Search results for 'Ethical problems' (try it on Scholar)

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  1.  16
    Fabio Bacchini (2013). Is Nanotechnology Giving Rise to New Ethical Problems? NanoEthics 7 (2):107-119.
    In this paper I focus on the question of whether nanotechnology is giving rise to new ethical problems rather than merely to new instances of old ethical problems. Firstly, I demonstrate how important it is to make a general distinction between new ethical problems and new instances of old problems. Secondly, I propose one possible way of interpreting the distinction and offer a definition of a “new ethical problem”. Thirdly, I examine whether (...)
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  2.  10
    James Jr (2003). On Finding Solutions to Ethical Problems in Agriculture. Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 16 (5):439-457.
    A distinction should be made betweentwo types of ethical problems. A Type I ethicalproblem is one in which there is no consensusas to what is ethical. A Type II ethicalproblem is one in which there is a consensus asto what is ethical, but incentives exist forindividuals to behave unethically. Type Iethical problems are resolved by making,challenging, and reasoning through moralarguments. Type II ethical problems areresolved by changing the institutionalenvironment so that people do not (...)
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  3.  14
    Harvey James (2003). On Finding Solutions to Ethical Problems in Agriculture. Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 16 (5):439-457.
    A distinction should be made betweentwo types of ethical problems. A Type I ethicalproblem is one in which there is no consensusas to what is ethical. A Type II ethicalproblem is one in which there is a consensus asto what is ethical, but incentives exist forindividuals to behave unethically. Type Iethical problems are resolved by making,challenging, and reasoning through moralarguments. Type II ethical problems areresolved by changing the institutionalenvironment so that people do not (...)
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  4.  7
    Harvey S. James (2003). On Finding Solutions to Ethical Problems in Agriculture. Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 16 (5):439-457.
    A distinction should be made betweentwo types of ethical problems. A Type I ethicalproblem is one in which there is no consensusas to what is ethical. A Type II ethicalproblem is one in which there is a consensus asto what is ethical, but incentives exist forindividuals to behave unethically. Type Iethical problems are resolved by making,challenging, and reasoning through moralarguments. Type II ethical problems areresolved by changing the institutionalenvironment so that people do not (...)
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  5.  26
    Don W. Finn, Lawrence B. Chonko & Shelby D. Hunt (1988). Ethical Problems in Public Accounting: The View From the Top. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 7 (8):605 - 615.
    The authors empirically examine the nature and extent of ethical problems confronting senior level AICPA members (CPAs) and examine the effectiveness of partner actions and codes of ethics in reducing ethical problems. The results indicate that the most difficult ethical problems (frequency reported) were: client requests to alter tax returns and commit tax fraud, conflict of interest and independence, client requests to alter financial statements, personal-professional problems, and fee problems. Analysis of attitudes (...)
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  6.  24
    Julia N. Karcher (1996). Auditors' Ability to Discern the Presence of Ethical Problems. Journal of Business Ethics 15 (10):1033 - 1050.
    Recently, society and the accounting profession have become increasingly concerned with ethics. Accounting researchers have responded by attempting to investigate and analyze the ethical behavior of accountants. While the current state of ethical behavior among practitioners is important, the ability of accountants to detect ethical problems that may not be obvious should also be studied and understood. This study addresses three questions: (1) are auditors alert to ethical issues; (2) if so, how important do they (...)
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  7.  9
    Alison L. Antes, Chase E. Thiel, Laura E. Martin, Cheryl K. Stenmark, Shane Connelly, Lynn D. Devenport & Michael D. Mumford (2012). Applying Cases to Solve Ethical Problems: The Significance of Positive and Process-Oriented Reflection. Ethics and Behavior 22 (2):113 - 130.
    This study examined the role of reflection on personal cases for making ethical decisions with regard to new ethical problems. Participants assumed the position of a business manager in a hypothetical organization and solved ethical problems that might be encountered. Prior to making a decision for the business problems, participants reflected on a relevant ethical experience. The findings revealed that application of material garnered from reflection on a personal experience was associated with decisions (...)
