Search results for 'Ethics, Evolutionary' (try it on Scholar)

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  1. Giovanni Boniolo & Gabriele De Anna (eds.) (2006). Evolutionary Ethics and Contemporary Biology. Cambridge University Press.score: 204.0
    How can the discoveries made in the biological sciences play a role in a discussion on the foundation of ethics? This book responds to this question by examining how evolutionism can explain and justify the existence of ethical normativity and the emergence of particular moral systems. Written by a team of philosophers and scientists, the essays collected in this volume deal with the limits of evolutionary explanations, the justifications of ethics, and methodological issues concerning evolutionary accounts of ethics, (...)
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  2. Christine Clavien (forthcoming). Evolution, Society, and Ethics: Social Darwinism Versus Evolutionary Ethics. In Thomas Heams (ed.), Handbook of Evolutionary Biology (provis. Title). Springer.score: 198.0
    Evolutionary ethics (EE) is a branch of philosophy that arouses both fascination and deep suspicion. It claims that Darwinian mechanisms and evolutionary data on animal sociality are relevant to ethical reflection. This field of study is often misunderstood and rarely fails to conjure up images of Social Darwinism as a vector for nasty ideologies and policies. However, it is worth resisting the temptation to reduce EE to Social Darwinism and developing an objective analysis of whether it is appropriate (...)
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  3. Adrianna Wozniak & Stefan Konstanczak (2013). Evolutionary Ethics in the Light of Extended Synthesis. Ethics and Bioethics (in Central Europe) 3 (1-2):21-30.score: 198.0
    The program of Evolutionary Ethics (EE) is based on the assumption that our moral features constitute adaptations and as such are to be explained in terms of the evolutionary process of natural selection. However, the fundamental assumption of EE was seriously put into question: the level of analysis relevant for moral features is essentially ontogeny and culture, while the explanation using natural selection applies to the level of phylogeny and genes (Sober, 1995; Ayala, 1995; Okasha, 2009). To the (...)
     
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  4. Paul Thompson (1999). Evolutionary Ethics: Its Origins and Contemporary Face. Zygon 34 (3):473-484.score: 192.0
    The development of modern evolutionary ethics began shortly after the publication of Charles Darwin's On the Origin of Species by Natural Selection. Early discussions were plagued by several problems. First, evolutionary ethical explanations were dependent on group-selection accounts of social behavior (especially the explanation of altruism). Second, they seem to violate the philosophical principle that “ought” statements cannot be derived from “is” statements alone (values cannot be derivedfrom facts alone). Third, evolutionary ethics appeared to be biologically deterministic, (...)
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  5. John Teehan (2010). In the Name of God: The Evolutionary Origins of Religious Ethics and Violence. Wiley-Blackwell.score: 192.0
    Introduction: Evolution and mind -- The evolution of morality -- Setting the task -- The moral brain -- The first layer : kin selection -- The second layer : reciprocal altruism -- A third layer : indirect reciprocity -- A fourth layer : cultural group selection -- A fifth layer : the moral emotions -- Conclusion: From moral grammar to moral systems -- The evolution of moral religions -- Setting the task -- The evolution of the religious mind -- Conceptualizing (...)
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  6. William A. Rottschaefer (1997). Evolutionary Ethics: An Irresistible Temptation: Some Reflections on Paul Farber's the Temptation of Evolutionary Ethics. [REVIEW] Biology and Philosophy 12 (3):369-384.score: 192.0
    In his recent The Temptation of Evolutionary Ethics, Paul Farber has given a negative assessment of the last one hundred years of attempts in Anglo-American philosophy, beginning with Darwin, to develop an evolutionary ethics. Farber identifies some version of the naturalistic fallacy as one of the central sources for the failures of evolutionary ethics. For this reason, and others, Farber urges that though it has its attraction, evolutionary ethics is a temptation to be resisted. In this (...)
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  7. K. G. Ferguson (2001). Semantic and Structural Problems in Evolutionary Ethics. Biology and Philosophy 16 (1):69-84.score: 192.0
    In ''''A Defense of Evolutionary Ethics'''' (1986), Robert J. Richardsendeavors to explain how moral ''oughts'' can be derived from thescience of evolutionary biology without committing the dreadednaturalistic fallacy. First, Richards assumes that ''ought'' as usedin ethical discourse bears the same meaning as ''ought'' used anywherein science, indicating merely that certain results or behaviors arepredicted based on prior structured contexts. To this extent, themoral behavior of animals, what they ''ought'' to do, could arguablybe predicted by evolutionary biology as (...)
