.
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  22. Emily Bell & Eric Racine (2010). Deep Brain Stimulation, Ethics, and Society. Journal of Clinical Ethics 21 (2):101.
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  23. Cynthia Forlini & Eric Racine (2010). Response. Journal of Bioethical Inquiry 7 (4):383-384.
    Response Content Type Journal Article DOI 10.1007/s11673-010-9255-1 Authors Cynthia Forlini, Neuroethics Research Unit, Institut de recherches cliniques de Montréal, 110, ave des Pins Ouest, Montréal, QC Canada H2W 1R7 Eric Racine, Neuroethics Research Unit, Institut de recherches cliniques de Montréal, 110, ave des Pins Ouest, Montréal, QC Canada H2W 1R7 Journal Journal of Bioethical Inquiry Online ISSN 1872-4353 Print ISSN 1176-7529 Journal Volume Volume 7 Journal Issue Volume 7, Number 4.
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  24. Bruce Maxwell & Eric Racine (2010). Should Empathic Development Be a Priority in Biomedical Ethics Teaching? A Critical Perspective. Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 19 (04):433-445.
    Biomedical ethics is an essential part of the medical curriculum because it is thought to enrich moral reflection and conduce to ethical decisionmaking and ethical behavior. In recent years, however, the received idea that competency in moral reasoning leads to moral responsibility “in the field” has been the subject of sustained attention. Today, moral education and development research widely recognize moral reasoning as being but one among at least four distinguishable dimensions of psychological moral functioning alongside moral motivation, moral character, (...)
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  25. Eric Racine & Cynthia Forlini (2010). Cognitive Enhancement, Lifestyle Choice or Misuse of Prescription Drugs? Neuroethics 3 (1):1-4.
    The prospects of enhancing cognitive or motor functions using neuroscience in otherwise healthy individuals has attracted considerable attention and interest in neuroethics (Farah et al., Nature Reviews Neuroscience 5:421–425, 2004; Glannon Journal of Medical Ethics 32:74–78, 2006). The use of stimulants is one of the areas which has propelled the discussion on the potential for neuroscience to yield cognition-enhancing products. However, we have found in our review of the literature that the paradigms used to discuss the non-medical use of stimulant (...)
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  26. Emily Bell & Eric Racine (2009). Enthusiasm for Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (Fmri) Often Overlooks its Dependence on Task Selection and Performance. American Journal of Bioethics 9 (1):23 – 25.
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  27. Cynthia Forlini & Eric Racine (2009). Disagreements with Implications: Diverging Discourses on the Ethics of Non-Medical Use of Methylphenidate for Performance Enhancement. BMC Medical Ethics 10 (1):9.
    There is substantial evidence that methylphenidate (MPH; Ritalin), is being used by healthy university students for non-medical motives such as the improvement of concentration, alertness, and academic performance. The scope and potential consequences of the non-medical use of MPH upon healthcare and society bring about many points of view.
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  28. Cynthia Forlini & Eric Racine (2009). Autonomy and Coercion in Academic “Cognitive Enhancement” Using Methylphenidate: Perspectives of Key Stakeholders. [REVIEW] Neuroethics 2 (3):163-177.
    There is mounting evidence that methylphenidate (MPH; Ritalin) is being used by healthy college students to improve concentration, alertness, and academic performance. One of the key concerns associated with such use of pharmaceuticals is the degree of freedom individuals have to engage in or abstain from cognitive enhancement (CE). From a pragmatic perspective, careful examination of the ethics of acts and contexts in which they arise includes considering coercion and social pressures to enhance cognition. We were interested in understanding how (...)
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  29. Eric Racine (2008). Enriching Our Views on Clinical Ethics: Results of a Qualitative Study of the Moral Psychology of Healthcare Ethics Committee Members. [REVIEW] Journal of Bioethical Inquiry 5 (1):57-67.
    The contribution of healthcare ethics committee (HEC) members to HECs is fundamental. However, little is known about how HEC members view clinical ethics. We report results from a qualitative study of the moral psychology of HEC members. We found that contrary to the existing Kohlberg-based studies, HEC members hold a pragmatic non-expert view of clinical ethics based mainly on respect for persons and a commitment to the patient’s good. In general, HEC members hold deflationary views regarding moral theory. Ethical principles (...)
