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  1.  20 DLs
    Erich H. Loewy (2005). In Defense of Paternalism. Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 26 (6):445-468.
    This paper argues that we have wrongly and not for the patient’s benefit made a form of stark autonomy our highest value which allows physicians to slip out from under their basic duty which has always been to pursue a particular patient’s good. In general – I shall argue – it is the patient’s right to select his or her own goals and the physician’s duty to inform the patient of the feasibility of that goal and of the means needed (...)
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  2.  16 DLs
    Erich H. Loewy (1999). Health-Care Systems and Ethics: What Can We Learn? [REVIEW] Health Care Analysis 7 (4):309-320.
    Health care systems in different countries and cultures differ and tend toreflect the particular values and, therefore, the particular socialstructure of a given society. Each of these has ethical problems unique toitself. Some of these problems are briefly discussed. So as to have anindividual ethical problem in the context of medical care, access tomedical care needs to be assured. It is argued that individual problems arethe primary issue in societies in which there is fair access whereas theyare of lesser importance (...)
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  3.  15 DLs
    Erich H. Loewy (1995). Kant, Health Care and Justification. Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 16 (2).
    An argument based on Kant for access to health-care for all is a most helpful addition to prior discussions. My paper argues that while such a point of view is helpful it fails to be persuasive. What is needed, in addition to a notion of the legislative will, is a viewpoint of community which sees justice as originating not merely from considerations of reason alone but from a notion of community and from a framework of common human experiences and capabilities.
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  4.  12 DLs
    Erich H. Loewy (2004). Euthanasia, Physician Assisted Suicide and Other Methods of Helping Along Death. Health Care Analysis 12 (3):181-193.
    This paper introduces a series of papers dealing with the topic of euthanasia as an introduction to a variety of attitudes by health-care professionals and philosophers interested in this issue. The lead in paper—and really the lead in idea—stresses the fact that what we are discussing concerns only a minority of people lucky enough to live in conditions of acceptable sanitation and who have access to medical care. The topic of euthanasia and PAS really has three questions: (1) is killing (...)
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  5.  12 DLs
    Erich H. Loewy (1997). Developing Habits and Knowing What Habits to Develop: A Look at the Role of Virtue in Ethics. Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 6 (03):347-.
    Virtue ethics attempts to identify certain commonly agreed-upon dispositions to act in certain ways, dispositions that would be accepted as ‘good’ by those affected, and to locate the goodness or badness of an act internal to the agent. Basically, virtue ethics is said to date back to Aristotle, but as Alisdair MacIntyre has pointed out, the whole idea of ‘virtue ethics’ would have been unintelligible in Greek philosophy for “a virtue was an excellence and ethics concerned excellence of character; all (...)
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  6.  11 DLs
    Erich H. Loewy (1995). Compassion, Reason, and Moral Judgment. Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 4 (04):466-.
    This paper will discuss the role of compassion in ethics in general and in healthcare ethics in particular. My thesis is that compassion:1) as Rousseau pointed out, is a natural trait common to all higher animals ;2) can and does serve as one of the most important motivators and modulators of ethics in both theoretical and applied aspects;3) must be controlled by, and in turn control, reason if it is to serve its ethical as well as natural purposes; and4) as (...)
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  7.  10 DLs
    Erich H. Loewy (1994). Philosophy and its Role in Medicine: Inaugurating a New Section. Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 15 (2).
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  8.  9 DLs
    Erich H. Loewy (2000). Presuming Consent, Presuming Refusal: Organ Donation and Communal Structure. [REVIEW] Health Care Analysis 8 (3):297-308.
    Donating, distributing and ultimately transplantingorgans each has distinct ethical problems. In thispaper I suggest that the first ethical question is notwhat should be done but what is a fair way in whicheach of these problems can be addressed. Experts –whether these be transplant surgeons, policy analysts,political scientists or ethicists – can help guidebut cannot by themselves make such decisions. Inmaking these decisions the difference betweenidentified and non-identified lives is crucial. Isuggest that an approach in which reason is temperedby compassion (``compassionate (...)
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  9.  9 DLs
    Erich H. Loewy (1987). The Uncertainty of Certainty in Clinical Ethics. Journal of Medical Humanities and Bioethics 8 (1):26-33.
