Search results for 'Esben Rahbek Gjerdrum Pedersen' (try it on Scholar)

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  1. Esben Rahbek Gjerdrum Pedersen (2011). All Animals Are Equal, but …: Management Perceptions of Stakeholder Relationships and Societal Responsibilities in Multinational Corporations. Business Ethics 20 (2):177-191.score: 2010.0
    The stakeholder approach has become a popular perspective in mainstream management and the corporate social responsibility (CSR) literature. However, it remains an open question as to how real-life managers actually view stakeholders and what rationales and logics are used for explaining the relationship between the firm and its constituencies. This article examines whom managers in multinational corporations (MNCs) consider to be their important stakeholders, and how they describe the societal responsibilities towards these groups and individuals. It is concluded that managers (...)
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  2. Esben Rahbek Gjerdrum Pedersen & Wencke Gwozdz (2014). From Resistance to Opportunity-Seeking: Strategic Responses to Institutional Pressures for Corporate Social Responsibility in the Nordic Fashion Industry. Journal of Business Ethics 119 (2):245-264.score: 2010.0
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  3. Esben Rahbek Pedersen (2010). Modelling Csr: How Managers Understand the Responsibilities of Business Towards Society. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 91 (2):155 - 166.score: 855.0
    The purpose of this article is to develop a model of how managers perceive the responsibilities of business towards society. The article is based on the survey responses of more than 1,000 managers in eight large international firms. It is concluded that the managerial perceptions of societal responsibilities differ in some respects from the mainstream models found in the corporate social responsibility (CSR) and business ethics literature. The article is an output of RESPONSE: an EU- and corporate-funded research project on (...)
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  4. Esben Rahbek Pedersen (2006). Making Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) Operable: How Companies Translate Stakeholder Dialogue Into Practice. Business and Society Review 111 (2):137-163.score: 855.0
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  5. Esben Rahbek Pedersen (2005). Making Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) Operable. Proceedings of the International Association for Business and Society 16:172-177.score: 855.0
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  6. Esben Houborg Pedersen (2002). Practices of Government in Methadone Maintenance. Outlines. Critical Practice Studies 4 (2):61-69.score: 240.0
    Addiction is a central issue in a liberal society of autonomous citizens, as the nodal point of addiction is self-control - or rather the lack of it. By looking at different ways of problematizing and working upon addiction, one might also get some idea of different ways of conceptualizing and practicing freedom. The point of departure for my paper is practices of methadone maintenance in different regimes of drug treatment. The article illustrates how treatment practices produce different forms of subjectification (...)
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  7. Jørgen Pedersen (2011). Jean-Philippe Deranty, Beyond Communication: A Critical Study of Axel Honneth's Social Philosophy. Critical Horizons 11 (3):497 - 500.score: 60.0
    Jean-Philippe Deranty, Beyond Communication: A Critical Study of Axel Honneth's Social Philosophy Content Type Journal Article Category Book Review Pages 497-500 Authors Jørgen Pedersen, The Centre for the Study of the Sciences and the Humanities, Bergen, Norway Journal Critical Horizons: A Journal of Philosophy & Social Theory Online ISSN 1568-5160 Print ISSN 1440-9917 Journal Volume Volume 11 Journal Issue Volume 11, Number 3 / 2010.
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  8. Mette Ebbesen & Birthe D. Pedersen (2007). Using Empirical Research to Formulate Normative Ethical Principles in Biomedicine. Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 10 (1):33-48.score: 60.0
    Bioethical research has tended to focus on theoretical discussion of the principles on which the analysis of ethical issues in biomedicine should be based. But this discussion often seems remote from biomedical practice where researchers and physicians confront ethical problems. On the other hand, published empirical research on the ethical reasoning of health care professionals offer only descriptions of how physicians and nurses actually reason ethically. The question remains whether these descriptions have any normative implications for nurses and physicians? In (...)
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  9. Cory D. Wright & Nikolaj Jang Lee Linding Pedersen (2010). Truth, Pluralism, Monism, Correspondence. In Cory D. Wright & Nikolaj J. L. L. Pedersen (eds.), New Waves in Truth. Palgrave Macmillan.score: 30.0
    When talking about truth, we ordinarily take ourselves to be talking about one-and-the-same thing. Alethic monists suggest that theorizing about truth ought to begin with this default or pre-reflective stance, and, subsequently, parlay it into a set of theoretical principles that are aptly summarized by the thesis that truth is one. Foremost among them is the invariance principle.