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  8. Robert J. Richards (1989). Dutch Objections to Evolutionary Ethics. Biology and Philosophy 4 (3):331-343.score: 192.0
    While strolling the streets of Amsterdam, Sidney Smith, the renowned editor of the Edinburgh Review, called the attention of his companion to two Dutch housewives who were leaning out of their windows and arguing with one another across the narrow alley that separated their houses. Smith remarked to his companion that the two women would never agree. His friend thought the seasoned editor had in mind the stubborn Dutch character. No, said Smith. Rather it was because they were arguing from (...)
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  9. Scott M. James (2011). An Introduction to Evolutionary Ethics. Wiley-Blackwell.score: 186.0
    Natural selection and human nature -- The (earliest) roots of right -- The caveman's conscience -- Just deserts -- The science of virtue and vice -- Social harmony, the good, the bad, and the biologically ugly -- Hume's law -- Moore's naturalistic fallacy -- Rethinking Moore and Hume -- Evolutionary anti-realism : early efforts -- Contemporary evolutionary anti-realism -- Options for the evolutionary realist.
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  10. David C. Lahti (2003). Parting with Illusions in Evolutionary Ethics. Biology and Philosophy 18 (5):639-651.score: 180.0
    I offer a critical analysis of a view that has become a dominant aspect of recent thought on the relationship between evolution and morality, and propose an alternative. An ingredient in Michael Ruse's 'error theory' (Ruse 1995) is that belief in moral (prescriptive, universal, and nonsubjective) guidelines arose in humans because such belief results in the performance of adaptive cooperative behaviors. This statement relies on two particular connections: between ostensible and intentional types of altruism, and between intentional altruism and morality. (...)
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  11. Antony Flew (1968). Evolutionary Ethics. New York, St. Martin's P..score: 180.0
  12. Yuanzhao Shu (2006). Xi Fang Jin Hua Lun Li Xue: Jin Hua Lun Yun Yong Yu Lun Li Xue de Chang Shi = Evolutionary Ethics in the West. Hunan Shi Fan da Xue Chu Ban She.score: 180.0
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  13. John Teehan (2006). The Evolutionary Basis of Religious Ethics. Zygon 41 (3):747-774.score: 168.0
  14. Robert Richards (1986). A Defense of Evolutionary Ethics. Biology and Philosophy 1 (3):265-293.score: 156.0
    From Charles Darwin to Edward Wilson, evolutionary biologists have attempted to construct systems of evolutionary ethics. These attempts have been roundly criticized, most often for having committed the naturalistic fallacy. In this essay, I review the history of previous efforts at formulating an evolutionary ethics, focusing on the proposals of Darwin and Wilson. I then advance and defend a proposal of my own. In the last part of the essay, I try to demonstrate that my revised version (...)
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  15. Johan Tavernier (2014). Morality and Nature: Evolutionary Challenges to Christian Ethics. Zygon 49 (1):171-189.score: 156.0
    Christian ethics accentuates in manifold ways the unique character of human nature. Personalists believe that the mind is never reducible to material and physical substance. The human person is presented as the supreme principle, based on arguments referring to free-willed actions, the immateriality of both the divine spirit and the reflexive capacity, intersubjectivity and self-consciousness. But since Darwin, evolutionary biology slowly instructs us that morality roots in dispositions that are programmed by evolution into our nature. Historically, Thomas Huxley, “Darwin's (...)
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  16. Mary Midgley (1997). Contract Ethics; Evolutionary Biology and the Natural Sentiments By Kahane Howard Rowman and Littlefield, Lanham, Maryland 1995, Pp. Xiii+142. Philosophy 72 (281):468-.score: 150.0
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  17. John Mizzoni (1998). Evolutionary Ethics: A Crack in the Foundation of Ethics? Theoretical Ethics.score: 150.0
    Michael Ruse has argued that evolutionary ethics discredits the objectivity and foundations of ethics. Ruse must employ dubitable assumptions, however, to reach his conclusion. We can trace these assumptions to G. E. Moore. Also, part of Ruse’s case against the foundations of ethics can support the objectivity and foundations of ethics. Cooperative activity geared toward human flourishing helps point the way to a naturalistic moral realism and not exclusively to ethical skepticism as Ruse supposes.