    Physicians accept fallibility in technical matters as a condition of medical practice. When it comes to moral considerations, physicians are often loathe to act without a good deal more certitude and seem less willing to accept error. This article argues that ethics is intrinsic to medical decision making, that error is the inevitable risk of any action and that inaction (clearly action by default) carries even greater risk of error. Whether in the moral or the technical sphere, error must be (...)
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  10.  8 DLs
    Erich H. Loewy, Lawrence P. Ulrich, Miguel Bedolla, Robin Terrell Tucker & Melvina McCabe (1994). Furthering the Dialogue on Advance Directives and the Patient Self-Determination Act. Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 3 (03):405-.
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  11.  7 DLs
    Erich H. Loewy (1992). Healing and Killing, Harming and Not Harming: Physician Participation in Euthanasia and Capital Punishment. Journal of Clinical Ethics 3 (1):29.
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  12.  7 DLs
    Erich H. Loewy (1998). Of Sentiment, Caring and Anencephalics: A Response to Sytsma. Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 19 (1):21-34.
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  13.  6 DLs
    Erich H. Loewy (1993). First or Second Class? Business and Professional Ethics Journal 12 (3):69-82.
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  14.  5 DLs
    David C. Thomasma & Erich H. Loewy (1996). Exploring the Role of Religion in Medical Ethics. Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 5 (02):257-.
    From time to time medical ethicists bemoan the loss of a religious perspective in medical ethics. The discipline had its origins in the thinking of explicitly religious thinkers such as Paul Ramsey and Joseph Fletcher. Furthermore, many of those who contributed to the early development of the discipline had training in theology. One thinks of Daniel Callahan, Richard McCormick, Albert Jonsen, Sam. Banks. As the discipline becomes more and more self-reflective, with attention being paid to methodological and conditional concerns, it (...)
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  15.  5 DLs
    Erich H. Loewy (2003). Education, Practice and Bioethics: Growing Barriers to Ethical Practice. [REVIEW] Health Care Analysis 11 (2):171-179.
    While Bioethics is now taught at all medical colleges in the United States as well as in other nations, and while discussions about Bioethics have become frequent in most medical journals there are increasing barriers to teaching and incorporating what has been taught into daily practice. I shall discuss some of these barriers and suggest that integrating the teaching of Bioethics throughout the curriculum after presenting some of the basic theory and methodology is the most effective way of teaching this (...)
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  16.  5 DLs
    Erich H. Loewy (1994). Institutional Morality, Authority, and Ethics Committees: How Far Should Respect for Institutional Morality Go? Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 3 (04):578-.
    Virtually all persons who have had a hand in shaping the concept of ethics committees in this country accept the principle that the individuals making up the ethics committee should represent different interests, backgrounds, and viewpoints. In other words, ethics committees are intended mainly to represent the interests of the communities they serve. However, ethics committees often also serve hospitals that are religiously based and who, not unreasonably, may insist on affirming their own institutional morality and their own peculiar way (...)
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  17.  5 DLs
    Erich H. Loewy (1988). Oh Death, Where is Thy Sting? Reflections on Dealing with Dying Patients. Journal of Medical Humanities and Bioethics 9 (2):135-142.
    This paper examines the reactions of physicians and other health-professionals when they become involved in decisions about the death of their patients. The way people understand the condition of death has a profound influence on attitudes towards death and dying issues. Four traditional views of death are explored. The problem that physicians have in helping patients die (be it by hastening death through pain control, assisting patients in suicide or by more active means) is analyzed. Physicians, in dealing with such (...)
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  18.  5 DLs
    Erich H. Loewy (1993). Created From Animals James Rachels. New York: Oxford University Press, 1990. 245 Pp. [REVIEW] Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 2 (01):112-.
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  19.  5 DLs
    Erich H. Loewy (1986). Physicians and Patients: Moral Agency in a Pluralistic World. [REVIEW] Journal of Medical Humanities and Bioethics 7 (1):57-68.
    This paper examines the role of the physician in a pluralistic community. A personal and communal sense of identity must resolve a vast array of often conflicting backgrounds and contexts in order to function smoothly. Physicians are neither entitled to impose their own moral views on their patients nor expected to surrender their own moral agency. Several illustrative cases are given. The solution of inevitable conflicts is embodied within the context of the situation, but since irreconcilable differences remain, a resolution (...)
