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Profile: Ernest Sosa (Rutgers University - New Brunswick)
  1.  10
    Ernest Sosa (2010). Knowing Full Well. Princeton University Press.
    In this book, Ernest Sosa explains the nature of knowledge through an approach originated by him years ago, known as virtue epistemology. Here he provides the first comprehensive account of his views on epistemic normativity as a form of performance normativity on two levels. On a first level is found the normativity of the apt performance, whose success manifests the performer's competence. On a higher level is found the normativity of the meta-apt performance, which manifests not necessarily first-order skill or (...)
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  2.  87
    Ernest Sosa (2007/2009). A Virtue Epistemology. Oxford University Press.
    Ernest Sosa argues for two levels of knowledge, the animal and the reflective, each viewed as a distinctive human accomplishment.
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  3. Laurence BonJour & Ernest Sosa (2003). Epistemic Justification: Internalism Vs. Externalism, Foundations Vs. Virtues. Blackwell Pub..
    The regress problem and foundationalism -- Externalist accounts of justification -- In search of coherentism -- Back to foundationalism -- The conceptualization of sensory experience and the problem of the external world -- Knowledge and justification -- Does knowledge have foundation -- Skepticism and the internal/external divide -- A virtue epistemology -- Reply to Sosa -- Reply to Bonjour.
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  4.  44
    Ernest Sosa (2009). Reflective Knowledge. Oxford University Press.
    The second part of the book presents an alternative beyond the historical positions of Part I, one that defends a virtue epistemology combined with epistemic ...
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  5. Ernest Sosa (2007). Experimental Philosophy and Philosophical Intuition. Philosophical Studies 132 (1):99-107.
    The topic is experimental philosophy as a naturalistic movement, and its bearing on the value of intuitions in philosophy. This paper explores first how the movement might bear on philosophy more generally, and how it might amount to something novel and promising. Then it turns to one accomplishment repeatedly claimed for it already: namely, the discrediting of armchair intuitions as used in philosophy.
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  6. Ernest Sosa (2015). Judgment and Agency. OUP Oxford.
    Ernest Sosa extends his distinctive approach to epistemology, intertwining issues concerning the role of the will in judgment and belief with issues of epistemic evaluation. While noting that human knowledge trades on distinctive psychological capacities, Sosa also emphasizes the role of the social in human knowledge.
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  7.  10
    Ernest Sosa (1991). Knowledge in Perspective. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    From the back cover: "Ever since Plato, philosophers have faced one central question: What is the scope and nature of human knowledge? In this volume the distinguished philosopher Ernest Sosa has collected his essays on this subject written over a period of twenty-five years. All the major topics of contemporary epistemology are covered: the nature of propositional knowledge, externalism versus internalism, foundationalism versus coherentism, and the problem of the criterion. The resulting book is a valuable resource for scholars and can (...)
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  8. Ernest Sosa (2010). The Epistemology of Disagreement. In Adrian Haddock, Alan Millar & Duncan Pritchard (eds.), Social Epistemology. OUP Oxford
  9. Ernest Sosa (1999). How to Defeat Opposition to Moore. Philosophical Perspectives 13 (s13):137-49.
    What modal relation must a fact bear to a belief in order for this belief to constitute knowledge of that fact? Externalists have proposed various answers, including some that combine externalism with contextualism. We shall find that various forms of externalism share a modal conception of “sensitivity” open to serious objections. Fortunately, the undeniable intuitive attractiveness of this conception can be explained through an easily confused but far preferable notion of “safety.” The denouement of our reflections, finally, will be to (...)
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  10.  93
    Ernest Sosa (2009). A Virtue Epistemology: Apt Belief and Reflective Knowledge, Volume I. OUP Oxford.
    Ernest Sosa presents a new approach to the problems of knowledge and scepticism. He argues for two levels of knowledge, the animal and the reflective, each viewed as a distinctive human accomplishment. Sosa's virtue epistemology illuminates different varieties of scepticism, the nature and status of intuitions, and epistemic normativity.
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  11.  33
    Ernest Sosa (1999). How to Defeat Opposition to Moore. Philosophical Perspectives 13 (s13):141--152.
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  12.  65
    Ernest Sosa (1991). Knowledge in Perspective: Selected Essays in Epistemology. Cambridge University Press.
    Ever since Plato, philosophers have faced one central question: what is the scope and nature of human knowledge? In this volume the distinguished philosopher Ernest Sosa collects essays on this subject written over a period of twenty-five years. All the major topics of contemporary epistemology are covered: the nature of propositional knowledge; externalism versus internalism; foundationalism versus coherentism; and the problem of the criterion.
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  13. Jennifer Lackey & Ernest Sosa (eds.) (2006). The Epistemology of Testimony. Oxford University Press.