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  10. Nikolaj Jang Lee Linding Pedersen (2009). Entitlement, Value and Rationality. Synthese 171 (3):443-457.score: 30.0
    In this paper I discuss two fundamental challenges concerning Crispin Wright's notion of entitlement of cognitive project: firstly, whether entitlement is an epistemic kind of warrant since, seemingly, it is not underwritten by epistemic reasons, and, secondly, whether, in the absence of such reasons, the kind of rationality associated with entitlement is epistemic in nature. The paper investigates three possible lines of response to these challenges. According to the first line of response, entitlement of cognitive project is underwritten by epistemic (...)
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  11. Jens Christian Bjerring, Jens Ulrik Hansen & Nikolaj Jang Lee Linding Pedersen (2014). On the Rationality of Pluralistic Ignorance. Synthese 191 (11):2445-2470.score: 30.0
    Pluralistic ignorance is a socio-psychological phenomenon that involves a systematic discrepancy between people’s private beliefs and public behavior in certain social contexts. Recently, pluralistic ignorance has gained increased attention in formal and social epistemology. But to get clear on what precisely a formal and social epistemological account of pluralistic ignorance should look like, we need answers to at least the following two questions: What exactly is the phenomenon of pluralistic ignorance? And can the phenomenon arise among perfectly rational agents? In (...)
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  12. Cory D. Wright & Nikolaj J. L. L. Pedersen (eds.) (2010). New Waves in Truth. Palgrave Macmillan.score: 30.0
    New Waves in Truth offers eighteen new and original research papers on truth and other alethic phenomena by twenty of the most promising young scholars working on truth today. Contributions to the volume span truth ascriptions, deflationism, realism and the correspondence theory, the value of truth, and kinds of truth and truth-apt discourse. The research programs of the contributors are beginning to reset that agenda, and each is positioned to make new waves throughout the subject.
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  13. Nikolaj Jang Lee Linding Pedersen & Douglas Edwards (2011). Truth as One(s) and Many: On Lynch's Alethic Functionalism1. Analytic Philosophy 52 (3):213-230.score: 30.0
    Advocates of traditional views on truth such as the correspondence and coherence theories converge on two theses about truth: substantivism and monism. According to the former thesis, truth consists in some substantive property or relation F. According to the latter thesis, there is exactly one property or relation (whether substantive or not) in terms of which truth is to be accounted for across all truth-apt domains of discourse. The correspondence theorist thus has it that a proposition is true just in (...)
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  14. J. Pedersen (2012). Justification and Application: The Revival of the Rawls-Habermas Debate. Philosophy of the Social Sciences 42 (3):399-432.score: 30.0
    The Rawls–Habermas debate is having a revival. In this article I argue that both philosophers develop different freestanding conceptions of political legitimacy, and show how they diverge when it comes to how political legitimacy can be justified. Habermas is looking for a deeper justification than Rawls will allow for. I then proceed to show how the different meta-ethical positions yield two different versions of democratic theory, focusing in particular on rights and popular sovereignty. I demonstrate how both conceive of the (...)
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  15. Nikolaj Jang Lee Linding Pedersen & Cory D. Wright (forthcoming). Varieties of Alethic Pluralism (and Why Alethic Disjunctivism is Relatively Compelling)∗. In Nikolaj Jang Lee Linding Pedersen & Cory D. Wright (eds.), Truth Pluralism: Current Debates. Oxford University Press.score: 30.0
    The aim of this paper is to provide an overview of various forms of alethic pluralism. Along the way we will draw a number of distinctions that, hopefully, will be useful in mapping the pluralist landscape. Finally, we will argue that a commitment to alethic disjunctivism, a certain brand of pluralism, might be difficult to avoid for adherents of the other pluralist views to be discussed. We will proceed as follows: Section 1 introduces alethic monism and alethic pluralism. Section 2 (...)