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  18. J. Hare (2012). Evolutionary Theory and Theological Ethics. Studies in Christian Ethics 25 (2):244-254.score: 150.0
    This paper is about the problematic interface between evolutionary scientists’ talk about ethics and current work in philosophy and theology. The paper proceeds by taking four main figures from four different disciplines. The four disciplines are neurophysiology, cognitive psychology, primatology and game theory, and the four figures are Joshua Greene, Mark Hauser, Frans de Waal and Ken Binmore. The paper relates the views of each of these figures to recent work in philosophical and theological ethics.
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  19. Howard Kahane (1995). Contract Ethics: Evolutionary Biology and the Moral Sentiments. Rowman & Littlefield Publishers.score: 150.0
    An examination of moral obligations as contractual in nature. The text proposes that evolutionary theory can help to explain moral sentiments.
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  20. Sefa Hayibor (2009). Evolutionary Psychology and Business Ethics Research. Business Ethics Quarterly 19 (4):587-616.score: 150.0
    In this article, we describe evolutionary psychology and its potential contribution to business ethics research. After summarizing evolutionary theory and natural selection, we specifically address the use of evolutionary concepts in psychology in order to offer alternative explanations of behavior relevant to business ethics, such as social exchange, cooperation, altruism, and reciprocity. Our position is that individuals, groups, and organizations all are affected by similar natural, evolutionary processes, such that evolutionary psychology is applicable at multiple (...)
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  21. Gebhard Geiger (1992). Why There Are No Objective Values: A Critique of Ethical Intuitionism From an Evolutionary Point of View. [REVIEW] Biology and Philosophy 7 (3):315-330.score: 144.0
    Using concepts of evolutionary game theory, this paper presents a critique of ethical intuitionism, or non-naturalism, in its cognitivist and objectivist interpretation. While epistemological considerations suggest that human rational learning through experience provides no basis for objective moral knowledge, it is argued below that modern evolutionary theory explains why this is so, i.e., why biological organisms do not evolve so as to experience objective preferences and obligations. The difference between the modes of the cognition of objective and of (...)
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  22. Wim J. van der Steen (1999). Methodological Problems in Evolutionary Biology. XII. Against Evolutionary Ethics. Acta Biotheoretica 47 (1).score: 144.0
    Evolutionary ethics has recently become popular again. Some of its representatives elaborate new attempts to derive ethics from evolutionary biology. The attempts, like previous ones, fail because they commit the naturalistic fallacy. Premises from evolutionary biology together with normative premises also do not justify ethical principles. Other representatives argue that evolutionary considerations imply that ethics cannot be justified at all. Their arguments presuppose an unacceptable form of foundationalism. In principle, evolutionary biology might explain some aspects (...)
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  23. Fritz Allhoff (2003). Evolutionary Ethics From Darwin to Moore. History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences 25 (1):51 - 79.score: 144.0
    Evolutionary ethics has a long history, dating all the way back to Charles Darwin.1 Almost immediately after the publication of the Origin, an immense interest arose in the moral implications of Darwinism and whether the truth of Darwinism would undermine traditional ethics. Though the biological thesis was certainly exciting, nobody suspected that the impact of the Origin would be confined to the scientific arena. As one historian wrote, 'whether or not ancient populations of armadillos were transformed into the species (...)
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  24. Lorenz Krüger (1987). Ethics According to the Nature in the Age of Evolutionary Thinking. Grazer Philosophische Studien 30:25-42.score: 144.0
    It is argued that the opposition of nature and ethics ought to be overcome by the cooperation of scientific and ethical studies. Beyond that, theoretical, practical and specifically political reasons suggest a serious examination of the possibilities for an ethical orientation derived from evolutionary biology. So far, however, the conceptual connexion between evolutionary facts and ethical norms appears to be insufficiently understood. Given that, suggestive connexions offered by biological thinkers need critical examination, especially of their hidden historical conditions (...)
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  25. Matthew Nitecki & Doris Nitecki (eds.) (1993). Evolutionary Ethics. SUNY Press.score: 144.0
    This volume analyzes the biological and philosophical disagreements in evolutionary ethics and points out difficulties with the interpretations. The book is divided into four sections. The first is an historical introduction to the origin of evolutionary ethics, showing how different evolutionary ethics was a hundred years ago, and how distant Huxley is from most of us now. The second section argues for a sociobiological interpretation of evolutionary ethics. The third section presents the view opposite to that (...)
