Search results for 'Evolutionary explanation' (try it on Scholar)

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  1. Henry C. Byerly & Richard E. Michod (1991). Fitness and Evolutionary Explanation. [REVIEW] Biology and Philosophy 6 (1):45-53.score: 192.0
    Recent philosophical discussions have failed to clarify the roles of the concept fitness in evolutionary theory. Neither the propensity interpretation of fitness nor the construal of fitness as a primitive theoretical term succeed in explicating the empirical content and explanatory power of the theory of natural selection. By appealing to the structure of simple mathematical models of natural selection, we separate out different contrasts which have tended to confuse discussions of fitness: the distinction between what fitness is defined as (...)
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  2. Seungbae Park (2013). Evolutionary Explanation of Psychopaths. International Journal of Social Science Studies 1 (2):1-7.score: 180.0
    Psychopaths are brutal individuals, having no empathetic concern for others. Initially, the existence of psychopaths seems to be a mystery from an evolutionary point of view. On close examination, however, it can be accommodated by evolutionary theory. Brutal individuals excelled meek individuals in the desperate circumstances where they had to fight their competitors over natural resources for survival and reproduction. This evolutionary explanation of psychopaths receives support from Pinker's observation of the history of brutality. We have (...)
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  3. Dale Jamieson (2000). :Beyond Evolution: Human Nature and the Limits of Evolutionary Explanation. Ethics 110 (2):436-437.score: 180.0
    Excerpt from: Hull, D. L. (1998). Review: Anthony O'Hear, Beyond Evolution:\nHuman Nature and the Limits of Evolutionary Explanation. Oxford:\nClarendon Press. 1997. cloth 19.99. British Journal for the Philosophy\nof Science, 49, 511-14.
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  4. Robert C. Robinson (2007). An Evolutionary Explanation of Self-Deception. Falsafeh 35 (3).score: 180.0
    Abstract: In Chapter 4 of his "Self-Deception Unmasked" (SDU), Al Mele considers several (attempted) empirical demonstrations of self-deception. These empirical demonstrations work under the conception of what Mele refers to as the 'dual-belief requirement', in which an agent simultaneously holds a belief p and a belief ~p. Toward the end of this chapter, Mele considers the argument of one biologist and anthropologist, Robert Trivers, who describes what he takes to be an evolutionary explanation for coming to form false (...)
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  5. Neil Tennant (2014). The Logical Structure of Evolutionary Explanation and Prediction: Darwinism's Fundamental Schema. Biology and Philosophy 29 (5):611-655.score: 180.0
    We present a logically detailed case-study of Darwinian evolutionary explanation. Special features of Darwin’s explanatory schema made it an unusual theoretical breakthrough, from the point of view of the philosophy of science. The schema employs no theoretical terms, and puts forward no theoretical hypotheses. Instead, it uses three observational generalizations—Variability, Heritability and Differential Reproduction—along with an innocuous assumption of Causal Efficacy, to derive Adaptive Evolution as a necessary consequence. Adaptive Evolution in turn, with one assumption of scale (‘Deep (...)
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  6. HanGoo Lee (2008). An Evolutionary Explanation Model on the Transformation of Culture by Cultural Gene. Proceedings of the Xxii World Congress of Philosophy 38:49-55.score: 180.0
    This article seeks to explain the transformation of culture using the mechanism of evolutionary theory. Social biologists have been dealing with this issue for many years now. However, these scholars have not sufficiently allowed for the importance of factors independent of genes. They have primarily thought of culture as nothing more than the expansion of genes, as an increase in the rate of genetic adaptation. Namely, they have focused less on culture itself and more on its natural origins. Even (...)
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  7. Denise D. Cummins & Robert C. Cummins (1999). Biological Preparedness and Evolutionary Explanation. Cognition 73 (3):B37-B53.score: 164.0
    It is commonly supposed that evolutionary explanations of cognitive phenomena involve the assumption that the capacities to be explained are both innate and modular. This is understandable: independent selection of a trait requires that it be both heritable and largely decoupled from other `nearby' traits. Cognitive capacities realized as innate modules would certainly satisfy these contraints. A viable evolutionary cognitive psychology, however, requires neither extreme nativism nor modularity, though it is consistent with both. In this paper, we seek (...)
