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Evan Fales [67]Evan M. Fales [2]
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Profile: Evan Fales (University of Iowa)
  1.  75
    Evan Fales (1990). Causation and Universals. Routledge.
    Then, adopting the view of Armstrong and others that causation is grounded in a second-order relation between universals, he explores a range of topics for ...
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  2.  86
    Evan Fales (1996). A Defense of the Given. Lanham: Rowman &Amp; Littlefield.
    The Doctrine of the Given The Myth of the Given A Methodological Problem To a convinced foundationalist, the project of establishing the existence of the ...
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  3. Evan Fales (2002). Causation and Universals. Routledge.
    The world contains objective causal relations and universals, both of which are intimately connected. If these claims are true, they must have far-reaching consequences, breathing new life into the theory of empirical knowledge and reinforcing epistemological realism. Without causes and universals, Professor Fales argues, realism is defeated, and idealism or scepticism wins. Fales begins with a detailed analysis of David Hume's argument that we have no direct experience of necessary connections between events, concluding that Hume was mistaken on this fundamental (...)
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  4.  35
    Evan Fales (2014). Turtle Epistemology. Philosophical Studies 169 (2):339-354.
    In “Justification Without Awareness”, Michael Bergmann divides internalist epistemologies into those with a strong awareness requirement and those with a weak awareness requirement; he presents a dilemma, hoisting the “strongs” on one horn, and the “weaks” on the other. Here I reply on behalf of the strong-awareness view, presenting what I take to be a more satisfactory, and more fundamental, reply to Bergmann than I believe has been offered by his other critics, and in particular by Rogers and Matheson in (...)
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  5.  81
    Evan Fales (1996). Plantinga's Case Against Naturalistic Epistemology. Philosophy of Science 63 (3):432-451.
    In Warrant and Proper Function, Alvin Plantinga claims that metaphysical naturalism, when joined to a naturalized epistemology, is self-undermining. Plantinga argues that naturalists are committed to a neoDarwinian account of our origins, and that the reliability of our cognitive faculties is improbable or unknown relative to that theory. If the theory is true, then we are in no position to know that, whereas theism, if true, underwrites cognitive reliability. I seek to turn the tables on Plantinga, showing that neoDarwinism provides (...)
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  6. Evan Fales (1993). Are Causal Laws Contingent? In John Bacon, Keith Campbell & Lloyd Reinhardt (eds.), Ontology, Causality and Mind: Essays in Honour of D.M. Armstrong. Cambridge Up
    It has been nearly a decade and a half since Fred Dretske, David Armstrong and Michael Tooley, having each rejected the Regularity theory, independently proposed that natural laws are grounded in a second-order relation that somehow binds together universals.' (l shall call this the ‘DTA theory’). In this way they sought to overcome the major - and notorious — shortcomings of every version of the Regularity theory: how to provide truth conditions for laws that lack instances; how to distinguish laws (...)
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  7.  69
    Evan Fales (2011). Is Middle Knowledge Possible? Almost. Sophia 50 (1):1-9.
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  8. Evan Fales (2004). Review of John Foster, The Divine Lawmaker: Lectures on Induction, Laws of Nature, and the Existence of God. [REVIEW] Notre Dame Philosophical Reviews 2004 (9).
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  9. Evan Fales (2004). Proper Basicality. Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 68 (2):373–383.
    Foundationalist epistemologies, whether internalist or externalist, ground noetic structures in beliefs that are said to be foundational, or properly basic. It is essential to such epistemologies that they provide clear criteria for proper basicality. This proves, I argue, to be a thorny task, at least insofar as the goal is to provide a psychologically realistic reconstruction of our actual doxastic practices. I examine some of the difficulties, and suggest some implications, in particular for the externalist epistemology of Alvin Plantinga.
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  10. Evan Fales (2003). Alvin Plantinga's Warranted Christian Belief. Noûs 37 (2):353–370.
    This critical study of the third book of Plantinga's trilogy on proper-function epistemology begins by denying that classical foundationalism proposes a deontic conception of justification. Nor is it subject to Gettier counterexamples, as, I show, Plantinga's fallibilism is and must be. Plantinga's central thesis is that there's no way of attacking the rationality of central Christian beliefs without attacking their truth. That, I argue, is not so on several grounds, e.g., because one can demand independent evidence for the existence of (...)