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  16. Jørgen Pedersen (2008). Habermas' Method: Rational Reconstruction. Philosophy of the Social Sciences 38 (4):457-485.score: 30.0
    Given the prominent position Habermas' philosophy has gained, it is surprising that his method, rational reconstruction, has not caused more debate. This article clarifies what this method consists of, and shows how it is used in two of Habermas' research programs. The method is an interesting, but problematic way of confronting some of the basic epistemological questions in the social sciences. It represents an alternative to both the empirical-analytical and the hermeneutic tradition. On the basis of this methodology, Habermas' work (...)
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  17. Nikolaj Jang Lee Linding Pedersen & Marcus Rossberg (2010). Open-Endedness, Schemas and Ontological Commitment. Noûs 44 (2):329-339.score: 30.0
    Second-order axiomatizations of certain important mathematical theories—such as arithmetic and real analysis—can be shown to be categorical. Categoricity implies semantic completeness, and semantic completeness in turn implies determinacy of truth-value. Second-order axiomatizations are thus appealing to realists as they sometimes seem to offer support for the realist thesis that mathematical statements have determinate truth-values. The status of second-order logic is a controversial issue, however. Worries about ontological commitment have been influential in the debate. Recently, Vann McGee has argued that one (...)
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  18. Nikolaj Jang Lee Linding Pedersen (2010). Stabilizing Alethic Pluralism. Philosophical Quarterly 60 (238):92-108.score: 30.0
    Alethic pluralism is the view that the nature of truth is not uniform across domains. There are several ways of bang true $(T_1 ...\,T_n )$ A simple argument, the 'instability challenge', purports to show that this view is inherently unstable. One can simply say that something is uniformly true if and only if it is T₁ or ... or $\,T_n $ . Being uniformly true is a single truth property that applies across the board, and so the nature of truth (...)
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  19. Nikolaj Jang Lee Linding Pedersen (2012). Recent Work on Alethic Pluralism. Analysis 72 (3):588-607.score: 30.0
    While historically prominent theories of truth such as the correspondence theory, coherentism, pragmatism, verificationism, and instrumentalism diverge in many ways, they converge in at least one fundamental respect. They are all monist theories of truth. They incorporate the thesis that there is one property—and one property only—in virtue of which propositions can be true. The truth pluralist, on the other hand, rejects this idea. There are several properties in virtue of which propositions can be true. This article offers a survey (...)
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  20. Nikolaj Jang Lee Linding Pedersen (2009). Solving the Caesar Problem Without Categorical Sortals. Erkenntnis 71 (2):141 - 155.score: 30.0
    The neo-Fregean account of arithmetical knowledge is centered around the abstraction principle known as Hume’s Principle: for any concepts X and Y , the number of X ’s is the same as the number of Y ’s just in case there is a 1–1 correspondence between X and Y . The Caesar Problem, originally raised by Frege in §56 of Die Grundlagen der Arithmetik , emerges in the context of the neo-Fregean programme, because, though Hume’s Principle provides a criterion of (...)
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  21. Nikolaj Jang Pedersen (2008). From Metaphysical Pluralism to Alethic Pluralism? Proceedings of the Xxii World Congress of Philosophy 39:201-208.score: 30.0
    Traditional theories of truth – such as the correspondence theory – are monist in character. All propositions, regardless of subject-matter, are true in the same way (if true). Recently, this view has been called into question by alethic pluralists (most notably Crispin Wright and Michael Lynch). According to the pluralist, the nature of truth varies across domains. Pluralists try to motivate their position by appealing to the following principle: for any domains D1 and D2, if the metaphysical constitutions of respectively (...)
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  22. Julie Pedersen (1997). Ronald E. Santoni, Bad Faith, Good Faith, and Authenticity in Sartre's Early Philosophy. Journal of Value Inquiry 31 (3):429-432.score: 30.0
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  23. Jørgen Pedersen (2009). Habermas and the Political Sciences: The Relationship Between Theory and Practice. Philosophy of the Social Sciences 39 (3):381-407.score: 30.0
    Jürgen Habermas’s theories have received enormous attention in the public sphere as well as in political science. It is therefore surprising that his method, rational reconstruction, is not more debated. In political science the method is of particular interest because of its ambition to bridge the gap between empirical and normative approaches. In this article the author traces Habermas’s interest in rational reconstruction by going back to his writings on theory and practice and subsequently shows what the method’s main principles (...)