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  8. Steven Horst (1999). Evolutionary Explanation and the Hard Problem of Consciousness. Journal of Consciousness Studies 6 (1):39-48.score: 162.0
  9. J. Wentzel van Huyssteen (2006). Emergence and Human Uniqueness: Limiting or Delimiting Evolutionary Explanation? Zygon 41 (3):649-664.score: 162.0
  10. Bence Nanay (2004). The Structure and Significance of Evolutionary Explanations in Philosophy. In H. Carel & D. Gamez (eds.), What Philosophy is. Ccontinuum.score: 160.0
    The so-called evolutionary approach is getting more and more popular in various branches of philosophy. Evolutionary explanations are often used in virtually every classical philosophical discipline. The structure of evolutionary explanations is examined and it is pointed out that only one sub-category of evolutionary explanations, namely, nonreductive, non-stipulated adaptation-explanation can be of any philosophical significance. I finish by examining which of the proposed philosophical arguments use this kind of evolutionary explanation. The answer will (...)
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  11. Colin Allen (1992). Mental Content and Evolutionary Explanation. Biology and Philosophy 7 (1):1-12.score: 156.0
    Cognitive ethology is the comparative study of animal cognition from an evolutionary perspective. As a sub-discipline of biology it shares interest in questions concerning the immediate causes and development of behavior. As a part of ethology it is also concerned with questions about the function and evolution of behavior. I examine some recent work in cognitive ethology, and I argue that the notions of mental content and representation are important to enable researchers to answer questions and state generalizations about (...)
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  12. Anthony O'Hear (1997). Beyond Evolution: Human Nature and the Limits of Evolutionary Explanation. Oxford University Press.score: 156.0
    In this controversial new book O'Hear takes a stand against the fashion for explaining human behavior in terms of evolution. He contends that while the theory of evolution is successful in explaining the development of the natural world in general, it is of limited value when applied to the human world. Because of our reflectiveness and our rationality we take on goals and ideals which cannot be justified in terms of survival-promotion or reproductive advantage. O'Hear examines the nature of human (...)
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  13. David Thompson, Causal, Teleological and Evolutionary Explanation.score: 156.0
    Darren, attributing this argument to Hume, tells us that Hume rejected step #4. So do I. I am a compatibilist: I accept the scientific worldview that everything can be explained by natural, causal laws, but I believe that human actions (and biological functions) can still be explained teleologically, by their ends – a precondition for freedom. This paper is one of a series of attempts to show how such campatibilism is possible, this time by focusing on the nature of (...). (shrink)
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  14. Herbert Gintis (2013). An Implausible Model and Evolutionary Explanation of the Revenge Motive. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 36 (1):21-22.score: 156.0
    McCullough et al.'s target article is a psychological version of the reputation models pioneered by biologist Robert Trivers (1971) and economist Robert Frank (1988). The authors, like Trivers and Frank, offer an implausible explanation of the fact that revenge is common even when there are no possible reputational effects. I sketch a more plausible model based on recent research.
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  15. Harmon R. Holcomb Iii (1996). Just so Stories and Inference to the Best Explanation in Evolutionary Psychology. Minds and Machines 6 (4):525-540.score: 156.0
    Evolutionary psychology is a science in the making, working toward the goal of showing how psychological adaptation underlies much human behavior. The knee-jerk reaction that sociobiology is unscientific because it tells “just-so stories” has become a common charge against evolutionary psychology as well. My main positive thesis is that inference to the best explanation is a proper method for evolutionary analyses, and it supplies a new perspective on the issues raised in Schlinger's (1996) just-so story critique. (...)
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  16. Steven Horst (2002). Evolutionary Explanation and Consciousness. Journal of Psychology and Theology 30 (1):41-50.score: 150.0
  17. Ingo Brigandt (forthcoming). Evolutionary Developmental Biology and the Limits of Philosophical Accounts of Mechanistic Explanation. In P.-A. Braillard and C. Malaterre (ed.), Explanation in Biology: An Enquiry into the Diversity of Explanatory Patterns in the Life Sciences. Springer.score: 150.0
    Evolutionary developmental biology (evo-devo) is considered a ‘mechanistic science,’ in that it causally explains morphological evolution in terms of changes in developmental mechanisms. Evo-devo is also an interdisciplinary and integrative approach, as its explanations use contributions from many fields and pertain to different levels of organismal organization. Philosophical accounts of mechanistic explanation are currently highly prominent, and have been particularly able to capture the integrative nature of multifield and multilevel explanations. However, I argue that evo-devo demonstrates the need (...)
