This article takes a linguistic perspective of argumentation, as proposed by Marion Carel and Oswald Ducrot with the “Théorie des blocs sémantiques” (SBT: Semantic Block Theory). This theory argues that the meaning of a linguistic entity is determined by a collection of discourses that this entity calls to mind. Describing the meaning of a word, a syntagm or an utterance amounts to specifying the argumentative linkages (“enchaînements argumentatifs”) allowed by these entities. We propose a semantic and argumentative analysis of syntagms (...) mujer fácil , femme facile [easy woman] and hombre fácil , homme facile [easy man] that, in Romance languages in particular, hold different meanings: both hombre fácil/homme facile describe a man’s character or nature, whereas mujer fácil/femme facile, in their most common usage, imply a certain sexual behavior. We will compare the argumentative linkages that make up the meaning of mujer fácil/femme facile with those of other expressions that are part of the same semantic block. Also, this analysis will connect the proposed description to certain proverbial discourse about women, and it will call attention to the role that these expressions can play in a persuasive strategy. (shrink)
Abstract This article has two parts. The first is an explanation of the place of moral education in the history of the Spanish educational system, and the second briefly describes the research work of the Research Group on Moral Education from the University of Barcelona. The particular political and social context in which Spanish education has developed has caused moral education to acquire a special nature that is distinct even from that in other countries in the same geographical area. Moral (...) education in schools was and is constantly infiltrated with sectarian connotations which, in turn, distorted what should have been a matter discussed calmly and rationally in an ethical and pedagogical framework. To defend a model of education of morals and values like that which guides our research and pedagogy, is to defend the coexistence of diverse ideologies and beliefs. Schools cannot fail to offer the moral and ethical education proposed (in our judgement, indispensible in a democratic and pluralistic model of education) to all citizens alike, independent of their own beliefs or ideologies. (shrink)
Summary The aim of this paper is to analyse the scientific relations between Germany and Spain during the Entente Boycott (1919?1926) and the German academic policy that fostered it. The study of the international relations of German science during the 1920s has been carried out using as a basis the archives of scientific institutions. Personal initiatives by individual scientists to establish relations have therefore not been taken into account. The relations between the scientific communities of Germany and Spain during the (...) 1920s indicate the importance of such personal relationships and from their transcendence at a political level. They also offer an example of how political strategies could dictate the politics of academic recognition. This paper is based on the analysis of sources found at the Foreign Office Archives in Berlin. It gives us a clear idea about the role of scientific relationships between the two countries in shaping their scientific policies. (shrink)
During the Cold War, Franco’s dictatorship attempted to use technological transfer and nuclear technology to strengthen the geopolitical influence of his Government in Spain. This paper studies this process, with particular reference to the role played by German scientists as advisers to the Spanish nuclear project.
What new forms of ethical engagement are emerging in naturecultural worlds? In this paper I explore the example of the practical ethics of the permaculture movement. I put these in dialogue first with new approaches to ethics in biopolitics and naturecultures and second with a reading of feminist care ethics. Across this discussion I focus on the potential of ethos transformations experienced through everyday doings to promote ethical obligations of care. If we are living in a naturecultural world where politics (...) and ethics conflate in biopolitics, the permaculture movement is an example of an alter-biopolitical intervention. It works within bios with an ethics of collective empowerment that puts caring at the heart of its search of alternatives for hopeful flourishing for all beings. (shrink)
Feminist analyses of the roles gender has played in art lead to an alternative theory that emphasizes art's complex interactions with culture(s) rather than the autonomy within culture claimed for it by formalism. Focusing on the visual arts, I extrapolate the new theory from feminist research and compare it with formalist precepts. Sharing Arthur Danto's concern that art has been disenfranchised in the twentieth century by its preoccupation with theory, I claim that feminist thought re-enfranchises art by revisioning its relationship (...) to its contexts. (shrink)
: This is a selective annotated bibliography of publications in the area of feminist aesthetics from 1990 to 2003. It is intended to compliment the bibliography presented by Linda Krumholz and Estella Lauter in the Spring 1990 issue of Hypatia.
Les veloppement de la philosophie d'Averrotre mieux dvisions qu'Averrome de ses ouvrages que par l'ordre traditionnel de ses commentaires (courts, moyens, longs ou s, paraphrases, exses); ces res par Averrotapes initiales sont infiuenctations d'Alexandre d'Aphrodise et par Thtapes finales de son loigne de ces auteurs et se rapproche de la pense par la lecture par Averrobut du Livre VIII de la Physique: ls est d'accord avec Aristote dans la premitape de son parcours et s're, puisqu'il croit par la suite que (...) le dessein d'Aristote dans cette partie du livre ternitleste. En ce qui concerne la lecture diffcution qu'Averroes et d'autres philosophes subirent en 1197. II n'affirme plus que la philosophie est la voie pour parvenir à la perfection humaine mais veut settlement exposer clairement la philosophie d'Aristote. (shrink)
Feminism compels us to reconceptualize aesthetic inquiries, as it erases the boundaries between the traditional realm of aesthetics-value judgments and personal pleasures-and the historical and social contexts that generate those judgments and pleasures. In the visual arts section of our annotated bibliography, we try to suggest the breadth of feminist interventions in the field of aesthetics in the past twenty years.
