Search results for 'Ethical relativism' (try it on Scholar)

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  1. Saral Jhingran (2001). Ethical Relativism and Universalism. Motilal Banarsidass Publishers.score: 90.0
    Machine generated contents note: CHAPTER 1. Cultural and Ethical Relativism -- I. Cultural Relativism -- II. Approval Theories -- III. Ethical Relativism -- IV. Institutionalism and Ethical Relationism -- CHAPTER 2. Positivism, Postmodernism and Ethical -- Relativism -- I. Metaethical Theories -- II. Positivism and Ethics -- III. Postmoder Cognitive Relativism -- IV Ethical Relativism -- CHAPTER 3. Cultural-Ethical Relativism: A Critique -- I. The Limited Validity of (...)
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  2. John Ladd (1973). Ethical Relativism. Belmont, Calif.,Wadsworth Pub. Co..score: 90.0
    Herodotus. Custom is king.--Engels, F. Ethics and law: eternal truths.--Sumner, W. G. Folkways.--Ross, W. D. The meaning of right.--Duncker, K. Ethical relativity?--Herskovits, M. J. Cultural relativism and cultural values.--Kluckhohn, C. Ethical relativity: sic et non.--Taylor, P. W. Social science and ethical relativism.--Ladd, J. The issue of relativism.--Redfield, R. The universally human and the culturally variable.--Bibliography (p. 145-146).
     
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  3. Mohammad A. Shomali (2001). Ethical Relativism: An Analysis of the Foundations of Morality. Distributed by Saqi Books.score: 90.0
    The issue of relativism has recently become a vital concern in sociology and politics, along with globalization. This book studies ethical relativism in its most profound and recent forms, and argues that a non-relativist account of morality is capable of validating our moral experiences without undesirable implications. Ethical Relativism brings a fresh-perspective to the on-going debate on post-modernism and relativism, and should be of interest to all who study philosophy, theology, and cultural studies, and (...)
     
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  4. Michael Brannigan (2000). Cultural Diversity and the Case Against Ethical Relativism. Health Care Analysis 8 (3):321-327.score: 84.0
    The movement to respect culturaldiversity, known as multiculturalism, poses a dauntingchallenge to healthcare ethics. Can we construct adefensible passage from the fact of culturaldifferences to any claims regarding morality? Or doesmulticulturalism lead to ethical relativism? Macklinargues that, in view of a leading distinction betweenuniversalism in ethics and moral absolutism, the onlyreasonable passage avoids both absolutism andrelativism. She presents a strong case againstethical relativism and its pernicious consequences forcross-cultural issues in healthcare. She alsoprovides sound criteria for the assessment (...)
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  5. Ruth Macklin (1999). Against Relativism: Cultural Diversity and the Search for Ethical Universals in Medicine. Oxford University Press.score: 78.0
    This book provides an analysis of the debate surrounding cultural diversity, and attempts to reconcile the seemingly opposing views of "ethical imperialism," the belief that each individual is entitled to fundamental human rights, and cultural relativism, the belief that ethics must be relative to particular cultures and societies. The author examines the role of cultural tradition, often used as a defense against critical ethical judgments. Key issues in health and medicine are explored in the context of cultural (...)
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  6. James Charles Finlay (1952). Some Social and Political Implications of Ethical Relativism. Washington.score: 75.0
  7. M. O. Maduagwu (1987). Ethical Relativism Versus Human Rights. Third World Centre.score: 75.0
     
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  8. Sergio Filippo Magni (2010). Understanding Ethical Relativism. Rivista di Filosofia 101 (2):165-186.score: 75.0
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  9. Merrilee H. Salmon (1999). Relativist Ethics, Scientific Objectivity, and Concern for Human Rights. Science and Engineering Ethics 5 (3):311-318.score: 64.0
    This paper comments on the conflict between ethical relativism and anthropologists’ concerns with rights, and tries to show that neither scientific objectivity nor respect for cultural diversity require denying an extracultural stance for ethical judgments.