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  11.  44
    Evan Fales (2004). Do Mystics See God? In Michael L. Peterson & Raymond J. VanArragon (eds.), Contemporary Debates in Philosophy of Religion. Blackwell Pub. 145--148.
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  12.  37
    Evan Fales (1997). Divine Intervention. Faith and Philosophy 14 (2):170-194.
    Some philosophers deny that science can investigate the supernatural - specifically, the nature and actions of God. If a divine being is atemporal, then, indeed, this seems plausible - but only, I shall argue, because such a being could not causally interact with anything. Here I discuss in detail two major attempts, those of Stump and Kretzmann, and of Leftow, to make sense of theophysical causation on the supposition that God is eternal. These views are carefully worked out, and their (...)
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  13.  59
    Evan Fales (2010). Divine Commands and Moral Obligation. Philo 13 (2):151 - 166.
    A popular proof for the existence of God assumes that there are objective moral duties, arguing that this can only be explained by there being a supreme law-giver, namely God. The upshot is either a Divine command theory (DCT) -- or something similar -- or a natural-law theory. I discuss two prominent theories, Robert Adams’s DCT and Stephen Evans’s hybrid DCT/natural-law theory. I argue that they suffer from fatal difficulties. Natural-law theories are plausible, if God exists, but can’t be used (...)
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  14.  42
    Evan Fales (1992). Should God Not Have Created Adam? Faith and Philosophy 9 (2):193-209.
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  15.  90
    Evan Fales (1980). Uniqueness and Historical Laws. Philosophy of Science 47 (2):260-276.
    This paper presents an argument for the claim that historical events are unique in a nontrivial sense which entails the inapplicability of the Hempelian D-N model to historical explanations. Some previous criticisms of Hempel are shown to be general criticisms of the D-N model which can be outflanked in cases where a reduction to fundamental laws is available. I then survey grounds for denying that explanations by reasons can be effectively reduced to causal explanations, and for rejecting methodological individualism. I (...)
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  16.  70
    Evan M. Fales (1994). Divine Freedom and the Choice of a World. International Journal for Philosophy of Religion 35 (2):65 - 88.
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  17.  62
    Evan Fales (1996). Mystical Experience as Evidence. International Journal for Philosophy of Religion 40 (1):19 - 46.
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  18. Evan Fales (2009). Divine Intervention: Metaphysical and Epistemological Puzzles. Routledge.
    Introduction -- How does God do things? -- Divine governance and the laws of nature -- Trouble with time -- Eternal God as author of nature -- What can God know? -- Healed hearts, inspired minds -- Mystical revelations -- Is science a mystic's friend? -/- Divine Intervention is a new look at the question how God can act upon the world, and whether the world can affect God. What, exactly, are miracles, and can God perform them? If so, how? (...)
     
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  19.  25
    Evan Fales (1982). Natural Kinds and Freaks of Nature. Philosophy of Science 49 (1):67-90.
    Essentialism--understood as the doctrine that there are natural kinds--can be sustained with respect to the most fundamental physical entities of the world, as I elsewhere argue. In this paper I take up the question of the existence of natural kinds among complex structures built out of these elementary ones. I consider a number of objections to essentialism, in particular Locke's puzzle about the existence of borderline cases. A number of recent attempts to justify biological taxonomy are critically examined. I conclude (...)
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  20.  17
    Evan Fales (1989). Antediluvian Theodicy. Faith and Philosophy 6 (3):320-329.
    This paper is a discussion of Eleonore Stump’s “The Problem of Evil.” Stump, I argue, has attempted a theodicy with several desirable features; among them, an effort to provide a positive account of the compatibility of natural evils with God’s goodness that makes use of specifically Christian doctrines. However, the doctrines Stump makes use of---and, in particular, her conception of hell and her interpretation of original sin---raise, I suggest, more problems than they solve.
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  21.  7
    Evan Fales (1996). Scientific Explanations of Mystical Experiences: Evan Fales. Religious Studies 32 (3):297-313.