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  18. P. E. Griffiths & R. D. Gray (1994). Developmental Systems and Evolutionary Explanation. Journal of Philosophy 91 (6):277-304.score: 150.0
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  19. Mahdi Muhammad Moosa & S. M. Minhaz Ud-Dean (2010). Danger Avoidance: An Evolutionary Explanation of Uncanny Valley. Biological Theory 5 (1):12-14.score: 150.0
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  20. Nicholas Agar (2001). Book Review. Beyond Evolution: Human Nature and the Limits of Evolutionary Explanation Anthony O'Hear. [REVIEW] Mind 110 (438):534-537.score: 150.0
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  21. Mikael Stenmark (1999). Anthony O'Hear Beyond Evolution: Human Nature and the Limitation of Evolutionary Explanation. (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1997.) Pp. VIII+220. £35.00 Hbk. [REVIEW] Religious Studies 35 (4):493-504.score: 150.0
  22. Author unknown, Causal, Teleological and Evolutionary Explanation.score: 150.0
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  23. Reviewed by Dale Jamieson (2000). Anthony O'Hear, Beyond Evolution: Human Nature and the Limits of Evolutionary Explanation. Ethics 110 (2).score: 150.0
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  24. D. Hull (1998). Review. Beyond Evolution: Human Nature and the Limits of Evolutionary Explanation. Anthony O'Hear. British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 49 (3):511-514.score: 150.0
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  25. Richard E. Michod (1986). On Fitness and Adaptedness and Their Role in Evolutionary Explanation. Journal of the History of Biology 19 (2):289 - 302.score: 150.0
  26. A. Brito Da Cunha (1991). Commentary on the Paper by HC Byerly and RE Michod,“Fitness and Evolutionary Explanation”. Biology and Philosophy 6 (1):23-27.score: 150.0
  27. A. Brito Da Cunha (1991). Commentary on the Paper by H.C. Byerly and R.E. Michod, “Fitness and Evolutionary Explanation”. Biology and Philosophy 6 (1):23-27.score: 150.0
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  28. Scott A. Kleiner (1991). Comments on “Fitness and Evolutionary Explanation”. Biology and Philosophy 6 (1):29-32.score: 150.0
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  29. A. Brito Cunhdaa (1991). Commentary on the Paper by H.C. Byerly and R.E. Michod, “Fitness and Evolutionary Explanation”. Biology and Philosophy 6 (1).score: 150.0
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  30. Sarah Ashelford (2012). Does Depression Require an Evolutionary Explanation? In Martin H. Brinkworth & Friedel Weinert (eds.), Evolution 2.0: Implications of Darwinism in Philosophy and the Social and Natural Sciences. Springer.score: 150.0
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  31. K. Benson (2002). Anthony O'Hear, Beyond Evolution: Human Nature and the Limits of Evolutionary Explanation. History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences 23 (2):320-321.score: 150.0
     
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  32. C. M. Berman (1982). Functions of Play: First Steps Toward Evolutionary Explanation. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 5 (1):157.score: 150.0
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  33. Justin Broackes (1992). Nonreductionism, Content and Evolutionary Explanation. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 15 (1):31-32.score: 150.0
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  34. Les Burwood (2011). It's Just Not Natural: Beyond Evolution: Human Nature and the Limits of Evolutionary Explanation, Anthony O'Hear (Oxford University Press)£ 11.99/$18.95. [REVIEW] The Philosophers' Magazine 12:56.score: 150.0
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  35. Denise Dellarosa Cummins & Robert Cummins (1999). Biological Preparedness and Evolutionary Explanation. Cognition 73 (3):B37-B53.score: 150.0
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  36. Sa Kleiner (1991). Fitness and Evolutionary Explanation-Comment. Biology and Philosophy 6 (1):29-32.score: 150.0
     
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  37. Kimberly D. Kornbacher (2001). Building Components of Evolutionary Explanation: A Study of Wedge Tbols From Northern South. In Terry L. Hunt, Carl P. Lipo & Sarah L. Sterling (eds.), Posing Questions for a Scientific Archaeology. Bergin & Garvey. 23.score: 150.0
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  38. Jg Lennox (1991). Fitness and Evolutionary Explanation-Comment. Biology and Philosophy 6 (1):33-37.score: 150.0
     
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  39. Anthony O'Hear & David L. Hull (1998). Reviews-Beyond Evolution: Human Nature and the Limits of Evolutionary Explanation. British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 49 (3):511-514.score: 150.0
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  40. Mikael Stenmark (1999). Rec Av Anthony O'Hear, Beyond Evolution: Human Nature and the Limitation of Evolutionary Explanation, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1997. Religious Studies 35:501-502.score: 150.0
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  41. Harmon R. Holcomb (1996). Just so Stories and Inference to the Best Explanation in Evolutionary Psychology. Minds and Machines 6 (4):525-540.score: 144.0
    Evolutionary psychology is a science in the making, working toward the goal of showing how psychological adaptation underlies much human behavior. The knee-jerk reaction that sociobiology is unscientific because it tells just-so stories has become a common charge against evolutionary psychology as well. My main positive thesis is that inference to the best explanation is a proper method for evolutionary analyses, and it supplies a new perspective on the issues raised in Schlinger's (1996) just-so story critique. (...)