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  8.  11
    Ingrid Ågren Bolmsjö, Anna-Karin Edberg & Lars Sandman (2006). Everyday Ethical Problems in Dementia Care: A Teleological Model. Nursing Ethics 13 (4):340-359.
    In this article, a teleological model for analysis of everyday ethical situations in dementia care is used to analyse and clarify perennial ethical problems in nursing home care for persons with dementia. This is done with the aim of describing how such a model could be useful in a concrete care context. The model was developed by Sandman and is based on four aspects: the goal; ethical side-constraints to what can be done to realize such a (...)
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  9.  5
    M. Svantesson, R. Lofmark, H. Thorsen, K. Kallenberg & G. Ahlstrom (2008). Learning a Way Through Ethical Problems: Swedish Nurses' and Doctors' Experiences From One Model of Ethics Rounds. Journal of Medical Ethics 34 (5):399-406.
    Objective: To evaluate one ethics rounds model by describing nurses’ and doctors’ experiences of the rounds. Methods: Philosopher-ethicist-led interprofessional team ethics rounds concerning dialysis patient care problems were applied at three Swedish hospitals. The philosophers were instructed to promote mutual understanding and stimulate ethical reflection, without giving any recommendations or solutions. Interviews with seven doctors and 11 nurses were conducted regarding their experiences from the rounds, which were then analysed using content analysis. Findings: The goal of the rounds (...)
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  10.  39
    Kynn K. Bartels, Edward Harrick, Kathryn Martell & Donald Strickland (1998). The Relationship Between Ethical Climate and Ethical Problems Within Human Resource Management. Journal of Business Ethics 17 (7):799-804.
    The study examines the relationship between the strength of an organizationÕs ethical climate and ethical problems involving human resource management. Data were collected through a survey of 1078 human resource managers. The results indicate a statistically significant negative relationship between the strength of an organization'ss ethical climate and the seriousness of ethical violations and a statistically significant positive relationship between an organization'ss ethical climate and success in responding to ethical issues. Thus, interventions that (...)
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  11. L. K. Battels, E. Harrick, K. Martell & D. Strickland (1998). The Relationship Between Ethical Climate and Ethical Problems with Human Resource Management. Journal of Business Ethics 17 (7):799-804.
    The study examines the relationship between the strength of an organization's ethical climate and ethical problems involving human resource management. Data were collected through a survey of 1078 human resource managers. The results indicate a statistically significant negative relationship between the strength of an organization's ethical climate and the seriousness of ethical violations and a statistically significant positive relationship between an organization's ethical climate and success in responding to ethical issues. Thus, interventions that (...)
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  12.  14
    Anji Wall (2011). The Context of Ethical Problems in Medical Volunteer Work. HEC Forum 23 (2):79-90.
    Ethical problems are common in clinical medicine, so medical volunteers who practice clinical medicine in developing countries should expect to encounter them just as they would in their practice in the developed world. However, as this article argues, medical volunteers in developing countries should not expect to encounter the same ethical problems as those that dominate Western biomedicine or to address ethical problems in the same way as they do in their practice in developed (...)
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  13.  10
    Elina Aitamaa, Helena Leino-Kilpi, Pauli Puukka & Riitta Suhonen (2010). Ethical Problems in Nursing Management: The Role of Codes of Ethics. Nursing Ethics 17 (4):469-482.
    The aim of this study was to identify the ethical problems that nurse managers encounter in their work and the role of codes of ethics in the solutions to these difficulties. The data were collected using a structured questionnaire and analysed statistically. The target sample included all nurse managers in 21 specialized health care or primary health care organizations in two hospital districts in Finland (N = 501; response rate 41%). The most common ethical problems concerned (...)
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  14.  61
    A. J. Braunack-Mayer (2001). What Makes a Problem an Ethical Problem? An Empirical Perspective on the Nature of Ethical Problems in General Practice. Journal of Medical Ethics 27 (2):98-103.
    Next SectionWhilst there has been considerable debate about the fit between moral theory and moral reasoning in everyday life, the way in which moral problems are defined has rarely been questioned. This paper presents a qualitative analysis of interviews conducted with 15 general practitioners (GPs) in South Australia to argue that the way in which the bioethics literature defines an ethical dilemma captures only some of the range of lay views about the nature of ethical problems. (...)