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  10. David Lyons (1976). Ethical Relativism and the Problem of Incoherence. Ethics 86 (2):107-121.score: 61.0
    Some forms of ethical relativism seem to endorse strict contradictions. Various forms of relativism are distinguished, And their vulnerability to such charges compared. Means of avoiding incoherence are considered. Relativistic justification seems either innocuous but nonrelativistic or else unintelligible. Relativistic analyses of moral judgments are implausible and seem required for no other purpose than to avoid charges of incoherence.
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  11. Judith Wagner DeCew (1990). Moral Conflicts and Ethical Relativism. Ethics 101 (1):27-41.score: 61.0
    The article focuses on the study on moral conflicts and ethical relativism. There are few theories in the history ethics that stated that a moral dilemma can not be adhered by to moral requirements. According to philosophy professor David Wong, occurrence of irresolvable moral disagreement is one of the normative problems. On the other hand, the author asserted that single-agent moral conflicts do not necessarily fall under the relativism theory.
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  12. Hugh LaFollette (1991). The Truth in Ethical Relativism. Journal of Social Philosophy 22 (1):146-154.score: 60.0
    Ethical relativism is the thesis that ethical principles or judgments are relative to the individual or culture. When stated so vaguely relativism is embraced by numerous lay persons and a sizeable contingent of philosophers. Other philosophers, however, find the thesis patently false, even wonder how anyone could seriously entertain it. Both factions are on to something, yet both miss something significant as well. Those who whole-heartedly embrace relativism note salient respects in which ethics is relative, (...)
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  13. Simon Kirchin (2000). Quasi-Realism, Sensibility Theory, and Ethical Relativism. Inquiry 43 (4):413 – 427.score: 60.0
    This paper is a reply to Simon Blackburn's 'Is Objective Moral Justification Possible on a Quasi-realist Foundation?' Inquiry 42 (1999), pp. 213-28. Blackburn attempts to show how his version of non-cognitivism - quasi-realist projectivism - can evade the threat of ethical relativism, the thought that all ways of living are as ethically good as each other and every ethical judgment is as ethically true as any other. He further attempts to show that his position is superior (...)
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  14. J. Kellenberger (1979). Ethical Relativism. Journal of Value Inquiry 13 (1):1-20.score: 60.0
    Two forms of ethical relativism are examined: a societal form (ser) and an individual form (ier). The thesis of ier is elaborated, What seems to be the strongest argument for it is analysed, And a number of implications of ier are made explicit. The same three things are then done for ser. The strongest argument for ser reasons from descriptive relativism to ser. It is usually recognized that such premises do not establish such a conclusion. But, In (...)
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  15. Loretta M. Kopelman (2005). The Incompatibility of the United Nations' Goals and Conventionalist Ethical Relativism. Developing World Bioethics 5 (3):234-243.score: 57.0
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  16. Ruth Macklin (1998). Ethical Relativism in a Multicultural Society. Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal 8 (1):1-22.score: 49.0
    : The multicultural composition of the United States can pose problems for physicians and patients who come from diverse backgrounds. Although respect for cultural diversity mandates tolerance of the beliefs and practices of others, in some situations excessive tolerance can produce harm to patients. Careful analysis is needed to determine which values are culturally relative and which rest on an underlying universal ethical principle. A conception of justice as equality challenges the notion that it is always necessary to respect (...)
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  17. Mohammed Abdur Razzaque & Tan Piak Hwee (2002). Ethics and Purchasing Dilemma: A Singaporean View. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 35 (4):307 - 326.score: 49.0
    Emergence of purchasing as a strategic function has not only broadened the scope of purchasing, it has also changed the responsibilities of the purchasing managers by empowering them to spend large sums of money in procuring goods and services. However, this has also presented them with an array of ethical dilemmas involving questionable purchasing practices. This study proposes a framework to examine ethicality of decision making when faced with such dilemmas and presents the results of a survey conducted to (...)