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  26. Michael Ruse (1993). The New Evolutionary Ethics. In Matthew Nitecki & Doris Nitecki (eds.), Evolutionary Ethics. Suny Press. 133--162.score: 144.0
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  27. Alan Gewirth (1993). How Ethical is Evolutionary Ethics? In Matthew Nitecki & Doris Nitecki (eds.), Evolutionary Ethics. Suny Press. 241--256.score: 144.0
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  28. S. Parmigiani, G. De Anna, D. Mainardi & P. Palanza (2006). The Biology of Human Culture and Ethics: An Evolutionary Perspective. In Giovanni Boniolo & Gabriele De Anna (eds.), Evolutionary Ethics and Contemporary Biology. Cambridge University Press.score: 144.0
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  29. Robert J. Richards (1993). Birth, Death, and Resurrection of Evolutionary Ethics. In Matthew Nitecki & Doris Nitecki (eds.), Evolutionary Ethics. Suny Press. 113--131.score: 144.0
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  30. Richard Weikart (2009). Hitler's Ethic: The Nazi Pursuit of Evolutionary Progress. Palgrave Macmillan.score: 144.0
    In this book, Weikart helps unlock the mystery of Hitler’s evil by vividly demonstrating the surprising conclusion that Hitler’s immorality flowed from a coherent ethic. Hitler was inspired by evolutionary ethics to pursue the utopian project of biologically improving the human race. This ethic underlay or influenced almost every major feature of Nazi policy: eugenics (i.e., measures to improve human heredity, including compulsory sterilization), euthanasia, racism, population expansion, offensive warfare, and racial extermination.
     
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  31. Neil Levy (2010). The Prospects for Evolutionary Ethics Today. EurAmerica 40 (3):529-571.score: 138.0
    One reason for the widespread resistance to evolutionary accounts of the origins of humanity is the fear that they undermine morality: if morality is based on nothing more than evolved dispositions, it would be shown to be illusory, many people suspect. This view is shared by some philosophers who take their work on the evolutionary origins of morality to undermine moral realism. If they are right, we are faced with an unpalatable choice: to reject morality on scientific grounds, (...)
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  32. Patrick Bateson (1989). Does Evolutionary Biology Contribute to Ethics? Biology and Philosophy 4 (3):287-301.score: 138.0
    Human propensities that are the products of Darwinian evolution may combine to generate a form of social behavior that is not itself a direct result of such pressure. This possibility may provide a satisfying explanation for the origin of socially transmitted rules such as the incest taboo. Similarly, the regulatory processes of development that generated adaptations to the environment in the circumstances in which they evolved can produce surprising and sometimes maladaptive consequences for the individual in modern conditions. These combinatorial (...)
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  33. Peter G. Woolcock (2000). Objectivity and Illusion in Evolutionary Ethics: Comments on Waller. Biology and Philosophy 15 (1):39-60.score: 132.0
    In this paper I argue that any adequate evolutionary ethical theory needs to account for moral belief as well as for dispositions to behave altruistically. It also needs to be clear whether it is offering us an account of the motivating reasons behind human behaviour or whether it is giving justifying reasons for a particular set of behaviours or, if both, to distinguish them clearly. I also argue that, unless there are some objective moral truths, the evolutionary ethicist (...)
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  34. Doris Schroeder, Evolutionary Ethics. Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy.score: 132.0
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  35. Nigel Biggar (2013). Evolutionary Biology, 'Enlightened' Anthropological Narratives, and Social Morality: A View From Christian Ethics. Studies in Christian Ethics 26 (2):152-157.score: 132.0
    The natural evolution of ethics is commonly understood in terms of the development from the selfish struggle to survive, via prudent cooperation, to altruism. However, cooperation that is prudent in the sense of serving basically selfish interests is not really altruistic. Besides, Christian ethics should not identify morality with absolutely disinterested altruism. Self-interest is only selfish when it is disproportionate or unfair; otherwise it is morally legitimate. Therefore the natural evolution of ethics is better understood as the gradual diversification of (...)
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  36. Peter J. Richerson & Richard Boyd (2004). Darwinian Evolutionary Ethics: Between Patriotism and Sympathy. In Phillip Clayton & Jeffrey Schloss (eds.), Evolution and Ethics: Human Morality in Biological and Religious Perspective. Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Co.. 50--77.score: 126.0
  37. Michael Byron, Evolutionary Ethics and Biologically Supportable Morality.score: 126.0
    Consider the paradox of altruism: the existence of truly altruistic behaviors is difficult to reconcile with evolutionary theory if natural selection operates only on individuals, since in that case individuals should be unwilling to sacrifice their own fitness for the sake of others. Evolutionists have frequently turned to the hypothesis of group selection to explain the existence of altruism; but group selection cannot explain the evolution of morality, since morality is a one-group phenomenon and group selection is a many-group (...)