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  30. Eric Racine (2008). Interdisciplinary Approaches for a Pragmatic Neuroethics. American Journal of Bioethics 8 (1):52 – 53.
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  31. Eric Racine (2008). Which Naturalism for Bioethics? A Defense of Moderate (Pragmatic) Naturalism. Bioethics 22 (2):92–100.
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  32. Eric Racine & Emily Bell (2008). Clinical and Public Translation of Neuroimaging Research in Disorders of Consciousness Challenges Current Diagnostic and Public Understanding Paradigms. American Journal of Bioethics 8 (9):13 – 15.
  33. Eric Racine & Judy Illes (2008). Neuroethics. In Peter A. Singer & A. M. Viens (eds.), The Cambridge Textbook of Bioethics. Cambridge University Press. 495--503.
     
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  34. Judy Illes & Eric Racine (2007). Guest Editorial: Neuroethics—From Neurotechnology to Healthcare. Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 16 (02):125-128.
    In proportion to other serious illnesses, diseases of the brain and mind represent the greatest—and still increasing—public health burden that Western societies are facing. Consequently, scientists, governments, advocacy groups, and public health authorities are committed to research to tackle the causes and consequences of neurological and psychiatric diseases and to find cures for them. As neuroscience research progresses, ethicists and neuroscientists face numerous ethical challenges to the integration of frontier application of research—neurotechnology—with the delivery of high-quality healthcare. In this special (...)
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  35. Eric Racine (2007). HEC Member Perspectives on the Case Analysis Process: A Qualitative Multi-Site Study. [REVIEW] HEC Forum 19 (3):185-206.
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  36. Eric Racine (2007). Identifying Challenges and Conditions for the Use of Neuroscience in Bioethics. American Journal of Bioethics 7 (1):74-76.
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  37. Eric Racine, Hz Adriaan van Der Loos & Judy Illes (2007). Internet Marketing of Neuroproducts: New Practices and Healthcare Policy Challenges. Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 16 (02):181-194.
    Direct-to-consumer advertising of healthcare products refers to a variety of marketing practices based on a combination of information and promotion strategies directed at consumers through different media such as radio and television broadcasts, newspaper and magazine ads, and, more recently, through the Internet. The principal form of marketing used by the pharmaceutical industry is the distribution of free samples to physicians but DTCA is an increasing part of global promotional spending for prescription drugs. Latest estimates suggest that DTCA now represents (...)
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  38. Eric Racine, Sarah Waldman, Nicole Palmour, David Risse & Judy Illes (2007). “Currents of Hope”: Neurostimulation Techniques in U.S. And U.K. Print Media. Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 16 (03):312-316.
    The application of neurostimulation techniques such as deep brain stimulation —often called a brain pacemaker for neurological conditions like Parkinson's disease —has generated “currents of hope.” Building on this hope, there is significant interest in applying neurostimulation to psychiatric disorders such as major depression and obsessive-compulsive disorder . These emerging neurosurgical practices raise a number of important ethical and social questions in matters of resource allocation, informed consent for vulnerable populations, and commercialization of research.
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  39. Judy Illes & Eric Racine (2005). Imaging or Imagining? A Neuroethics Challenge Informed by Genetics. American Journal of Bioethics 5 (2):5 – 18.
    From a twenty-first century partnership between bioethics and neuroscience, the modern field of neuroethics is emerging, and technologies enabling functional neuroimaging with unprecedented sensitivity have brought new ethical, social and legal issues to the forefront. Some issues, akin to those surrounding modern genetics, raise critical questions regarding prediction of disease, privacy and identity. However, with new and still-evolving insights into our neurobiology and previously unquantifiable features of profoundly personal behaviors such as social attitude, value and moral agency, the difficulty of (...)
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  40. Pierre Poirier, Luc Faucher, Eric Racine & E. Ennan (eds.) (2005). Des Neurones A La Conscience: Neurophilosophie Et Philosophie Des Neurosciences. Bruxelles: De Boeck Universite.
  41. Éric Racine (2005). Pourquoi et comment doit-on tenir compte des neurosciences en éthique? Esquisse d'une approche neurophilosophique émergentiste et interdisciplinaire. Laval Théologique et Philosophique 61 (1):77-105.
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  42. Éric Racine (2003). Discourse Ethics as an Ethics of Responsibility: Comparison and Evaluation of Citizen Involvement in Population Genomics. Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 31 (3):390-397.
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