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  18. Jeffrey Spike (2000). Against Relativism: Cultural Diversity and the Search for Ethical Universals in Medicine, by Ruth Macklin. New York: Oxford University Press, 1999. 304 Pp. [REVIEW] Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 9 (4):577-579.score: 49.0
    Ruth Macklin's new book, AgainstRelativism, says in its subtitle that it intends to address cultural diversity and the search for ethical universals in medicine. This it does very well. Every chapter includes some discussion of cultural relativism, cultural anthropology, or postmodernism, and her analyses are acute and scathing. Macklin is unabashed in her defense of the principles of medical ethics, and she gives a strong argument that principles are essential elements of any ethical system that is to (...)
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  19. John Tsalikis, Bruce Seaton & Philip L. Shepherd (2001). Relativism in Ethical Research: A Proposed Model and Mode of Inquiry. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 32 (3):231 - 246.score: 49.0
    While some of the great thinkers (Socrates, Kant) have argued for an absolutist view of ethical behavior, over the past 250 years the relativist view has become ascendant. Following the contingency framework of Ferrell and Gresham (1985) and the issue contingent model of Jones (1991), a model for ethical research is proposed. The key components include the moral agent/transgressor, the issue type and its intensity, and the nature of the victim. In addition, a statistical methodology, namely conjoint analysis, (...)
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  20. B. C. Postow (1978). Ethical Relativism and the Ideal Observer. Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 39 (1):120-121.score: 48.0
    I show that roderick firth's ideal observer theory contains a loophole which allows conflicting ethical statements to be true. To remedy this, I recommend that we add to the list of defining characteristics of an ideal observer, The requirement that he be unable to have obligation-Determining reactions toward acts which he knows to be incompatible.
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  21. Janet Marta, Christina M. Heiss & Steven A. De Lurgio (2008). An Exploratory Comparison of Ethical Perceptions of Mexican and U.S. Marketers. Journal of Business Ethics 82 (3):539 - 555.score: 48.0
    This is a study of the effects of a number of background variables on ethical perceptions of Mexican and U.S. marketers. This research investigates how a marketer’s personal religiousness, relativism, and the ethical values influence in perceptions of the degree of ethical problems in hypothetical marketing scenarios. It also examines differences between Mexican and U.S. marketers on these variables. The results show significant differences in perception between the countries, and we discuss the implications of these differences (...)
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  22. Jim Mackenzie (2007). A Reply on Behalf of the Relativist to Mark Mason's Justification of Universal Ethical Principles. Educational Philosophy and Theory 39 (6):657–675.score: 48.0
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  23. David Lyons (2001). 1O Ethical Relativism and the Problem of Incoherence. In Paul K. Moser & Thomas L. Carson (eds.), Moral Relativism: A Reader. Oxford University Press. 127.score: 48.0
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  24. Shia Moser (1968). Absolutism and Relativism in Ethics. Springfield, Ill.,Thomas.score: 48.0
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  25. Charles Ess (2008). Luciano Floridi's Philosophy of Information and Information Ethics: Critical Reflections and the State of the Art. [REVIEW] Ethics and Information Technology 10 (2-3):89-96.score: 46.0
    I describe the emergence of Floridi’s philosophy of information (PI) and information ethics (IE) against the larger backdrop of Information and Computer Ethics (ICE). Among their many strengths, PI and IE offer promising metaphysical and ethical frameworks for a global ICE that holds together globally shared norms with the irreducible differences that define local cultural and ethical traditions. I then review the major defenses and critiques of PI and IE offered by contributors to this special issue, and highlight (...)
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  26. Christine A. Henle, Robert A. Giacalone & Carole L. Jurkiewicz (2005). The Role of Ethical Ideology in Workplace Deviance. Journal of Business Ethics 56 (3):219 - 230.score: 46.0
    Ethical ideology is predicted to play a role in the occurrence of workplace deviance. Forsyths (1980) Ethics Position Questionnaire measures two dimensions of ethical ideology: idealism and relativism. It is hypothesized that idealism will be negatively correlated with employee deviance while relativism will be positively related. Further, it is predicted that idealism and relativism will interact in such a way that there will only be a relationship between idealism and deviance when relativism is higher. (...)