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  15.  11
    David B. Resnik, Christina Gutierrez-Ford & Shyamal Peddada (2008). Perceptions of Ethical Problems with Scientific Journal Peer Review: An Exploratory Study. Science and Engineering Ethics 14 (3):305-310.
    This article reports the results of an anonymous survey of researchers at a government research institution concerning their perceptions about ethical problems with journal peer review. Incompetent review was the most common ethical problem reported by the respondents, with 61.8% (SE = 3.3%) claiming to have experienced this at some point during peer review. Bias (50.5%, SE = 3.4%) was the next most common problem. About 22.7% (SE = 2.8%) of respondents said that a reviewer had required (...)
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  16.  13
    Nesrin Çobanoğlu & Lale Algıer (2004). A Qualitative Analysis of Ethical Problems Experienced by Physicians and Nurses in Intensive Care Units in Turkey. Nursing Ethics 11 (5):444-458.
    In this qualitative study, we aimed to identify and compare the ethical problems perceived by physicians and nurses in intensive care units at Baskent University hospitals in Turkey. A total of 21 physicians and 22 nurses were asked to describe ethical problems that they frequently encounter in their practice. The data were analyzed using an interactive model. The core problem for both physicians and nurses was end-of-life decisions (first level). In this category, physicians were most frequently (...)
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  17.  2
    Marjorie A. Schaffer (2007). Ethical Problems in End-of-Life Decisions for Elderly Norwegians. Nursing Ethics 14 (2):242-257.
    Norwegian health professionals, elderly people and family members experience ethical problems involving end-of-life decision making for elders in the context of the values of Norwegian society. This study used ethical inquiry and qualitative methodology to conduct and analyze interviews carried out with 25 health professionals, six elderly people and five family members about the ethical problems they encountered in end-of-life decision making in Norway. All three participant groups experienced ethical problems involving the adequacy (...)
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  18.  39
    Guillermo Foladori, Noela Invernizzi & Edgar Záyago (2009). Two Dimensions of the Ethical Problems Related to Nanotechnology. NanoEthics 3 (2):121-127.
    The current literature on nanoethics focuses on a wide array of topics such as equity, privacy, military, environment, human enhancement, intellectual property, and security. The identification of those topics leads to the adoption of an ethical stance, which we call the in itself dimension . In this article we argue that even though it is correct to identify the areas where ethical problems are imperative to deal with ( in itself dimension ), it is a partial approach. (...)
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  19.  9
    Fethiye Erdil & Fatoş Korkmaz (2009). Ethical Problems Observed By Student Nurses. Nursing Ethics 16 (5):589-598.
    This descriptive study was conducted to determine nursing students’ observation of ethical problems encountered in their clinical practice. Data were collected through a questionnaire from 153 volunteer nursing students at a university-based nursing school in Ankara, Turkey. The students reported that some patients are either physically or psychologically mistreated by doctors and nurses; they were not given appropriate information; they were subjected to discrimination according to their socio-economic situation; and their privacy was ignored. The findings reveal that nurses’ (...)
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  20.  85
    Clayton E. Cramer (1994). Ethical Problems of Mass Murder Coverage in the Mass Media. Journal of Mass Media Ethics 9 (1):26 – 42.
    This article analyzes news coverage of mass murders in Time and Newsweek for the period 1984 to 1991 for evidence of disproportionate, perhaps politically motivated coverage of certain categories of mass murder. Discusses ethical problems related to news and entertainment attention to mass murder, and suggests methods of enhancing the public's understanding of the nature of murder.
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  21.  27
    Francois Venter, Lucy Allais & Marlise Richter (2014). Exposure Ethics: Does Hiv Pre‐Exposure Prophylaxis Raise Ethical Problems for the Health Care Provider and Policy Maker? Bioethics 28 (6):269-274.