    In Part I of this paper, I took up a challenge posed by Alston , Wainwright , Yandell , and other theists who hold the rather natural view that mystical experiences provide perceptual contact with God, roughly on a par with the access sense experience affords to the natural world. These theists recognize, at the same time, that the plausibility of this view would be significantly compromised by the possibility of scientifically explaining mystical experiences – especially if a scientific explanation (...)
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  22.  20
    Evan Fales (2009). Darwin's Doubt, Calvin's Calvary. In Michael Ruse (ed.), Philosophy After Darwin: Classic and Contemporary Readings. Princeton University Press 309.
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  23.  47
    Evan Fales (1977). The Ontology of Social Roles. Philosophy of the Social Sciences 7 (2):139-161.
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  24.  4
    Evan Fales (1996). Scientific Explanations of Mystical Experiences, Part I: The Case of St Teresa. Religious Studies 32 (2):143.
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  25.  27
    Evan Fales (1996). Scientific Explanations of Mystical Experiences: II. The Challenge to Theism. Religious Studies 32 (3):297-313.
    In Part I of this paper, I argued that the mystical experiences of Teresa of Avila are well explained by the anthropological theory of I. M. Lewis. In Part II, I discuss how the causal gap between the social circumstances identified by Lewis and individual phenomenology can be filled in. I then show that Lewis's theory, thus supplemented, is a genuine competitor to the theistic understanding of mystical experience, and that it is much more strongly confirmed by the available evidence (...)
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  26.  20
    Evan Fales (2013). Is a Science of the Supernatural Possible? In Massimo Pigliucci & Maarten Boudry (eds.), Philosophy of Pseudoscience: Reconsidering the Demarcation Problem. University of Chicago Press 247.
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  27.  15
    Evan Fales (2004). Proper Basicality. Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 68 (2):373 - 383.
    Foundationalist epistemologies, whether internalist or externalist, ground noetic structures in beliefs that are said to be foundational, or properly basic. It is essential to such epistemologies that they provide clear criteria for proper basicality. This proves, I argue, to be a thorny task, at least insofar as the goal is to provide a psychologically realistic reconstruction of our actual doxastic practices. I examine some of the difficulties, and suggest some implications, in particular for the externalist epistemology of Alvin Plantinga.
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  28.  25
    Evan Fales (1996). Scientific Explanations of Mystical Experiences, Part I: The Case of St. Teresa. Religious Studies 32 (2):143-163.
    Several writers have argued for the implausibility of there being naturalistic explanations of mystical experience. These writers recognize that the evidential significance of mystical experiences for theism depends upon whether explanations that exclude supernatural agency can be discounted; but they seem unaware of some of the best scientific work done in this area. Part I of the present paper introduces the theory of I. M. Lewis, an anthropologist, and tests it against the case of St Teresa. I use Teresa because (...)
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  29.  21
    Evan Fales (1988). How to Be a Metaphysical Realist. Midwest Studies in Philosophy 12 (1):253-274.
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  30.  19
    Evan Fales (1982). Generic Universals. Australasian Journal of Philosophy 60 (1):29 – 39.
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  31.  35
    Evan Fales (2001). Reformed Epistemology and Biblical Hermeneutics. Philo 4 (2):169-184.
    Literal-minded Christians are enjoying resurgent respectability in intellectual circles. Darwin isn’t the only target: also under attack is the application of modern historiography to Scripture According to Reformed epistemologists, ordinary Christians can directly know that, e.g., Jesus rose from the dead, and evidential concerns can be dismissed. This reversion to a sixteenth century hermeneutic deserves response.
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  32. Evan Fales (2007). Naturalism and Physicalism. In Michael Martin (ed.), The Cambridge Companion to Atheism. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press
     
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  33.  55
    Evan Fales, Are the Gods Apolitical? Philo.
    The attraction between religion and politics is perennial. Sometimes, in its long and checkered history, it has led to an adulterous affair. I want to ask what lies at the heart of this attraction, and whether that can shed any light on the current religious/political scene. But the romance metaphor is at bottom not a good one. I shall argue that, in their originary condition, religion and politics are "closer," both ontologically and in their motivation, than woman and man, closer (...)
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  34.  5
    Lewis Vaughn, Austin Dacey & Evan Fales (2003). The Case for Humanism: An Introduction. Rowman & Littlefield Publishers.