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  27. Mark A. Davis, Mark G. Andersen & Mary B. Curtis (2001). Measuring Ethical Ideology in Business Ethics: A Critical Analysis of the Ethics Position Questionnaire. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 32 (1):35 - 53.score: 46.0
    Individual differences in ethical ideology are believed to play a key role in ethical decision making. Forsyths (1980) Ethics Position Questionnaire (EPQ) is designed to measure ethical ideology along two dimensions, relativism and idealism. This study extends the work of Forsyth by examining the construct validity of the EPQ. Confirmatory factor analyses conducted with independent samples indicated three factors – idealism, relativism, and veracity – account for the relationships among EPQ items. In order to provide (...)
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  28. David Whetham (2008). The Challenge of Ethical Relativism in a Coalition Environment. Journal of Military Ethics 7 (4):302-316.score: 46.0
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  29. Mario Fernando, Shyamali Dharmage & Shamika Almeida (2008). Ethical Ideologies of Senior Australian Managers: An Empirical Study. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 82 (1):145 - 155.score: 46.0
    Forsyth’s (1980) Ethics Position Questionnaire and Hunt et al.’s (1989) Corporate Ethical Value Questionnaire are used to examine the ethical ideologies of senior managers from organizations listed in the Australian Stock Exchange. The results indicate how corporate ethical values, religion, gender, and age are related to the idealism and relativism of senior Australian managers. After discussing the results, limitations of the study are offered. Finally, managerial implications are provided and recommendations for future research are given.
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  30. Matti Häyry (2005). A Defense of Ethical Relativism. Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 14 (01):7-12.score: 46.0
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  31. Chun Hoo Quah, Natalie Stewart & Jason Wai Chow Lee (2012). Attitudes of Business Students' Toward Plagiarism. Journal of Academic Ethics 10 (3):185-199.score: 46.0
    This research examines the ethical orientations of students (ethical idealism, ethical relativism and Machiavellianism) towards their attitude to plagiarize. It also examines the moderating effect of religious orientation on the relationship of the independent variables toward students’ attitude towards plagiarism. Data was collected from 160 business diploma and undergraduate students from a local private college and a local public university in Malaysia. Results from the hierarchical regression analysis showed that ethical relativism and Machiavellianism had (...)
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  32. Mario Fernando & Rafi M. M. I. Chowdhury (2010). The Relationship Between Spiritual Well-Being and Ethical Orientations in Decision Making: An Empirical Study with Business Executives in Australia. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 95 (2):211 - 225.score: 46.0
    The relationship between spiritual wellbeing and ethical orientations in decision making is examined through a survey of executives in organizations listed on the Australian Stock Exchange. The four domains of spiritual well-being, personal, communal, environmental and transcendental (Fisher, Spiritual health: its nature and place in the school curriculum, PhD thesis, University of Melbourne, 1998; Gomez and Fisher, Pers Individ Differ 35:1975–1991, 2003) are examined in relation to idealism and relativism (Forsyth, J Pers Soc Psychol 39(1): 175–184, 1980). Results (...)
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  33. Pablo Ruiz-Palomino & Ricardo Martinez-Cañas (2011). Supervisor Role Modeling, Ethics-Related Organizational Policies, and Employee Ethical Intention: The Moderating Impact of Moral Ideology. Journal of Business Ethics 102 (4):653-668.score: 46.0
    The moral ideology of banking and insurance employees in Spain was examined along with supervisor role modeling and ethics-related policies and procedures for their association with ethical behavioral intent. In addition to main effects, we found evidence supporting that the person–situation interactionist perspective in supervisor role modeling had a stronger positive relationship with ethical intention among employees with relativist moral ideology. Also as hypothesized, formal ethical polices and procedures were positively related to ethical intention among those (...)
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  34. Insoo Hyun (2008). Clinical Cultural Competence and the Threat of Ethical Relativism. Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 17 (02):154-163.score: 46.0
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  35. Paul E. Bierly Iii, Robert W. Kolodinsky & Brian J. Charette (2009). Understanding the Complex Relationship Between Creativity and Ethical Ideologies. Journal of Business Ethics 86 (1):101 - 112.score: 46.0
    The relationship between individuals' creativity and their ethical ideologies appears to be complex. Applying Forsyth's (1980, 1992) personal moral philosophy model which consists of two independent ethical ideology dimensions, idealism and relativism, we hypothesized and found support for a positive relationship between creativity and relativism. It appears that creative people are less likely than non-creative people to follow universal rules in their moral decision making. However, contrary to our hypothesis and the general stereotype that creative people (...)
