Frege's account of indirect proof has been thought to be problematic. This thought seems to rest on the supposition that some notion of logical consequence ? which Frege did not have ? is indispensable for a satisfactory account of indirect proof. It is not so. Frege's account is no less workable than the account predominant today. Indeed, Frege's account may be best understood as a restatement of the latter, although from a higher order point of view. I argue that this (...) ascent is motivated by Frege's conception of logic. (shrink)
This introduction to the second international conference on Formal Ontology and Information Systems presents a brief history of ontology as a discipline spanning the boundaries of philosophy and information science. We sketch some of the reasons for the growth of ontology in the information science field, and offer a preliminary stocktaking of how the term ‘ontology’ is currently used. We conclude by suggesting some grounds for optimism as concerns the future collaboration between philosophical ontologists and information scientists.
In this paper we offer a new argument for the existence of God. We contend that the laws of logic are metaphysically dependent on the existence of God, understood as a necessarily existent, personal, spiritual being; thus anyone who grants that there are laws of logic should also accept that there is a God. We argue that if our most natural intuitions about them are correct, and if they are to play the role in our intellectual activities that we take (...) them to play, then the laws of logic are best construed as necessarily existent thoughts -- more specifically, as divine thoughts about divine thoughts. We conclude by highlighting some implications for both theistic arguments and antitheistic arguments. (shrink)
This paper is a modification of Nicola Guarino and Christopher Welty's conception of the subsumption relation. Guarino and Welty require that that whether one property may subsume the other should depend on the modal metaproperties of those properties. I argue that the part of their account that concerns the metaproperty carrying a criterion of identity is essentially flawed. Subsequently, I propose to constrain the subsumption relation not, as Guarino and Welty require, by means of incompatible criteria of (...) absolute identity but by means of incompatible criteria of relative identity. After discussing the benefits of applying relative identity in ontological investigations I provide a formal framework in which to prove a counterpart of the identity criteria constraint. (shrink)
The laws governing degeneration of the genetic code are discussed below. Of fundamental importance in this context is the classification of the amino acids into groups on the basis of the physicochemical behaviour of their residues. From this, it is possible to formulate arithmetic relationships between the number of amino acids in the same group and the number of coding triplets.It is found that the degeneration of the genetic code obeys certain laws, the reasons for this being related to the (...) number and the qualitative properties of the amino acids and triplets. The fact that the three bases of a coding triplet have different priorities must also be a critical factor. (shrink)
The universally valid genetic code is the final result of a multi-stage course of development. Degeneracy, as an important property of the genetic code, was possibly not yet present in the earliest code, first appearing at a later stage of development (Code III). Possibly this step in development is coupled with the presence of a total of four amino acid groups (L,I,E,F). Each group contains a specific number of amino acid(AL, AI, AE, AF). Amino acid groups: (...) — (L) hydrophobic - (I) weakly hydrophobic or polar but uncharged - (E) hydrophilic, acidic - (F) hydrophilic, basic - (D) hydrophobic, aromatic (only in Code IV and Code M. This group is not considered in the calculations below.) In a subsequent stage of development the number of amino acids increases further. At the same time the code becomes more degenerate. The universal genetic code is characterized by three constants of being degenerate. Its immediate predecessor has linear degeneration with two constants. The mitochondrial code represents a transitional form between these two codes. (shrink)
The philosolphy of strict finitism is a research programme containing developmental theory and mathematics as its main branches. The first branch is concerned with the ontogenetic and historicaldevelopment of various concepts of infinity. The frame work is Jean Piaget’s genetic epistemology. Based upon these develop mental studies, the mathematical branch introduces a new concept of infinity into mathematics. Cantor propagated the actual infinite, Brouwer and the constructivists the potential infinite. Still more radical is strict finitism, favoring the natural infinite, i.e. (...) the phenomena of the unsurveyable, unfeasible, unreachable. There exist by this time strict finitistic reconstructions for arithmetic, geometry, calculus, and even for infinitistic set theory. (shrink)