The integration of nanotechnology’s ‘social and ethical issues’ (SEI) at the research and development stage is one of the defining features of nanotechnology governance in the United States. Mandated by law, integration extends the field of nanotechnology to include a role for the “social”, the “public” and the social sciences and humanities in research and development (R&D) practices and agendas. Drawing from interviews with scientists, engineers and policymakers who took part in an oral history of the “Future of Nanotechnology” symposium (...) at the Cornell NanoScale Facility, this article examines how nanotechnology’s ‘social and ethical issues’ are brought to life by these practitioners. From our analysis, three modes of enactment emerge: enacting SEI as obligations and problems-to-be-solved, enacting SEI by ‘not doing it’ in the laboratory, and enacting SEI as part of scientific practice. Together they paint a complex picture where SEI are variously defined, made visible or invisible, included and excluded, with participants showing their skill at both boundary-work (Gieryn Am Sociol Rev 48:781–795, 1983, 1999) and at integration. We conclude by reflecting on what this may mean for the design and implementation of SEI integration policies, suggesting that we need to transform SEI from obligations into ‘matters of care’ (Puig de la Bellacasa Soc Stud Sci 41(1):85–106, 2011) that tend to existing relationalities between science and society and implicate practitioners themselves. (shrink)
Objetivo general: Analizar la evolución del estudio de las necesidades humanas desde los autores clásicos hasta los teóricos actuales. Metodología: Revisión bibliográfica de las necesidades humanas desde distintas perspectivas de las ciencias sociales. Resultados: En las grandes corrientes científicas que teorizan sobre las necesidades humanas, se observan distintas maneras de conceptualizarlas, aunque en su mayoría contemplan las necesidades como constructo social, que puede interpretarse vinculado al momento socio-histórico.
This paper has a double purpose: firstly, to assess the importance of seiðr magic rituals and of its practitioners within the social and mythological framework of Old norse-icelandic Literature. Secondly, by means of the analysis of certain scenes in The Saga of Gísli Súrsson, i aim to demonstrate that the inclusion of magic-religious motifs in the Sagas of icelanders has a triple objective: to provide a model to help understand apparently inexplicable phenomena, to intensify the tragic tone of the plot (...) and finally to depict those involved in the performance of seiðr in a very negative light. (shrink)
La literatura medieval árabe abunda en el género biográfico, aunque éste suele seguir un modelo fijo. Cada personaje, reconocido por su producción literaria o actividad profesional, es registrado. Se nos informa de su familia, de sus maestros y de sus discípulos, de sus cargos, de sus obras, y de la fecha de su muerte. En el presente artículo he utilizado los materales más bien esquemáticos que proporcionan obras de este género y he dibujado el contexto social de Averroes consiguiendo una (...) imagen que ayuda a comprender la falta de continuidad de la escuela de Averroes en el mundo árabe, después de su muerte en 1118. (shrink)
Three main trends of Islamic thought – rational theology, philosophy and Sufism – developed on the Iberian Peninsula during its Arab domination. All three have their origins in the Islamic East and incorporated Jewish thinkers who lived in al-Andalus. The relations among these main trends were often conflictive, but also positive in the case of thinkers who wanted to harmonize philosophy and Sufism (Avempace, Ibn Tufayl) or philosophy and rational theology (Averroes, Maimonides). KEY WORDS – Ibn Masarra. Ibn Hazm. Maslama (...) al-Magritî. Avempace. Ibn Tufayl. Averroes. Maimónides. (shrink)
'Abd Allâh Ibn al-Muqaffa' (724-759) is known mainly as the translator of the Kalila wa-Dimna, a collection of tales, that he translated from Pahlavi (Middle Persian) into Arabic. Ibn al-Muqaffa’ was of Iranian ancestry and was proud of the Sassanian legacy. He was self-confident of the rational primacy of the Zoroastrian religion over the Arabic culture that at that time consisted of the Koran and poetry. In the article I point to the rational values found in the comments of Ibn (...) al-Muqaffaÿ as related to the Zoroastrian legacy. (shrink)
'Abd Allâh Ibn al-Muqaffa' (724-759) es conocido, sobre todo, por su traducción del pahlevi (persa medio) al árabe de la obra Calila y Dimna. Ibn al-Muqaffa' era de origen persa, estaba orgulloso del legado sasánida y era consciente de los valores racionales de la religión zoroastria en unos momentos en que la cultura árabe se limitaba al Corán y a la poesía. En este artículo se señalan unos valores racionales que aparecen en comentarios de Ibn al-Muqaffa' y que son fácilmente (...) identificables con el legado zoroastrio. (shrink)
Sohravardi, Shiháb ad-DínYa~yá Suhrawardi (1155-1191) desarrolló una filosofia basada en el principio simbólico de la luz, y expuesta en su obra Sabiduría de la iluminación, en particular, pero exigió estudiar la filosofia de raíz aviceniana para entenderla. En este trabajo se utilizan en particular dos obras de Sohravardi posteriores a la misma, Las estaciones de los sufles, que como e] título indica es intuitiva, y eJ Libro de los destellos, que es argumentativa y aviceniana, y que él a menudo acusa (...) de "peripatética" para poner de manifiesto cómo para él toda forma de filosofia es inseparable de la aplicación gnóstica. (shrink)