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  36. Haesun Park (2005). The Role of Idealism and Relativism as Dispositional Characteristics in the Socially Responsible Decision-Making Process. Journal of Business Ethics 56 (1):81 - 98.score: 46.0
    This study investigated how decision-makers differ in processing their organizational environment (peers and organizational control systems), depending on the levels of their idealism and relativism. Focusing on socially responsible buying/sourcing issues, responses from buying/sourcing professionals from U.S. apparel and shoe companies were analyzed, using a series of regression analyses. The results generally supported the proposition that the degrees of idealism and relativism determine involvement levels that, in turn, result in varying levels of reactions to the organizational (...)
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  37. Sandra Peterson (1985). Remarks on Three Formulations of Ethical Relativism. Ethics 95 (4):887-908.score: 46.0
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  38. Richard T. De George (1995). Conventional Morality and Ethical Relativism. Business Ethics 4:33-59.score: 46.0
     
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  39. Stephanie E. Hastings & Joan E. Finegan (2011). The Role of Ethical Ideology in Reactions to Injustice. Journal of Business Ethics 100 (4):689 - 703.score: 46.0
    Forsyth (J Pers Soc Psychol 39(1): 175-184, 1980) argued that ethical ideology includes the two orthogonal dimensions of relativism and idealism. Relativists determine morality by looking at the complexities of the situation rather than relying on universal moral rules, while idealists believe that positive consequences can always be obtained without harming others. This study examined the role of ethical ideology as a moderator between justice and constructive and deviant reactions to injustice. Students with work experience (N = (...)
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  40. Paul W. Taylor (1954). Four Types of Ethical Relativism. Philosophical Review 63 (4):500-516.score: 45.0
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  41. Mark Colby (1995). Narrativity and Ethical Relativism. European Journal of Philosophy 3 (2):132-156.score: 45.0
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  42. Robert L. Arrington (1983). A Defense of Ethical Relativism. Metaphilosophy 14 (3-4):225-239.score: 45.0
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  43. Egbeke Aja (1997). Changing Moral Values in Africa: An Essay in Ethical Relativism. [REVIEW] Journal of Value Inquiry 31 (4):531-543.score: 45.0
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  44. Reinbert A. Krol (2010). Friedrich Meinecke: Panentheism and the Crisis of Historicism. Journal of the Philosophy of History 4 (2):195-209.score: 45.0
    Friedrich Meinecke's Die Idee der Staatsräson (1924) is generally seen as the study in which he replaced his monistic-idealistic philosophy of history - as articulated in Weltbürgertum und Nationalstaat - by a dualistic worldview. In this article I will argue against this view. I will do so on the basis of a brief analysis of Meinecke's Staatsräson -study. I will show that Meinecke succeeded in combining his monism and his dualism within a so-called (harmonious) 'panentheistic' philosophy. Next, when discussing Meinecke's (...)
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  45. Paul W. Taylor (1958). Social Science and Ethical Relativism. Journal of Philosophy 55 (1):32-44.score: 45.0
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  46. John Tasioulas (1998). Consequences of Ethical Relativism. European Journal of Philosophy 6 (2):156–171.score: 45.0
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  47. Richard G. Henson (1961). Ethical Relativism and a Paradox About Meaning. Philosophical Quarterly 11 (44):245-255.score: 45.0
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  48. Robert M. Stewart & Lynn L. Thomas (1991). Recent Work on Ethical Relativism. American Philosophical Quarterly 28 (2):85 - 100.score: 45.0
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  49. Phd Loretta M. Kopelman (2005). The Incompatibility of the United Nations' Goals and Conventionalist Ethical Relativism. Developing World Bioethics 5 (3):234–243.score: 45.0
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  50. Eugene Rice (2001). Combatting Ethical Relativism. American Catholic Philosophical Quarterly 75 (1):61-82.score: 45.0
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