As is well-known, the Bernays-Schönfinkel-Ramsey class of all prenex ∃*∀* -sentences which are valid in classical first-order logic is decidable. This paper paves the way to an analogous result which the authors deem to hold when the only available predicate symbols are ∈ and =, no constants or function symbols are present, and one moves inside a (rather generic) Set Theory whose axioms yield the well-foundedness of membership and the existence of infinite sets. Here semi-decidability of the satisfiability problem for (...) the BSR class is proved by following a purely semantic approach, the remaining part of the decidability result being postponed to a forthcoming paper. (shrink)
As proved recently, the satisfaction problem for all prenex formulae in the set-theoretic Bernays-Shönfinkel-Ramsey class is semi-decidable over von Neumann's cumulative hierarchy. Here that semi-decidability result is strengthened into a decidability result for the same collection of formulae.
Being able to state the principles which lie deepest in the foundations of mathematics by sentences in three variables is crucially important for a satisfactory equational rendering of set theories along the lines proposed by Alfred Tarski and Steven Givant in their monograph of 1987. The main achievement of this paper is the proof that the 'kernel' set theory whose postulates are extensionality. (E), and single-element adjunction and removal. (W) and (L), cannot be axiomatized by means of three-variable sentences. This (...) highlights a sharp edge to be crossed in order to attain an 'algebraization' of Set Theory. Indeed, one easily shows that the theory which results from the said kernel by addition of the null set axiom, (N), is in its entirety expressible in three variables. (shrink)
This study provides empirical evidence on how corporate sustainability performance (CSP), as proxied by membership of the Dow Jones sustainability index, is reflected in the market value of equity. Using a theoretical framework combining institutional perspectives, stake-holder theory, and resource-based perspectives, we develop a set of hypotheses that relate the market value of equity to CSP. For a sample of North American firms, our preliminary results show that CSP has significant explanatory power for stock prices over the traditional summary accounting (...) measures such as earnings and book value of equity. However, further analyses suggest that we should not focus on corporate sustainability itself. Our findings suggest that what investors really do is to penalize large profitable firms with low level of CSP. Firms with incentives to develop a high level of CSP not engaging on such strategy are, thus, penalized by the market. (shrink)
Eugenio Lecaldano offers an important contribution to the tradition of Italian liberal thought. In his book on bioethics, he deals with the subject’s most relevant topics by adopting a utilitarian perspective, which clearly demonstrates the influence of J.S. Mill’s philosophy. The indication of some significant analogies and the distinction between different moral problems are some of the most interesting and useful aspects of Lecaldano’s work.
Médico brillante, político, y fundador, docente y Rector de la Universidad del Zulia, Francisco Eugenio Bustamante (1839-1921) ha sido poco estudiado desde los aspectos filosóficos de sus ideas. La Universidad del Zulia de fines del XIX vio confrontarse dialéctica y apasionadamente dos posiciones acerca de la ciencia: la tradicional (creacionismo católico), y la moderna (evolucionistas y positivistas). Este trabajo analiza la concepción del Rector Bustamante de una renovación universitaria, emancipada de confesionalismos, sus planteamientos sobre las ideas modernas publicados en (...) el periódico La Universidad del Zulia, y su influencia en la generación estudiantil que se expresó en dicho periódico. (shrink)
The ?values of sport? is a concept that is often used to justify actions and policies by a range of agents and agencies from coaches and teachers to governing bodies and educational institutions. From a philosophical point of view, these values deserve to be analysed with great care to make sure we understand their nature and reach. The aim of this paper is to critically examine the values carried by the educational conception of sport that Pierre de Coubertin developed and (...) to see how they relate to certain values in the philosophy of Friedrich Nietzsche. To be able to understand in depth the moral construct of de Coubertin's system, it is essential to delve into the entire system he builds in order to develop athletic participants closer to his ideal of what a human should be. This in turn rests on his conception of Man, which is comprised of body, spirit and character. An understanding of his structure opens the way to a broader awareness of de Coubertin's educational system, of which sport was only part. We will then see that the values are a consequence of this pedagogical search for the ideal human. It is argued that this ideal of a human is similar to the one described by Nietzsche as the Übermensch . A philosophical case study is conducted, taking as its object the story of the first recipient of the Pierre de Coubertin medal, which rewards fair play among Olympic competitors. Judging the story through Nietzschean eyes allows for his thoughts to be put into practice. His lesser-known texts such as Homer and Competition on the emulation of creative powers shed light on today's sports. Concepts such as guilt, excellence, will to power and effectiveness help us compare these two authors and understand that competition is not necessarily about dominating others, but more about generating human excellence. (shrink)
En este trabajo se analizan los conceptos de laguna axiológica y de derrotabilidad desde el punto de vista de una teoría "realista" de interpretación. En base a algunos ejemplos (no del todo ficticios) se intenta mostrar que ambos conceptos aparecen como resultado de la interpretación de los textos jurídicos. Tanto las lagunas axiológicas, como la derrotabilidad no son propiedades objetivas de sistemas jurídicos, porque dependen de las valoraciones de los intérpretes y la acción de interpretar no es conocer el derecho, (...) sino contribuir a hacerlo. The analysis of the concepts of axiological gaps and of defeasibility from the point of view of a "realistic" theory of interpretation shows -by means of several (not quite fictitious) examples- that both concepts are the result of interpretation of legal texts. Axiological gaps and defeasibility are not objective properties of legal systems, because they depend essentially on valuations of the interpreters and interpretation is not cognition of law, but participation in making law. (shrink)
The article, titled «Mircea Eliade and Eugenio d’Ors (and the archetype)», is an analysis of the relationship between the Romanian intellectual Mircea Eliade (1907-1986) and the Spanish thinker Eugenio d’Ors (1881-1954). Divided in five parts, the first one, titled «The intellectual encounter: Eliade discovers d’Ors», is a revision of the process of the discovery of the works of d’Ors by Eliade in their French translations. In the second part titled «The personal encounter and the project of the Romanian (...) translation of a selection of works of d’Ors» is revised the Eliade-d’Ors relationship during the Portuguese years of Eliade using the Portuguese Journal and the correspondence of Eliade as primary source. The third part titled «D’Ors discovers Eliade» is a study of the reception by d’Ors of the two 1949 books of Eliade (and specially The Myth of the Eternal Return). The fourth part, devoted to revise the resemblances between Eliade and d’Ors, is titled «Eliade and d’Ors: affinities and convergences». The fifth part titled «The archetype’s question: an imaginary debt?» analyses the inclusion in the American preface of the 1959 edition of Cosmos and History (i.e. The Myth of the Eternal Return) of the following words: «I use the term “archetype,” just as Eugenio d’Ors does, as a synonym for “exemplary model” or “paradigm”». Due to the differences between the use by d’Ors of the notion of archetype and the Eliadian archetype (one of the core concepts in his hermeneutic) that words are analysed as an imaginary debt, a tactical parti pris liberating Eliade of the Jungian implications of the term archetype. (shrink)