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  20.  5 DLs
    Erich H. Loewy (1995). Spending More on Health Care: An Idea Whose Time is Long Past. [REVIEW] Health Care Analysis 3 (3):248-250.
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  21.  5 DLs
    Erich H. Loewy (1999). Physician Assisted Dying and Death with Dignity: Missed Opportunities and Prior Neglected Conditions. Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 2 (2):189-194.
    This paper argues that the world-wide debate about physician assisted dying is missing a golden opportunity to focus on the orchestration of the end of life. Such a process consists of far more than adequate pain control and is a skill which, like all other skills, needs to be learned and taught. The debate offers an opportunity to press for the teaching of this skill. Beyond this, the desire to assure that all can have access to palliative care makes sense (...)
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  22.  5 DLs
    Erich H. Loewy (2000). Of Healthcare Professionals, Ethics, and Strikes. Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 9 (4):513-520.
    The question of whether physicians or other healthcare workers are ethically entitled to strike is troubling in that it entails a conflict in obligations. This question of a conflict of obligations (and the answer to it) has wider implications for many other workers.
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  23.  5 DLs
    Erich H. Loewy (1996). Of Community, Organs and Obligations: Routine Salvage with a Twist. Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 17 (1).
    This paper makes the assumption that organ transplantation is, under some conditions at least, a proper use of communal medical resources. Proceeding from this assumption, the author: (1) sketches the history of the problem; (2) briefly examines the prevalent models of communal structure and offers an alternate version; (3) discusses notions of justice and obligation derived from these different models; (4) applies these to the practice of harvesting organs for transplantation; and then (5) offers a different process for harvesting organs (...)
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  24.  4 DLs
    Erich H. Loewy (1998). Curiosity, Imagination, Compassion, Science and Ethics: Do Curiosity and Imagination Serve a Central Function? [REVIEW] Health Care Analysis 6 (4):286-294.
    Curiosity and imagination have been neglected in epistemology. This paper argues that the role of curiosity and imagination is central to the way we think, regardless of whether it is thinking about problems of ethics or problems of science. In our ever more materialistic society, curiosity and reason are either discouraged or narrowly channeled. I shall argue that the role of curiosity and imagination for both science and ethics is so important that nurturing them can be seen as an ethical (...)
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  25.  3 DLs
    Erich H. Loewy (1990). Ethical and Communal Issues in Aids: An Introduction. Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 11 (3):173-183.
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  26.  3 DLs
    Erich H. Loewy (2001). The Social Nexus of Healthcare. American Journal of Bioethics 1 (2):37.
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  27.  3 DLs
    Erich H. Loewy (1997). Finding an Appropriate Ethic in a World of Moral Acquaintances. Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 18 (1-2).
    This paper discusses the possibility of finding an ethic of at least partial and perhaps ever-growing content in a world not that of moral strangers (where we have nothing except our desire to live freely to unite us) and one of moral friends (in which values, goals and ways of doing things are held in common). I argue that both the world of moral strangers which Engelhardt's world view would support, as the world of moral friends which is the one (...)
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  28.  3 DLs
    Erich H. Loewy (1992). Suffering as a Consideration in Ethical Decision Making. Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 1 (02):135-.
    Erhics committees and ethics consultants are becoming more involved in helping individuals make decisions and in advising institutions and legislatures about drafting policy. The role of these committees and consultants has been acknowledged in law, and their function is generally considered salutory and helpful. Ethics consultants and committees, furthermore, play a critical role in educating students and members of the hospital community and the public at large. More over, many ethicists engage in scholarky activities to expand the boundaries of our (...)
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  29.  3 DLs
    Erich H. Loewy (2002). Bioethics: Past, Present, and an Open Future. Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 11 (04):388-397.
    The history in which bioethics developed is well reviewed in a recent book written by Al Jonsen. This superb little volume gives a concise—even if a necessarily rather subjective—account of the development of the field. A more objective history of the contemporary development of the field cannot be expected from those who helped craft it and awaits historians of the future. What I have been asked to do here is to supply my own personal impressions of the development of this (...)