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  24. Nikolaj Jang Lee Linding Pedersen & Marcus Rossberg (2007). McGee on Open-Ended Schemas. In Helen Bohse & Sven Walter (eds.), Selected Contributions to GAP.6: Sixth International Conference of the German Society for Analytical Philosophy, Berlin, 11–14 September 2006. mentis.score: 30.0
    Vann McGee claims that open-ended schemas are more innocuous than ordinary second-order quantification, particularly in terms of ontological commitment. We argue that this is not the case.
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  25. Nikolaj Jang Lee Linding Pedersen (2012). True Alethic Functionalism? International Journal of Philosophical Studies 20 (1):125-133.score: 30.0
    International Journal of Philosophical Studies, Volume 20, Issue 1, Page 125-133, February 2012.
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  26. Christoph Kelp & Nikolaj Jang Lee Linding Pedersen (2010). Second-Order Knowledge. In D. Pritchard & S. Bernecker (eds.), The Routledge Companion to Epistemology. Routledge.score: 30.0
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  27. Horacio Arlo-Costa & Arthur Paul Pedersen, Social Norms, Rational Choice and Belief Change.score: 30.0
    This article elaborates on foundational issues in the social sciences and their impact on the contemporary theory of belief revision. Recent work in the foundations of economics has focused on the role external social norms play in choice. Amartya Sen has argued in [Sen93] that the traditional rationalizability approach used in the theory of rational choice has serious problems accommodating the role of social norms. Sen's more recent work [Sen96, Sen97] proposes how one might represent social norms in the theory (...)
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  28. Nikolaj Jang Lee Linding Pedersen & Jesper Kallestrup (2013). The Epistemology of Absence-Based Inference. Synthese 190 (13):2573-2593.score: 30.0
    Our main aim in this paper is to contribute towards a better understanding of the epistemology of absence-based inferences. Many absence-based inferences are classified as fallacies. There are exceptions, however. We investigate what features make absence-based inferences epistemically good or reliable. In Section 2 we present Sanford Goldberg’s account of the reliability of absence-based inference, introducing the central notion of epistemic coverage. In Section 3 we approach the idea of epistemic coverage through a comparison of alethic and evidential principles. The (...)
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  29. R. Forde & R. Pedersen (2012). Evaluation of Case Consultations in Clinical Ethics Committees. Clinical Ethics 7 (1):45-50.score: 30.0
    If ethics consultation services influence medical decisions it is important to evaluate how ethical dilemmas are dealt with by clinical ethics committees (CECs). Such evaluation is rare. This study presents a feasible and practical method of evaluating case discussions in CECs and the results emerging from the use of this method. A written presentation of an end-of-life dilemma was sent to all Norwegian ethics committees. The committees were asked to deal with the case as they would do if it was (...)
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  30. Nikolaj Jang Lee Linding Pedersen & Cory D. Wright (2012). Pluralist Theories of Truth. Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.score: 30.0
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  31. Dominick A. Rizzi & Stig Andur Pedersen (1992). Causality in Medicine: Towards a Theory and Terminology. Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 13 (3).score: 30.0
    One of the cornerstones of modern medicine is the search for what causes diseases to develop. A conception of multifactorial disease causes has emerged over the years. Theories of disease causation, however, have not quite been developed in accordance with this view. It is the purpose of this paper to provide a fundamental explication of aspects of causation relevant for discussing causes of disease.The first part of the analysis will discuss discrimination between singular and general causality. Singular causality, as in (...)
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  32. Nikolaj Jang Lee Linding Pedersen (2006). What Can the Problem of Mixed Inferences Teach Us About Alethic Pluralism? The Monist 89 (1):103-117.score: 30.0
    Here is a well-known thought about truth: Truth consists in correspondence with reality. A sentence is true just in case what it says corresponds with how the world is. Theories of truth that incorporate this thought are naturally regarded as robust or “heavyweight”. Truth is to be understood in a realist fashion. The world decides what is true and what is not. A recent incarnation of the correspondence view is found in truth-maker theories, whose adherents maintain that truths are true (...)