    Testimony is a crucial source of knowledge: we are to a large extent reliant upon what others tell us. It has been the subject of much recent interest in epistemology, and this volume collects twelve original essays on the topic by some of the world's leading philosophers. It will be the starting point for future research in this fertile field. Contributors include Robert Audi, C. A. J. Coady, Elizabeth Fricker, Richard Fumerton, Sanford C. Goldberg, Peter Graham, Jennifer Lackey, Keith Lehrer, (...)
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  14. Ernest Sosa (2003). The Place of Truth in Epistemology. In Linda Zagzebski & Michael DePaul (eds.), Intellectual Virtue: Perspectives From Ethics and Epistemology. New York: Oxford University Press 155-180.
    ... With those who identify happiness [faring happily or well] with virtue or some one virtue our account is in harmony; for to virtue belongs virtuous activity. But it makes, perhaps, no small difference whether we place the chief good in possession or in use, in state of mind or in activity. For the state of mind may exist without producing any good result, as in a man who is asleep or in some other way quite inactive, but the activity (...)
     
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  15.  21
    Ernest Sosa (2009). A Defense of the Use of Intuitions in Philosophy. In Dominic Murphy & Michael A. Bishop (eds.), Stich and His Critics. Wiley-Blackwell 101--112.
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  16. Ernest Sosa (2000). Skepticism and Contextualism. Noûs 34 (s1):1-18.
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  17. Ernest Sosa (1997). Reflective Knowledge in the Best Circles. Journal of Philosophy 94 (8):410-430.
    According to Moore, his argument meets three conditions for being a proof: first, the premiss is different from the conclusion; second, he knows the premiss to be the case; and, third, the conclusion follows deductively.2 Further conditions may be required, but he evidently thinks his proof would satisfy these as well. As Moore is well aware, many philosophers will feel he has not given “...any satisfactory proof of the point in question."3 Some, he believes, will want the premiss itself proved. (...)
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  18. Ernest Sosa (2007). Intuitions: Their Nature and Epistemic Efficacy. Grazer Philosophische Studien 74 (1):51-67.
    This paper presents an account of intuitions, and a defense of their epistemic efficacy in general, and more specifically in philosophy, followed by replies in response to various objections.
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  19. Ernest Sosa (2010). How Competence Matters in Epistemology. Philosophical Perspectives 24 (1):465-475.
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  20. Kurt Sylvan & Ernest Sosa (forthcoming). The Place of Reasons in Epistemology. In Daniel Star (ed.), Oxford Handbook of Reasons and Normativity.
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  21. Ernest Sosa (2000). For the Love of Truth. In Linda Zagzebski (ed.), Virtue Epistemology: Essays on Epistemic Virtue and Responsibility. Oxford University Press, 49--62.
    “Rational beings pursue and value truth. Intellectual conduct is to be judged, accordingly, by how well it aids our pursuit of that ideal.” What does this mean, and is it true? Even if intelligent life had never evolved or otherwise existed, Venus would still have orbited the Sun, so it would still have been true that Venus orbited the Sun. It is not the being thus true of what is true that we value indiscriminately. Some truths are good, but not (...)
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  22. Ernest Sosa (1980). The Raft and the Pyramid: Coherence Versus Foundations in the Theory of Knowledge. Midwest Studies in Philosophy 5 (1):3-26.
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  23. Ernest Sosa (2005). Dreams and Philosophy. Proceedings and Addresses of the American Philosophical Association 79 (2):7 - 18.
    That conception is orthodox in today’s common sense and also historically. Presupposed by Plato, Augustine, and Descartes, it underlies familiar skeptical paradoxes. Similar orthodoxy is also found in our developing science of sleep and dreaming.[2] Despite such confluence.
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  24.  15
    Ernest Sosa (2002). Tracking, Competence, and Knowledge. In Paul K. Moser (ed.), The Oxford Handbook of Epistemology. Oxford University Press 264--287.
  25.  93
    Ernest Sosa (1999). How Must Knowledge Be Modally Related to What Is Known? Philosophical Topics 26 (1/2):373-384.
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  26.  19
    Ernest Sosa (2015). On Metaphysical Analysis. Journal of Philosophical Research 40 (9999):309-314.
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  27. Ernest Sosa (2010). Intuitions and Meaning Divergence. Philosophical Psychology 23 (4):419-426.
    Survey results are in the first instance utterances, which require interpretation. Moreover, when the results seem to involve disagreement in intuitive responses to a thought experiment, the results are most directly responsive to the scenario as envisaged by the particular subject, where the text of the example can give rise to relevantly different scenarios, depending on how the scenario is shaped by the subjects involved, under the guidance of the text. All of this opens up a defense of intuitions against (...)