    The last few years have seen dramatic progress in the development of HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP). These developments have been met by ethical concerns. HIV interventions are often thought to be ethically difficult. In a context which includes disagreements over human rights, controversies over testing policies, and questions about sexual morality and individual responsibility, PrEP has been seen as an ethically complex intervention. We argue that this is mistaken, and that in fact, PrEP does not raise new ethical (...)
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  22.  2
    Hyeoun-Ae Park, Miriam E. Cameron, Sung-Suk Han, Sung-Hee Ahn, Hyo-Sook Oh & Kyeong-Uoon Kim (2003). Korean Nursing Students' Ethical Problems and Ethical Decision Making. Nursing Ethics 10 (6):638-653.
    This Korean study replicated a previously published American study. The conceptual framework and method combined ethical enquiry and phenomenology. The research questions were: (1) What is nursing students’ experience of ethical problems involving nursing practice? and, (2) What is nursing students’ experience of using an ethical decision-making model? The participants were 97 senior baccalaureate nursing students, each of whom described one ethical problem and chose to use one of five ethical decision-making models. From 97 (...)
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  23.  11
    Miriam E. Cameron, Marjorie Schaffer & Hyeoun-Ae Park (2001). Nursing Students' Experience of Ethical Problems and Use of Ethical Decision-Making Models. Nursing Ethics 8 (5):432-447.
    Using a conceptual framework and method combining ethical enquiry and phenomenology, we asked 73 senior baccalaureate nursing students to answer two questions: (1) What is nursing students’ experience of an ethical problem involving nursing practice? and (2) What is nursing students’ experience of using an ethical decision-making model? Each student described one ethical problem, from which emerged five content categories, the largest being that involving health professionals (44%). The basic nature of the ethical problems (...)
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  24.  11
    Miriam E. Cameron (2002). Older Persons' Ethical Problems Involving Their Health. Nursing Ethics 9 (5):537-556.
    Although older persons (aged 65 years and older) experience stressful ethical problems involving their health, research is lacking about this phenomenon. The purpose of this study was to describe and examine the content and basic nature of older persons’ ethical problems concerning their health. The conceptual framework and method combined ethical enquiry and phenomenology. The participants were 18 older persons and 12 of their children or grandchildren (for contextual understanding). The 19 women and 11 men, (...)
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  25.  3
    Anke Oerlemans, Nelleke van Sluisveld, Eric van Leeuwen, Hub Wollersheim, Wim Dekkers & Marieke Zegers (2015). Ethical Problems in Intensive Care Unit Admission and Discharge Decisions: A Qualitative Study Among Physicians and Nurses in the Netherlands. BMC Medical Ethics 16 (1):9.
    There have been few empirical studies into what non-medical factors influence physicians and nurses when deciding about admission and discharge of ICU patients. Information about the attitudes of healthcare professionals about this process can be used to improve decision-making about resource allocation in intensive care. To provide insight into ethical problems that influence the ICU admission and discharge process, we aimed to identify and explore ethical dilemmas healthcare professionals are faced with.
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  26.  9
    K. Kulju, R. Suhonen & H. Leino-Kilpi (2013). Ethical Problems and Moral Sensitivity in Physiotherapy A Descriptive Study. Nursing Ethics 20 (5):568-577.
    This study identified and described ethical problems encountered by physiotherapists in their practice and physiotherapists’ moral sensitivity in ethical situations. A questionnaire-based survey was constructed to identify ethical problems, and the Moral Sensitivity Questionnaire Revised version was used to measure moral sensitivity. Physiotherapists (n = 116) working in public health services responded to the questionnaire. Based on the results, most of the physiotherapists encounter ethical problems weekly. They concern mainly financial considerations, equality and (...)
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  27.  13
    Jucelia Guedert & Suely Grosseman (2012). Ethical Problems in Pediatrics: What Does the Setting of Care and Education Show Us? [REVIEW] BMC Medical Ethics 13 (1):2-.
    Background: Pediatrics ethics education should enhance medical students' skills to deal with ethical problems that may arise in the different settings of care. This study aimed to analyze the ethical problems experienced by physicians who have medical education and pediatric care responsibilities, and if those problems are associated to their workplace, medical specialty and area of clinical practice. Methods: A self-applied semi-structured questionnaire was answered by 88 physicians with teaching and pediatric care responsibilities. Content analysis (...)
