Search results for 'Experiment' (try it on Scholar)

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  1. Alan Salter & Charles T. Wolfe (2009). “Empiricism Contra Experiment: Harvey, Locke and the Revisionist View of Experimental Philosophy”. Bulletin d'histoire et d'épistémologie des sciences de la vie 16 (2):113-140.score: 24.0
    In this paper we suggest a revisionist perspective on two significant figures in early modern life science and philosophy: William Harvey and John Locke. Harvey, the discoverer of the circulation of the blood, is often named as one of the rare representatives of the ‘life sciences’ who was a major figure in the Scientific Revolution. While this status itself is problematic, we would like to call attention to a different kind of problem: Harvey dislikes abstraction and controlled experiments (aside from (...)
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  2. Marek Picha (2011). How to Reconstruct a Thought Experiment. Organon F 18 (2):154-188.score: 24.0
    The paper is a contribution to the debate on the epistemological status of thought experiments. I deal with the epistemological uniqueness of experiments in the sense of their irreducibility to other sources of justification. In particular, I criticize an influential argument for the irreducibility of thought experiments to general arguments. First, I introduce the radical empiricist theory of eliminativism, which considers thought experiments to be rhetorically modified arguments, uninteresting from the epistemological point of view. Second, I present objections to the (...)
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  3. Mona Mamulea (2012). A Thought Experiment of Cross-Cultural Comparison. The Question of Rationality. Cercetări Filosofico-Psihologice 4 (2):105-114.score: 24.0
    David Bloor’s thought experiment is taken into consideration to suggest that the rationality of the Other cannot be inferred by way of argument for the reason that it is unavoidably contained as a hidden supposition by any argument engaged in proving it. We are able to understand a different culture only as far as we recognize in it the same kind of rationality that works in our own culture. Another kind of rationality is either impossible, or indiscernible.
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  4. Lydia Patton (2012). Experiment and Theory Building. Synthese 184 (3):235-246.score: 24.0
    I examine the role of inference from experiment in theory building. What are the options open to the scientific community when faced with an experimental result that appears to be in conflict with accepted theory? I distinguish, in Laudan's (1977), Nickels's (1981), and Franklin's (1993) sense, between the context of pursuit and the context of justification of a scientific theory. Making this distinction allows for a productive middle position between epistemic realism and constructivism. The decision to pursue a new (...)
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  5. F. Herbut (2010). On EPR-Type Entanglement in the Experiments of Scully Et Al. II. Insight in the Real Random Delayed-Choice Erasure Experiment. Foundations of Physics 40 (3):301-312.score: 24.0
    It was pointed out in the first part of this study (Herbut in Found. Phys. 38:1046–1064, 2008) that EPR-type entanglement is defined by the possibility of performing any of two mutually incompatible distant, i.e., direct-interaction-free, measurements. They go together under the term ‘EPR-type disentanglement’. In this second part, quantum-mechanical insight is gained in the real random delayed-choice erasure experiment of Kim et al. (Phys. Rev. Lett. 84:1–5, 2000) by a relative-reality-of-unitarily-evolving-state (RRUES) approach (explained in the first part). Finally, it (...)
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  6. Antoine Suarez (2008). Nonlocal “Realistic” Leggett Models Can Be Considered Refuted by the Before-Before Experiment. Foundations of Physics 38 (6):583-589.score: 24.0
    Nonlocal “realistic” Leggett models can be considered refuted by the before-before experiment. “Single preferred frame” models are not refuted by this experiment but bear severe oddities.
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  7. Eduardo V. Flores (2008). Reply to Comments of Steuernagel on the Afshar's Experiment. Foundations of Physics 38 (8):778-781.score: 24.0
    We respond to criticism of our paper “Paradox in Wave-Particle Duality for Non-Perturbative Measurements”. We disagree with Steuernagel’s derivation of the visibility of the Afshar experiment. To calculate the fringe visibility, Steuernagel utilizes two different experimental situations, i.e. the wire grid in the pattern minima and in the pattern maxima. In our assessment, this procedure cannot lead to the correct result for the complementarity properties of a wave-particle in one particular experimental set-up.
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  8. Alexander Gersten (2005). Experiment to Test Whether We Live in a Four-Dimensional Physical Space–Time. Foundations of Physics 35 (8):1445-1452.score: 24.0
    For quantum systems, whose energy ratios En/E0 are integers, and |E0| is the smallest energy, the time dependent wavefunctions and expectation values of time independent operators have time periodicitiy with a time period T equal to T = h/|E0|, where h is the Planck constant. This periodicity is imposed on the wavefunctions due to undersampling in energy, but following a similarity with aliasing in signal analysis, it may allow to probe future and past events under the condition that our world (...)