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  33. Hans Pedersen (2010). Robert Sokolowski: Phenomenology of the Human Person. [REVIEW] Human Studies 33 (2):347-351.score: 30.0
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  34. Vincent F. Hendricks & Stig Andur Pedersen (2006). Ways of Worlds I-II. Studia Logica 84 (2):167-169.score: 30.0
    'Possible worlds' have been one of the true conundrum notions in philosophy. On the hand possible worlds have proved very useful in philosophical logic for obtaining significant formal results with sunbstantial philosophical import. Yet on the other they have generated much noise and commotion in especially metaphysics and epistemology. From a logical point of view they are useful tools or conceptual constructions, from a philosophical point of view troublesome entitites generating endless discussions.
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  35. Lars Jacob Tynes Pedersen (2009). See No Evil: Moral Sensitivity in the Formulation of Business Problems. Business Ethics 18 (4):335-348.score: 30.0
    This paper explores moral sensitivity in a learning perspective, and a framework is developed for the understanding of how moral sensitivity can be developed through reiterative problem solving in the face of diverse ethical problems. Factors that may inhibit the individual's ability to conceive of moral issues are discussed, and perspectives from moral psychology are integrated with theory on problem formulation. It is argued that (1) the individual's moral sensitivity is pivotal for ethical problem solving, because problem formulation is paramount (...)
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  36. Lynn Carol Miller, William C. Pedersen & Anila Putcha-Bhagavatula (2005). Promiscuity in an Evolved Pair-Bonding System: Mating Within and Outside the Pleistocene Box. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 28 (2):290-291.score: 30.0
    Across mammals, when fathers matter, as they did for hunter-gatherers, sex-similar pair-bonding mechanisms evolve. Attachment fertility theory can explain Schmitt's and other findings as resulting from a system of mechanisms affording pair-bonding in which promiscuous seeking is part. Departures from hunter-gatherer environments (e.g., early menarche, delayed marriage) can alter dating trajectories, thereby impacting mating outside of pair-bonds.
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  37. Arthur Paul Pedersen & Itai Ben Yaacov, A Proof of Completeness for Continuous First-Order Logic.score: 30.0
    Continuous first-order logic has found interest among model theorists who wish to extend the classical analysis of “algebraic” structures (such as fields, group, and graphs) to various natural classes of complete metric structures (such as probability algebras, Hilbert spaces, and Banach spaces). With research in continuous first-order logic preoccupied with studying the model theory of this framework, we find a natural question calls for attention. Is there an interesting set of axioms yielding a completeness result? The primary purpose of this (...)
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  38. Eric R. Pedersen, Clayton Neighbors, Judy Tidwell & Ty W. Lostutter (2011). Do Undergraduate Student Research Participants Read Psychological Research Consent Forms? Examining Memory Effects, Condition Effects, and Individual Differences. Ethics and Behavior 21 (4):332 - 350.score: 30.0
    Although research has examined factors influencing understanding of informed consent in biomedical and forensic research, less is known about participants' attention to details in consent documents in psychological survey research. The present study used a randomized experimental design and found the majority of participants were unable to recall information from the consent form in both in-person and online formats. Participants were also relatively poor at recognizing important aspects of the consent form including risks to participants and confidentiality procedures. Memory effects (...)
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  39. Nikolaj Jang Lee Linding Pedersen (forthcoming). Hume's Principle and Entitlement: On the Epistemology of the Neo-Fregean Programme. In Philip Ebert & Marcus Rossberg (eds.), Abstractionism. Oxford University Press.score: 30.0
  40. Nikolaj Jang Lee Linding Pedersen (2014). Pluralism × 3: Truth, Logic, Metaphysics. Erkenntnis 79 (2):259-277.score: 30.0
    This paper offers a discussion of metaphysical pluralism, alethic pluralism, and logical pluralism. According to the metaphysical pluralist, there are several ways of being. According to the alethic pluralist, there are several ways of being true, and according to the logical pluralist, there are several ways of being valid. Each of these three forms of pluralism will be considered on its own, but the ambition of the paper is to explore possible connections between them. My primary objective is to present (...)
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  41. Vincent Fella Hendricks, Arne Jakobsen & Stig Andur Pedersen (2000). Identification of Matrices in Science and Engineering. Journal for General Philosophy of Science 31 (2):277-305.score: 30.0
    Engineering science is a scientific discipline that from the point of view of epistemology and the philosophy of science has been somewhat neglected. When engineering science was under philosophical scrutiny it often just involved the question of whether engineering is a spin-off of pure and applied science and their methods. We, however, hold that engineering is a science governed by its own epistemology, methodology and ontology. This point is systematically argued by comparing the different sciences with respect to a particular (...)