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  30.  3 DLs
    Erich H. Loewy (1998). Justice and Health Care Systems: What Would an Ideal Health Care System Look Like? Health Care Analysis 6 (3):185-192.
    An ‘ideal’ health care system would be unencumbered by economic considerations and provide an ample supply of well-paid health care professionals who would supply culturally appropriate optimal health care to the level desired by patients. An ‘ideal’ health care system presupposes an ‘ideal’ society in which resources for all social goods are unlimited. Changes within health care systems occur both because of changes within the system and because of changes or demands in and by the ‘exterior environment’. Social systems must (...)
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  31.  3 DLs
    David C. Thomasma & Erich H. Loewy (1997). A Dialogue on Species-Specific Rights: Humans and Animals in Bioethics. Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 6 (04):435-.
    At the end of the most violent century in human history, it is good to take stock of our commitments to human and other life forms, as well as to examine the rights and the duties that might flow from their biological makeup. Professor Thomasma and Professor Loewy have held a long-standing dialogue on whether there are moral differences between animals and humans. This dialogue was occasioned by a presentation Thomasma made some years ago at Loewy's invitation at the University (...)
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  32.  2 DLs
    Erich H. Loewy (1990). The Role of Suffering and Community in Clinical Ethics. Journal of Clinical Ethics 2 (2):83-9.
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  33.  2 DLs
    Erich H. Loewy (1990). Ethics Consultation and Ethics Committees. HEC Forum 2 (6):351-359.
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  34.  2 DLs
    Erich H. Loewy (1997). What Would a Socialist Health Care System Look Like? A Sketch. Health Care Analysis 5 (3):195-204.
    In this paper I argue that, since institutions must reflect the societies in which they are placed, a socialist health-care system cannot be understood unless democratic socialism—which would assure all of basic necessities of existence, full education and health-care to all members of the community—is not incompatible with a flourishing market for other products. In contrasting single with multiple tiered health care systems, I suggest that a single tiered system in which all have equal access to health care and none (...)
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  35.  2 DLs
    Erich H. Loewy (1993). An Inquiry Into Ethics Committees' Understanding: How Does One Educate the Educators? Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 2 (04):551-.
    This paper inaugurates a new section on education, the focus of which is on education in a broader sense. The purpose is to stimulate discussion not only about techniques of education but also to initiate a dialogue concerninig more fundamental questions and issues. What are the goals of education generally and of and for ethics committees specifically? What, for an ethics committee, is “education”? What do we mean by education in this field? To function efficiently on an ethics committee, does (...)
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  36.  2 DLs
    Erich H. Loewy (1990). Market Mechanisms and Principles of Justice. Business and Professional Ethics Journal 9 (3/4):103-119.
  37.  1 DLs
    Erich H. Loewy (1995). Care Ethics: A Concept in Search of a Framework. Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 4 (01):56-.
    In this paper, I want to try to put what has been termed the “care ethics” into a different perspective. While I will discuss primarily the use of that ethic or that term as it applies to the healthcare setting in general and to the deliberation of consultants or the function of committees more specifically, what I have to say is meant to be applicable to the problem of using a notion like “caring” as a fundamental precept in ethical decision (...)
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  38.  1 DLs
    Erich H. Loewy (1987). Not by Reason Alone. Journal of Medical Humanities and Bioethics 8 (1):67-72.
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  39.  1 DLs
    Erich H. Loewy & Roberta Springer Loewy (2001). Bioethics at the Crossroad. Health Care Analysis 9 (4):463-476.
    Bioethics and its offspring Health-care Ethics have a variety ofuses and obligations among which and perhaps most importantly istheir social obligation. This paper raises questions as toBioethics fulfilling the necessary criteria for a profession,suggests that it can serve as a link between individual andcommunal problems, discusses the task of health-care ethics as well as ways of teaching it, lists some of the obligationsof health-care ethics professionals and discusses the dangers to and failings of these health-care professionals today. Itconcludes that we (...)
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  40.  1 DLs
    Erich H. Loewy (1994). Physicians, Friendship, and Moral Strangers: An Examination of a Relationship. Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 3 (01):52-.