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  38. K. C. Calman (2004). Evolutionary Ethics: Can Values Change. Journal of Medical Ethics 30 (4):366-370.score: 126.0
  39. Frans B. M. Waal (2004). Evolutionary Ethics, Aggression, and Violence: Lessons From Primate Research. Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 32 (1):18-23.score: 126.0
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  40. Frederick Churchill (2002). The Evolutionary Ethics of Alfred C. Kinsey. History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences 24 (3/4):391 - 411.score: 126.0
    It is commonplace to point out that Alfred Kinsey's taxonomic work on gall wasps provided a methodology for his studies of human sexual behavior. It is equally commonplace to point out that, when researching and presenting his sexual studies, Kinsey's professedly neutral scientific data were constrained by a social agenda. What I have done in this paper is to join these two claims and demonstrate, with particular reference to Kinsey's Sexual Behavior in the Human Male, how his zoology helped guide (...)
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  41. Harry F. Reinert Jr (1951). Evolutionary Ethics. Ethics 62 (1):48-54.score: 126.0
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  42. Michael Stingl (1996). Evolutionary Ethics and Moral Theory. Journal of Value Inquiry 30 (4):531-545.score: 126.0
    This example, like the others, demands further discussion. My conclusion must therefore remain modest: an agent-neutral theory of our moral competence is not biologically implausible. Agent-centered rules like tit-for-tat, prerogatives, special obligations, and duties not to harm others might be best regarded as belonging to the theory of moral performance rather than the theory of moral competence. For biologists who may think otherwise, the general argument of this essay is that any claims to the contrary must be based on more (...)
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  43. Eliseo Vivas (1948). Julian Huxley's Evolutionary Ethics. Ethics 58 (4):275-284.score: 126.0
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  44. C. Southgate (2008). Book Review: Neil Messer, Selfish Genes and Christian Ethics: Theological and Ethical Reflections on Evolutionary Biology (London: SCM Press, 2007). Viii + 280 Pp. 19.99 (Pb), ISBN 978--0--334--02996--. [REVIEW] Studies in Christian Ethics 21 (1):142-145.score: 126.0
  45. Robert Richards (1999). Darwin's Romantic Biology. The Foundation of His Evolutionary Ethics'. In Michael Ruse & Jane Maienschein (eds.), Biology and the Foundation of Ethics. Cambridge University Press. 113--53.score: 126.0
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  46. Paul Lawrence Farber (1999). French Evolutionary Ethics During the Third Republic: Jean de Lanessan. In Michael Ruse & Jane Maienschein (eds.), Biology and the Foundation of Ethics. Cambridge University Press.score: 126.0
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  47. Marilyn Fischer (2013). Reading Addams's Democracy and Social Ethics as a Social Gospel, Evolutionary Idealist Text. [REVIEW] The Pluralist 8 (3):17-31.score: 126.0
    There Is a Disciplinary divide between philosophers and historians in how they read Addams’s first book, Democracy and Social Ethics. Philosophers identify Addams primarily as a pragmatist. They often compare and contrast her thinking with that of James and Dewey, and find her a fruitful resource for contemporary discussions about gender, social justice, and peace. Much of this scholarship gives central place to Addams’s Democracy and Social Ethics. Except for nods to her 1892 essay “The Subjective Necessity of Settlements,” philosophers (...)
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  48. R. Small (2007). Nietzsche's Evolutionary Ethics. In Gudrun von Tevenar (ed.), Nietzsche and Ethics. Peter Lang.score: 126.0
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  49. Peter G. Woolcock (1999). The Case Against Evolutionary Ethics Today. In Michael Ruse & Jane Maienschein (eds.), Biology and the Foundation of Ethics. Cambridge University Press. 276--306.score: 126.0
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  50. Thomas Beschorner (2014). Beyond Risk Management, Toward Ethics: Institutional Und Evolutionary Perspectives. In Johanna Jauernig & Christoph Lütge (eds.), Business Ethics and Risk Management. Springer. 99--110.score: 126.0
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