    The Case for Humanism is the premier textbook to introduce and help students think critically about the 'big ideas' of Western humanism—secularism, rationalism, materialism, science, democracy, individualism, and others—all powerful themes that run through Western thought from the ancient Greeks and the Enlightenment to the present day.
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  35.  12
    Evan Fales (1986). Essentialism and the Elementary Constituents of Matter. Midwest Studies in Philosophy 11 (1):391-402.
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  36.  41
    Evan Fales (2005). World Without Design: The Ontological Consequences of Naturalism. Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 71 (2):494-497.
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  37.  22
    Evan Fales (2005). The Road to Damascus. Faith and Philosophy 22 (4):442-459.
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  38.  37
    Evan Fales (1999). Can Science Explain Mysticism? Religious Studies 35 (2):213-227.
    Jerome Gellman has recently disputed my claim that a naturalistic explanation for mystical experiences is available, a better explanation than any current attempt to show that God is sometimes perceived in those experiences. Gellman argues (i) that some mystics do not 'fit' the sociological explanation of I. M. Lewis; (ii) that the sociological analysis of tribal mysticism cannot properly be extended to theistic experiences; and (iii) that mystical experiences merit prima facie credence, so the burden of proof falls on the (...)
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  39.  36
    Evan Fales (1976). Definite Descriptions as Designators. Mind 85 (338):225-238.
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  40.  37
    Evan Fales, Despair, Optimism, and Rebellion. Internet Infidels, Modern Library.
    I will make all my goodness pass before you, and will proclaim before you my name 'the LORD'; and I will be gracious to whom I will be gracious, and will show mercy on whom I will show mercy. But ... you cannot see my face; for man shall not see me and live. Exodus 33:19-20, RSV..
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  41.  34
    Evan Fales (1984). Davidson's Compatibilism. Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 45 (December):227-246.
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  42.  12
    Evan Fales (1976). Truth, Tradition, and Rationality. Philosophy of the Social Sciences 6 (2):97-113.
  43.  11
    E. J. Lowe, Evan Fales, Galen Strawson & Michael Tooley (1991). Causation and Universals.The Secret Connexion: Causation, Realism, and David Hume.Causation: A Realist Approach. Philosophical Quarterly 41 (165):494.
  44.  29
    Evan Fales (1998). David Ray Griffin, Parapsychology, Philosophy, and Spirituality: A Postmodern Exploration. (Albany, NY: State University of New York Press, 1997.) Pp. XIV+339, US $59.50 Hb., $19.95 Pk. [REVIEW] Religious Studies 34 (1):103-114.
  45.  1
    Evan Fales (2002). Mystical Experience of God: A Philosophical Inquiry. Ars Disputandi 2 (1):34-39.
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  46. Evan Fales, Susan C. Lawrence & Robert F. Weir (1994). Genes and Human Self-Knowledge Historical and Philosophical Reflections on Modern Genetics. Monograph Collection (Matt - Pseudo).
     
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  47.  16
    Evan Fales (1994). Are Christians Obliged to Be Pacifists? Faith and Philosophy 11 (2):298-301.
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  48.  21
    Evan Fales, Review of Darwinian Natural Right: The Biological Ethics of Human Nature by Larry Arnhart. [REVIEW]
    It has become something of a leitmotif among evangelical apologetes to argue that morality can have no objective foundation if there is no God. Using a strategy that appeals to many people's strong intuitions that there are objective rights and wrongs, they claim seek to convict atheists of being intellectually committed to moral relativism, subjectivism, or nihilism. Those are, of course, ethical positions that have been advocated by some atheists. But others share the intuition that there are objective moral norms, (...)
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  49.  14
    Evan Fales (1995). Causes and Coincidences. Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 55 (2):465-468.
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  50.  24
    Joseph Margolis & Evan Fales (1976). Donnellan on Definite Descriptions. Philosophia 6 (2):289-302.
    Donnellan's distinction between the referential and attributive uses of definite descriptions is shown not to cover exhaustive and exclusive alternatives but to fix the termini of a continuum of cases. in fact, donnellan's distinction rests on a mixed classification: the referential use, concerned with intended referents regardless of what speakers may say about them; the attributive use, concerned with definite descriptions used in using sentences, that something or other may satisfy. given this feature of his account, it is easy to (...)
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