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  28.  21
    Peter Øhrstrøm & Johan Dyhrberg (2007). Ethical Problems Inherent in Psychological Research Based on Internet Communication as Stored Information. Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 28 (3):221-241.
    This paper deals with certain ethical problems inherent in psychological research based on internet communication as stored information. Section 1 contains an analysis of research on Internet debates. In particular, it takes into account a famous example of deception for psychology research purposes. In section 2, the focus is on research on personal data in texts published on the Internet. Section 3 includes an attempt to formulate some ethical principles and guidelines, which should be regarded as fundamental (...)
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  29.  9
    A. Rejno, L. Berg & E. Danielson (2012). Ethical Problems: In the Face of Sudden and Unexpected Death. Nursing Ethics 19 (5):642-653.
    When people die suddenly and unexpectedly ethical issues often come to the fore. The aim of the study was to describe experiences of members of stroke teams in stroke units of ethical problems and how the teams manage the situation when caring for patients faced with sudden and unexpected death from stroke. Data were collected through four focus group interviews with 19 team members in stroke-unit teams, and analysed using interpretive content analysis. Three themes emerged from the (...)
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  30.  13
    Patrick O'Neill & Riley Hern (1991). A Systems Approach to Ethical Problems. Ethics and Behavior 1 (2):129 – 143.
    Codes of professional ethics and cases designed to teach ethical decision making are written for individual professionals and ignore the systems level of analysis. They typically employ a lineal view of causality and overvalue placement of blame as a component of ethical problem solving. This article takes a systems approach to ethical problems and identifies aspects of systems that promote or impede ethical decision making. Psychological abuse of children is used as an example of a (...)
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  31.  8
    E. M. Solum, V. M. Maluwa & E. Severinsson (2012). Ethical Problems in Practice as Experienced by Malawian Student Nurses. Nursing Ethics 19 (1):128-138.
    Student nurses are confronted by many ethical challenges in clinical practice. The aim of the study was to explore Malawian students’ experiences of ethical problems during their clinical placement. A phenomenological hermeneutic design comprising interviews and qualitative content analysis was used. Ten students were interviewed. Three main themes emerged: 1) Conflict between patient rights and the guardians’ presence in the hospital; 2) Conflict between violation of professional values and patient rights caused by unethical behaviour; and 3) Conflict (...)
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  32.  10
    Sandra Scarr (1994). Ethical Problems in Research on Risky Behaviors and Risky Populations. Ethics and Behavior 4 (2):147 – 155.
    The articles by Brooks-Gum, Fisher, Hoagwood, Liss, and Scott-Jones (all this issue) present a panoply of real-world ethical issues in conducting scientific research on risky behaviors of children, adolescents, and their parents, particularly those from vulnerable populations. The universal, ethical principles of beneficence, justice, and respect for others are always applicable, but they do not resolve issues of child assent, parental consent, legal reporting requirements for illegal behaviors, and the special problems of studying risky behaviors in risky (...)
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  33.  2
    Åsa Rejnö, Ella Danielson & Linda Berg (2013). Strategies for Handling Ethical Problems in Sudden and Unexpected Death. Nursing Ethics 20 (6):0969733012473770.
    How ethical praxis is shaped by different contexts and situations has not been widely studied. We performed a follow-up study on stroke team members’ experiences of ethical problems and how the teams managed the situation when caring for patients faced with sudden and unexpected death from stroke. A number of ways for handling ethical problems emerged, which we have now explored further. Data were collected through a three-part form used as base for individual interviews with (...)
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  34.  5
    V. Bankauskaite (2006). Dealing with Ethical Problems in the Healthcare System in Lithuania: Achievements and Challenges. Journal of Medical Ethics 32 (10):584-587.