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  42. Jan Kyrre Berg Olsen Friis, Stig Andur Pedersen & Vincent F. Hendricks (eds.) (2012). A Companion to the Philosophy of Technology. Wiley-Blackwell.score: 30.0
    The essays both represent a variety of epistemological approaches, including those of the humanities, social studies, natural science, sociology, psychology, ...
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  43. Arthur Paul Pedersen & Gregory Wheeler (2013). Demystifying Dilation. Erkenntnis:1-38.score: 30.0
    Dilation occurs when an interval probability estimate of some event E is properly included in the interval probability estimate of E conditional on every event F of some partition, which means that one’s initial estimate of E becomes less precise no matter how an experiment turns out. Critics maintain that dilation is a pathological feature of imprecise probability models, while others have thought the problem is with Bayesian updating. However, two points are often overlooked: (1) knowing that E is stochastically (...)
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  44. Nikolaj Jang Linding Pedersen (2006). What Can the Problem of Mixed Inferences Teach Us About Alethic Pluralism? The Monist 89 (1):102-117.score: 30.0
    Here is a well-known thought about truth: Truth consists in correspondence with reality. A sentence is true just in case what it says corresponds with how the world is. Theories of truth that incorporate this thought are naturally regarded as robust or “heavyweight”. Truth is to be understood in a realist fashion. The world decides what is true and what is not. A recent incarnation of the correspondence view is found in truth-maker theories, whose adherents maintain that truths are true (...)
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  45. Kjell Arne Johansson, Kirsten Bjerkreim Pedersen & Anna-Karin Andersson (2011). Hiv Testing of Pregnant Women: An Ethical Analysis. Developing World Bioethics 11 (3):109-119.score: 30.0
    Recent global advances in available technology to prevent mother-to-child HIV transmission necessitate a rethinking of contemporary and previous ethical debates on HIV testing as a means to preventing vertical transmission. In this paper, we will provide an ethical analysis of HIV-testing strategies of pregnant women. First, we argue that provider-initiated opt-out HIV testing seems to be the most effective HIV test strategy. The flip-side of an opt-out strategy is that it may end up as involuntary testing in a clinical setting. (...)
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  46. Vincent F. Hendricks & Stig Andur Pedersen (2006). Ways of Worlds I–II Two Special Issues on Possible Worlds and Related Notions. Studia Logica 82 (3):301-305.score: 30.0
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  47. Horacio Arló-Costa & Arthur Paul Pedersen (2013). Fast and Frugal Heuristics: Rationality and the Limits of Naturalism. Synthese 190 (5):831-850.score: 30.0
    Gerd Gigerenzer and Thomas Sturm have recently proposed a modest form of what they describe as a normative, ecological and limited naturalism. The basic move in their argument is to infer that certain heuristics we tend to use should be used in the right ecological setting. To address this argument, we first consider the case of a concrete heuristic called Take the Best (TTB). There are at least two variants of the heuristic which we study by making explicit the choice (...)
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  48. Kurt Møller Pedersen (2008). Leonhard Euler's Wave Theory of Light. Perspectives on Science 16 (4):pp. 392-416.score: 30.0
    Euler’s wave theory of light developed from a mere description of this notion based on an analogy between sound and light to a more and more mathematical elaboration on that notion. He was very successful in predicting the shape of achromatic lenses based on a new dispersion law that we now know is wrong. Most of his mathematical arguments were, however, guesswork without any solid physical reasoning. Guesswork is not always a bad thing in physics if it leads to (...)
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  49. Esther Oluffa Pedersen, Claus Festersen, Steen Brock & Stig Andur Pedersen (2011). Preface. Synthese 179 (1):1-5.score: 30.0
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  50. David Budtz Pedersen & Vincent F. Hendricks (forthcoming). Science Bubbles. Philosophy and Technology 45 (3):1-16.score: 30.0
    Much like the trade and traits of bubbles in financial markets, similar bubbles appear on the science market. When economic bubbles burst, the drop in prices causes the crash of unsustainable investments leading to an investor confidence crisis possibly followed by a financial panic. But when bubbles appear in science, truth and reliability are the first victims. This paper explores how fashions in research funding and research management may turn science into something like a bubble economy.
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