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  42. Mark Pharoah, Looking to Systems Theory for a Reductive Explanation of Phenomenal Experience and Evolutionary Foundations for H.O.T.score: 144.0
    This paper details an evolving dynamic systems hierarchy and explores its relationship with conceptual, evolutionary, physiological, and behavioural characteristics that include phenomenal experience. In doing this, the paper demonstrates an example of a type-C physicalist's reductive explanation of phenomenal experience that is coherent with stipulated philosophical criteria and theories. By providing a reductive explanation of phenomenal experience, the paper provides insights toward explaining many unique human characteristics. These include, creativity, the origins of language as distinct from animal (...)
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  43. Jean Gayon (2005). Chance, Explanation, and Causation in Evolutionary Theory. History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences 27 (3/4):395 - 405.score: 144.0
    Chance comes into plays at many levels of the explanation of the evolutionary process; but the unity of sense of this category is problematic. The purpose of this talk is to clarify the meaning of chance at various levels in evolutionary theory: mutations, genetic drift, genetic revolutions, ecosystems, macroevolution. Three main concepts of chance are found at these various levels: luck (popular concept), randomness (probabilistic concept), and contingency relative to a given theoretical system (epistemological concept). After identifying (...)
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  44. Marko Barendregt & René Van Hezewijk (2005). Adaptive and Genomic Explanations of Human Behaviour: Might Evolutionary Psychology Contribute to Behavioural Genomics? [REVIEW] Biology and Philosophy 20 (1):57-78.score: 132.0
    . Evolutionary psychology and behavioural genomics are both approaches to explain human behaviour from a genetic point of view. Nonetheless, thus far the development of these disciplines is anything but interdependent. This paper examines the question whether evolutionary psychology can contribute to behavioural genomics. Firstly, a possible inconsistency between the two approaches is reviewed, viz. that evolutionary psychology focuses on the universal human nature and disregards the genetic variation studied by behavioural genomics. Secondly, we will discuss the (...)
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  45. Harold Kincaid, Functional Explanation and Evolutionary Social Science.score: 126.0
    From their conception to the present, the social sciences have invoked a kind of explanation that looks suspect by the standards of the natural sciences. They explain why social practices exist by reference to the purpose or needs they serve. Yet the purposes invoked are generally not the explicit purposes or needs of any individual but of society or social groups. For example, Durkheim claimed that the division of labor in society exists in order to promote social solidarity and (...)
     
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  46. Luís R. Eleutério (2012). Mechanism of Stimulation: An Alternative Explanation for Genetic Variation in the Evolutionary Theory. World Futures 68 (1):49 - 68.score: 126.0
    A new evolutionary concept is presented, based on the principle of biological diversity by organismal adaptation, more specifically the origin of the first variations and the process leading to speciation. The article suggests the mechanism of stimulation as the major promoter of genetic variation, making an overall assessment and accurate to the natural phenomenon responsible for this evolutionary step. Constantly, environmental forces interact with the organism, favoring changes to the organs toward adaptation. Stimulation focuses on this action?reaction between (...)
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  47. Candace Kruttschnitt (1999). Do We Owe It All to Darwin? The Adequacy of Evolutionary Psychology as an Explanation for Gender Differences in Aggression. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 22 (2):228-229.score: 126.0
    Gender differences in aggression are highly variable; there is significant evidence that this variability is as much a function of social and cultural conditions as evolutionary processes. While some of these conditions may reflect resource scarcities as Campbell proposes, others are inconsistent with her perspective or are explained equally well by other perspectives.
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  48. Peter Godfrey-smith (2008). Explanation in Evolutionary Biology: Comments on Fodor. Mind and Language 23 (1):32–41.score: 120.0
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  49. Gregory Radick (2000). Two Explanations of Evolutionary Progress. Biology and Philosophy 15 (4):475-491.score: 120.0
    Natural selection explains how living forms are fitted to theirconditions of life. Darwin argued that selection also explains what hecalled the gradual advancement of the organisation, i.e.evolutionary progress. Present-day selectionists disagree. In theirview, it is happenstance that sustains conditions favorable to progress,and therefore happenstance, not selection, that explains progress. Iargue that the disagreement here turns not on whether there exists aselection-based condition bias – a belief now attributed to Darwin – but on whether there needs to be such a (...)
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  50. Bruce Glymour (2008). Stable Models and Causal Explanation in Evolutionary Biology. Philosophy of Science 75 (5):571-583.score: 120.0
    Models that fail to satisfy the Markov condition are unstable because changes in state variable values may cause changes in the values of background variables, and these changes in background lead to predictive error. Such error arises because non‐Markovian models fail to track the causal relations generating the values of response variables. This has implications for discussions of the level of selection: under certain plausible conditoins most standard models of group selection will not satisfy the Markov condition when fit to (...)
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