    Ethical problems in healthcare in Lithuania are identified, existing mechanisms that deal with them are analysed and policy implications are discussed. At least three groups of ethical problems exist in the Lithuanian healthcare system: problems in the healthcare reform process, in interprofessional interaction and in doctor–patient relationships. During the past 15 years, several diverse legal, political and administrative mechanisms have been implemented in Lithuania to tackle these problems. Despite major achievements, numerous problems persist, (...)
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  35. Howard J. Curzer (1999). Ethical Theory and Moral Problems. Monograph Collection (Matt - Pseudo).
     
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  36. Stanistaw Mossakowski (2005). The Pursuit of the History of Art: Ethical Problems. In Mariusz M. Żydowo (ed.), Ethical Problems in the Rapid Advancement of Science. Polish Academy of Sciences 114.
     
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  37.  2
    Marc Germond (1998). Ethical Problems in Medically Assisted Procreation. Ethik in der Medizin 10 (1):34-45.
    The risks associated with the techniques of medically assisted procreation (MAP) rapidly became well-known, and in such a short space of time that no biomedical domain remained untouched by the great deal of thinking and the expression of a multitude of opinions it provoked. MAP is evolving between two poles: quality/misuse (even violation) and evidence/fantasy. The ethics will be evoked in the clinical reality from which they spring and where their justification lies. The three objects common to these ethics, the (...)
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  38.  44
    Aviva Geva (2006). A Typology of Moral Problems in Business: A Framework for Ethical Management. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 69 (2):133 - 147.
    This paper develops a typology of moral problems in business. The cross-classification of two fundamental dimensions of ethical conduct: judgment and motivation, is employed to distinguish four types of moral problems: genuine dilemmas, compliance problems, moral laxity, and no-problem problems. Actual cases are brought to illustrate each type of problem, and corresponding coping strategies are presented. The paper highlights the need to design a dynamic strategy that will take into account the relationships among different types (...)
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  39. Robert W. Armstrong (1996). The Relationship Between Culture and Perception of Ethical Problems in International Marketing. Journal of Business Ethics 15 (11):1199 - 1208.
    This research study sought to identify whether there is a relationship between ethical perceptions and culture. An examination of the cultural variables suggests that there is a relationship between two of Hofstede's cultural dimensions (i.e., Uncertainty Avoidance and Individualism) and ethical perceptions. This finding supports the hypothetical linkage between the cultural environment and the perceived ethical problem variables posited in Hunt and Vitell's General Theory of Marketing Ethics (1986).
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  40. Mariusz M. Żydowo (ed.) (2005). Ethical Problems in the Rapid Advancement of Science. Polish Academy of Sciences.
     
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  41.  13
    Scott J. Vitell, Erin Baca Dickerson & Troy A. Festervand (2000). Ethical Problems, Conflicts and Beliefs of Small Business Professionals. Journal of Business Ethics 28 (1):15 - 24.
    This paper presents the results of a national study of the beliefs and perceptions of small business professionals concerning ethics within their company and business in general. The study examined their views on the relationship between success and ethical conduct as well as the extent and nature of ethical conflicts experienced by the respondents. Some comparisons are made with similar studies that have been conducted in the past. Respondents have the most ethical conflicts with customers and employees, (...)
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  42.  52
    Kimball P. Marshall (1999). Has Technology Introduced New Ethical Problems? Journal of Business Ethics 19 (1):81 - 90.
    Drawing on William F. Ogburn's cultural lag thesis, an inherent conflict is proposed between the rapid speed of modern technological advances and the slower speed by which ethical guidelines for utilization of new technologies are developed. Ogburn's cultural lag thesis proposes that material culture advances more rapidly than non-material culture. Technology is viewed as part of material culture and ethical guidelines for technology utilization are viewed as an adaptive aspect of non-material culture. Cultural lag is seen as a (...)
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  43.  30
    Maureen Miner & Agnes Petocz (2003). Moral Theory in Ethical Decision Making: Problems, Clarifications and Recommendations From a Psychological Perspective. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 42 (1):11-25.
    Psychological theory and research in ethical decision making and ethical professional practice are presently hampered by a failure to take appropriate account of an extensive background in moral philosophy. As a result, attempts to develop models of ethical decision making are left vulnerable to a number of criticisms: that they neglect the problems of meta-ethics and the variety of meta-ethical perspectives; that they fail clearly and consistently to differentiate between descriptive and prescriptive accounts; that they (...)