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  28. Ernest Sosa (2003). Davidson's Epistemology. In Kirk Ludwig (ed.), Contemporary Philosophy in Focus: Donald Davidson. Cambridge University Press
    Davidson’s epistemology, like Kant’s, features a transcendental argument as its centerpiece. Both philosophers reject any priority, whether epistemological or conceptual, of the subjective over the objective, attempting thus to solve the problem of the external world. For Davidson, three varieties of knowledge are coordinate—knowledge of the self, of other minds, and of the external world. None has priority. Despite the epistemologically coordinate status of the mind and the world, however, the content of the mind can be shown to entail how (...)
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  29. John Greco & Ernest Sosa (eds.) (1999). The Blackwell Guide to Epistemology. Blackwell.
    Written by an international assembly of leading philosophers, this volume includes seventeen newly-commissioned full-length survey articles on the central topics of epistemology.
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  30. Ernest Sosa (2010). Value Matters in Epistemology. Journal of Philosophy 107 (4):167-190.
    In what way is knowledge better than merely true belief? That is a problem posed in Plato’s Meno. A belief that falls short of knowledge seems thereby inferior. It is better to know than to get it wrong, of course, and also better than to get it right by luck rather than competence. But how can that be so, if a true belief will provide the same benefits? In order to get to Larissa you do not need to know the (...)
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  31. Ernest Sosa (2009). A Defense of the Use of Intuitions in Philosophy. In Michael Bishop & Dominic Murphy (eds.), Stich and His Critics. Blackwell 101--112.
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  32. Ernest Sosa (2009). Knowing Full Well: The Normativity of Beliefs as Performances. Philosophical Studies 142 (1):5 - 15.
    Belief is considered a kind of performance, which attains one level of success if it is true (or accurate), a second level if competent (or adroit), and a third if true because competent (or apt). Knowledge on one level (the animal level) is apt belief. The epistemic normativity constitutive of such knowledge is thus a kind of performance normativity. A problem is posed for this account by the fact that suspension of belief seems to fall under the same sort of (...)
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  33.  43
    Ernest Sosa (2013). Epistemic Agency. Journal of Philosophy 110 (11):585-605.
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  34.  71
    John Turri & Ernest Sosa (2007/2009). A Virtue Epistemology. In Byron Kaldis (ed.), Philosophical Studies. Sage 427-440.
    In my remarks, I discuss Sosa's attempt to deal with the sceptical threat posed by dreaming. Sosa explores two replies to the problem of dreaming scepticism. First, he argues that, on the imagination model of dreaming, dreaming does not threaten the safety of our beliefs. Second, he argues that knowledge does not require safety, but a weaker condition which is not threatened by dreaming skepticism. I raise questions about both elements of his reply.
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  35.  18
    Ernest Sosa (2015). Mind-World Relations. Episteme 12 (2):155-166.
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  36. Ernest Sosa (2011). Can There Be a Discipline of Philosophy? And Can It Be Founded on Intuitions? Mind and Language 26 (4):453-467.
    This paper takes up the critique of armchair philosophy drawn by some experimental philosophers from survey results. It also takes up a more recent development with increased methodological sophistication. The argument based on disagreement among respondents suggests a much more serious problem for armchair philosophy and puts in question the standing of our would-be discipline.
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  37. Alvin Goldman, Ernest Sosa, Hilary Kornblith, John Greco, Jonathan Dancy, Laurence Bonjour, Linda Zagrebsky, Julia Driver, James Montmarquet, Chirstopher Hookway, Ricard Paul, Guy Axtell & Casey Swank (eds.) (2000). Knowledge, Belief, and Character: Readings in Contemporary Virtue Epistemology. Rowman & Littlefield Publishers.
    This is a unique collection of new and recently-published articles which debate the merits of virtue-theoretic approaches to the core epistemological issues of knowledge and justified belief. The readings all contribute to our understanding of the relative importance, for a theory of justified belief, of the reliability of our cognitive faculties and of the individuals responsibility in gathering and weighing evidence. Highlights of the readings include direct exchanges between leading exponents of this approach and their critics.
     
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  38. Ernest Sosa (ed.) (2008). Epistemology: An Anthology. Blackwell Pub..
    New and thoroughly updated, Epistemology: An Anthology continues to represent the most comprehensive and authoritative collection of canonical readings in the theory of knowledge.
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  39.  43
    Ernest Sosa & Matthias Steup (eds.) (2005). Contemporary Debates in Epistemology. Blackwell.
  40. Ernest Sosa (1996). Rational Intuition: Bealer on its Nature and Epistemic Status. Philosophical Studies 81 (2-3):151--162.