    It is often said that because physicians and other healthcare professionals frequently play a critical role in determining the fate of their patients, they ought if at all possible to be their patient's friend. The relationship of necessity is intimate: physicians have knowledge of their patients' histories and of their bodies which under other circumstances would be reserved to the most intimate of friends, and physicians and patients meet under more or less critical situations. In this paper, I briefly examine (...)
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  41.  1 DLs
    Erich H. Loewy & Roberta Springer Loewy (2007). Framing Issues in Health Care: Do American Ideals Demand Basic Health Care and Other Social Necessities for All? [REVIEW] Health Care Analysis 15 (4):261-271.
    This paper argues for the necessity of universal health care (as well as universal free education) using a different argument than most that have been made heretofore. It is not meant to conflict with but to strengthen the arguments previously made by others. Using the second paragraph of the Declaration of Independence and the Preamble to the Constitution we argue that universal health care in this day and age has become a necessary condition if the ideals of life, liberty and (...)
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  42.  1 DLs
    Erich H. Loewy (1994). Limiting But Not Abandoning Treatment in Severely Mentally Impaired Patients: A Troubling Issue for Ethics Consultants and Ethics Committees. Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 3 (02):216-.
    On many occasions, care givers are faced with problems in which “drastic” types of treatment seem clearly inappropriate but “lesser” interventions still appear to be advisable, if not indeed mandatory. In the hospital setting, examples are frequent: the demented elderly patient, still very much capable of brief social interactions and still able to enjoy at least limited life, who although clearly not a candidate for coronary bypass surgery is, nevertheless, a patient in whom an intercurrent pneumonia deserves treatment; the severely (...)
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  43.  1 DLs
    Erich H. Loewy & Roberta Springer Loewy (1998). Commentary. Of Cultural Practices, Ethics and Education: Thoughts About Affecting Changes in Cultural Practices. Health Care Analysis 6 (1):45-51.
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  44.  1 DLs
    Erich H. Loewy (1994). Teaching Medical Ethics: Is It a Waste of Time? Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 3 (02):296-.
    The paper by Dr. Myles Sheehan “Why Doctors Hate Medical Ethics” highlights some of the problems of teaching ethics to an extremely weary group of house officers who may look at ethics as a waste of time, as a requirement that must be overcome, or as “a lot of crap” Although Dr. Shee-han's paper offers a number of interesting and valuable insights, it really fails to say why residents hate the teaching of medical ethics any more than they may hate (...)
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  45.  1 DLs
    Erich H. Loewy (2005). Age Discrimination at its Best: Should Chronological Age Be a Prime Factour in Medical Decision Making? Health Care Analysis 13 (2):101-117.
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  46.  0 DLs
    Erich H. Loewy (1991). Families, Communities, and Making Medical Decisions. Journal of Clinical Ethics 2 (3):150.
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  47.  0 DLs
    Erich H. Loewy (1989). Beneficence in Trust. Hastings Center Report 19 (1):42-43.
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  48.  0 DLs
    Erich H. Loewy (1994). Of Markets, Technology, Patients and Profits. Health Care Analysis 2 (2):101-109.
    In this paper I: (1) Describe something of the present situation in the United States and briefly contrast this with the state of affairs in other nations of the industrialised world. I emphasise health care but also allude to other social conditions: health care is merely one institution of a society and, just as do its other institutions, the system of health care reflects the basic world-view of that society. (2) Sketch the world-view and the philosophy which underwrites the use (...)
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  49.  0 DLs
    Erich H. Loewy & David C. Thomasma (1991). Suffering and the Beneficent Community: Beyond Libertarianism. State University of New York Press.
    A detailed multi-disciplinary analysis of Sudan in the post-colonial era with a consideration of possibilities for the future.
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  50.  0 DLs
    Erich H. Loewy (1996). Justice, Society, Physicians and Ethics Committees: Incorporating Ideas of Justice Into Patient Care Decisions. Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 5 (04):559-.
    Issues of social justice have traditionally been given short shrift by American healthcare professionals, feeling that justice at the bedside is inapplicable and possibly even misplaced. However, perhaps motivated by the realization that escalating costs and maldistribution of healthcare represent an intolerable situation, an ever-growing amount of medical literature and healthcare ethics literature is turning to considerations of justice.
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