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  44.  1
    Donald A. Brown & Tim Weiskel (2002). American Heat: Ethical Problems with the United States' Response to Global Warming. Rowman & Littlefield Publishers.
    In American Heat, Donald Brown critically analyzes the U.S. response to global warming, inviting readers to examine the implicit morality of the U.S position, and ultimately to help lead the world toward an equitable sharing of the burdens and benefits of protecting the global environment. In short, Brown argues that an ethical focus on global environmental matters is the key to achieving a globally acceptable solution.
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  45.  66
    Walter Maner (1996). Unique Ethical Problems in Information Technology. Science and Engineering Ethics 2 (2):137-154.
    A distinction is made between moral indoctrination and instruction in ethics. It is argued that the legitimate and important field of computer ethics should not be permitted to become mere moral indoctrination. Computer ethics is an academic field in its own right with unique ethical issues that would not have existed if computer technology had not been invented. Several example issues are presented to illustrate this point. The failure to find satisfactory non-computer analogies testifies to the uniqueness of computer (...)
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  46. Margaret J. Haefner (1991). Ethical Problems of Advertising to Children. Journal of Mass Media Ethics 6 (2):83 – 92.
    Children are considered by many one of the most vulnerable of all media audiences. After a discussion of the uniqueness of child audiences and commercials' effects on them, this article addresses the values of advertisers who purposely and inadvertently reach children with their messages. Three ethical theories are presented for use in recognizing the special consideration necessary for child audiences. Finally, a model proposed by Robin and Reidenbach (1987) is presented as a means of introducing ethical values and (...)
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  47.  12
    E. Ernst (2004). Ethical Problems Arising in Evidence Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine. Journal of Medical Ethics 30 (2):156-159.
    Complementary and alternative medicine has become an important section of healthcare. Its high level of acceptance among the general population represents a challenge to healthcare professionals of all disciplines and raises a host of ethical issues. This article is an attempt to explore some of the more obvious or practical ethical aspects of complementary and alternative medicine.
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  48.  25
    Jeanette Jaussaud Arbuthnot (1997). Identifying Ethical Problems Confronting Small Retail Buyers During the Merchandise Buying Process. Journal of Business Ethics 16 (7):745-755.
    This research was designed to develop an inventory of vendor-related problems experienced by buyers for small retail apparel stores during the merchandise buying process, determine how frequently each difficulty occurs, and identify the experiences perceived to be unethical. Among the 22 vendor-related difficulties examined minimum order requirements, 6 month advance purchase, incomplete orders, late shipments, and shipping overcharges were identified most frequently. Analysis of results suggested that one factor, misleading vendor practices, and eight background variables (annual sales, price line, (...)
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  49.  13
    J.-E. S. Hansen (2002). Embryonic Stem Cell Production Through Therapeutic Cloning has Fewer Ethical Problems Than Stem Cell Harvest From Surplus IVF Embryos. Journal of Medical Ethics 28 (2):86-88.
    Restrictions on research on therapeutic cloning are questionable as they inhibit the development of a technique which holds promise for succesful application of pluripotent stem cells in clinical treatment of severe diseases. It is argued in this article that the ethical concerns are less problematic using therapeutic cloning compared with using fertilised eggs as the source for stem cells. The moral status of an enucleated egg cell transplanted with a somatic cell nucleus is found to be more clearly not (...)
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    M. D. D. Bell (2003). Non-Heart Beating Organ Donation: Old Procurement Strategy--New Ethical Problems. Journal of Medical Ethics 29 (3):176-181.
    The imbalance between supply of organs for transplantation and demand for them is widening. Although the current international drive to re-establish procurement via non-heart beating organ donation/donor is founded therefore on necessity, the process may constitute a desirable outcome for patient and family when progression to brain stem death does not occur and conventional organ retrieval from the beating heart donor is thereby prevented. The literature accounts of this practice, however, raise concerns that risk jeopardising professional and public confidence in (...)
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