    A discussion of George Bealer's conception and defense of rational intuition as a basis of philosophical knowledge, under three main heads: a) the phenomenology of intellectual intuition; b) the status of such intuition as a basic source of evidence, and the explanation of what gives it that status; and c) the defense of intuition against those who would reject it and exclude it on principle from the set of valid sources of evidence.
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  41.  89
    Ernest Sosa (2004). Relevant Alternatives, Contextualism Included. Philosophical Studies 119 (1-2):35-65.
    Since this paper is for a conference on “Contextualism in Epistemology and Beyond,” I have opted to sketch a retrospective of contextualism in epistemology, including highlights of the “relevant alternatives” approach, given how relevantism and contextualism have developed in tandem. We focus on externalist forms of contextualism, bypassing internalist forms such as Cohen 1988 and Lewis 1996, but much of our discussion will be applicable to contextualism generally. Internalist contextualism is helpfully discussed in papers by Stewart Cohen, Richard Feldman, and (...)
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  42. Ernest Sosa (1997). How to Resolve the Pyrrhonian Problematic: A Lesson From Descartes. [REVIEW] Philosophical Studies 85 (2-3):229-249.
    A main epistemic problematic, found already in Aristotle’s Posterior Analytics, presents a threefold choice on how a belief may be justified: either through infinitely regressive reasoning, or through circular reasoning, or through reasoning resting ultimately on some foundation. Aristotle himself apparently takes the foundationalist option when he argues that rational intuition is a foundational source of scientific knowledge. The five modes of Agrippa, which pertain to knowledge generally, again pose the same problematic, the “Pyrrhonian” problematic. And here Galen and the (...)
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  43.  74
    Ernest Sosa (2009). Timothy Williamson's Knowledge and its Limits. In Patrick Greenough & Duncan Pritchard (eds.), Williamson on Knowledge. OUP Oxford 203--16.
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  44. Ernest Sosa (2001). For the Love of Truth? In Linda Zagzebski & Abrol Fairweather (eds.), Virtue Epistemology: Essays on Epistemic Virtue and Responsibility. Oxford: Oxford University Press 49-62.
    Rational beings pursue and value truth . Intellectual conduct is to be judged, accordingly, by how well it aids our pursuit of that ideal. I ask whether these platitudes mean, and whether they are true.
     
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  45. Ernest Sosa (2011). Reflective Knowledge: Apt Belief and Reflective Knowledge, Volume Ii. OUP Oxford.
    Reflective Knowledge draws together ground-breaking work in epistemology by Ernest Sosa. He argues for a reflective virtue epistemology based on virtuous circularity, shows how this idea may be found explicitly or just below the surface in such illustrious predecessors as Descartes and Moore, and defends the view against its rivals.
     
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  46.  20
    Ernest Sosa (2015). Confucius on Knowledge. Dao: A Journal of Comparative Philosophy 14 (3):325-330.
    An important passage of the Analects will be interpreted. It is perhaps the most important epistemological utterance in the work, yet it is not easy to interpret. Some interpretations are unacceptable because they render the passage trivial. Here we shall explicate the passage in line with contemporary virtue epistemology, so that it says something both interesting and insightful.
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  47. Ernest Sosa (2003). Privileged Access. In Quentin Smith & Aleksandar Jokic (eds.), Consciousness: New Philosophical Perspectives. Oxford University Press 238-251.
    In Quentin Smith and Aleksander Jokic (eds.), Consciousness: New Philosophical Essays (OUP, 2002).
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  48. Ernest Sosa (2006). Intuitions and Truth. In Patrick Greenough & Michael P. Lynch (eds.), Truth and Realism. Oxford University Press 208--26.
     
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  49.  62
    Ernest Sosa (1984). Mind-Body Interaction and Supervenient Causation. Midwest Studies in Philosophy 9 (1):271-81.
    The mind-body problem arises because of our status as double agents apparently en rapport both with the mental and with the physical. We think, desire, decide, plan, suffer passions, fall into moods, are subject to sensory experiences, ostensibly perceive, intend, reason, make believe, and so on. We also move, have a certain geographical position, a certain height and weight, and we are sometimes hit or cut or burned. In other words, human beings have both minds and bodies. What is the (...)
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  50.  13
    Frank Jackson, Jesse J. Prinz, Ernest Sosa & Kim Sterelny (2009). Viii Notes on Contributors Alvin Goldman is Board of Governors Professor of Philosophy and Cognitive Science at Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey. His Principal Research Areas Are Episte-Mology, Philosophy of Mind, and Cognitive Science. His Most Recent Book is Simulating Minds (2006). [REVIEW] In Michael Bishop & Dominic Murphy (eds.), Stich and His Critics. Blackwell
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