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  9. Marco Buzzoni (2007). Zum Verhältnis Zwischen Experiment Und Gedankenexperiment in den Naturwissenschaften. Journal for General Philosophy of Science 38 (2):219 - 237.score: 24.0
    On the relation between experiment and thought experiment in the natural sciences. To understand the reciprocal autonomy and complementarity of thought and real experiment, it is necessary to distinguish between a ‘positive’ (empirical or formal) and a transcendental perspective. Empirically and formally, real and thought experiments are indistinguishable. However, from a reflexive-transcendental viewpoint thought experiment is at the same time irreducible and complementary to real experiment. This is due to the fact that the hypothetical-anticipatory moment (...)
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  10. R. E. Kastner (2009). On Visibility in the Afshar Two-Slit Experiment. Foundations of Physics 39 (10):1139-1144.score: 24.0
    A modified version of Young’s experiment by Shahriar Afshar indirectly reveals the presence of a fully articulated interference pattern prior to the post-selection of a particle in a “which-slit” basis. While this experiment does not constitute a violation of Bohr’s Complementarity Principle as claimed by Afshar, both he and many of his critics incorrectly assume that a commonly used relationship between visibility parameter V and “which-way” parameter K has crucial relevance to his experiment. It is argued here (...)
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  11. Nils Roll-Hansen (1989). The Crucial Experiment of Wilhelm Johannsen. Biology and Philosophy 4 (3):303-329.score: 24.0
    I call an experiment “crucial” when it makes possible a decisive choice between conflicting hypotheses. Joharmsen's selection for size and weight within pure lines of beans played a central role in the controversy over continuity or discontinuity in hereditary change, often known as the Biometrician-Mendelian controversy. The “crucial” effect of this experiment was not an instantaneous event, but an extended process of repeating similar experiments and discussing possible objections. It took years before Johannsen's claim about the genetic stability (...)
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  12. Jesper BrØsted SØrensen (2005). The Alien-Hand Experiment. Phenomenology and the Cognitive Sciences 4 (1):73-90.score: 24.0
    This article reintroduces a phenomenological experiment designed in the early 1960’s, The Alien-Hand Experiment (TAHE), and it illustrates how phenomena denoted by theoretical concepts like body image, body schema and agency can be studied via the experiment. An analysis of the verbal reports from 26 subjects who participated in TAHE is presented in this article. Subjects were divided into three groups: A group of non-bulimic men, a group of non-bulimic women and a group of female bulimics. The (...)
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  13. Iris Jenkel & Jason J. Haen (2012). Influences on Students' Decisions to Report Cheating: A Laboratory Experiment. [REVIEW] Journal of Academic Ethics 10 (2):123-136.score: 24.0
    Abstract We use a controlled laboratory experiment design to test rational choice theory on student whistleblowing. We examine reporting costs by comparing actual reporting behavior under anonymous and non-anonymous reporting channels. Reporting benefits are explored by considering the influence on reporting of group versus individual reward systems. We find that the type of reporting channel does not significantly influence student reporting behavior. Rewarding students based on group test scores results in significantly higher reporting rates compared to a system rewarding (...)
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  14. Pedro Sancho (2002). Popper's Experiment Revisited. Foundations of Physics 32 (5):789-805.score: 24.0
    Recently, there has been increasing theoretical and experimental interest in Popper's gedanken experiment. We calculate in this paper, using the path integral approach, the diffraction patterns predicted by quantum mechanics for this arrangement. The calculations confirm the narrowing of the width of the pattern in absence of the slit obtained experimentally by Kim and Shih (Y. Kim and Y. Shih, Found. Phys. 29, 1849 (1999)).
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  15. Peeter Müürsepp (2013). The Changing Role of Scientific Experiment. Studia Philosophica Estonica 5 (2):152-166.score: 24.0
    Practical realism is focused on the problem of how science really works. In the case of physics and chemistry, experiment is the centrepiece of scientific practice. The rapid development of contemporary natural science does not leave the experiment unaffected. The classical experiment is normally applied only to systems that can be considered structurally stable, repeatability being the key feature. After the introduction of the theoretical basis of irreversibility by Ilya Prigogine the essence of the experiment changed. (...)
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  16. C. I. Christov (2010). The Effect of the Relative Motion of Atoms on the Frequency of the Emitted Light and the Reinterpretation of the Ives-Stilwell Experiment. Foundations of Physics 40 (6):575-584.score: 24.0
    We examine the process of the emission of light from an atom that is in a relative translational motion with respect to the medium at rest in which the electromagnetic excitations propagate. The effect of Lorentz contraction of the of electron orbits on the emitted frequency is incorporated in the Rydberg formula, as well as the emitter’s Doppler effect is acknowledged. The result is that the frequency of the emitted light is modified by a factor that is identical with what (...)
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  17. Nenad Miscevic (2013). In Search of the Reason and the Right—Rousseau's Social Contract as a Thought Experiment. Acta Analytica 28 (4):509-526.score: 24.0
    For Rousseau, social contract is a hypothetical one; the paper claims that it is, in contemporary terms, a political thought-experiment (TE). The abductive way of thinking, looking for the best normative pattern in the data, finds its counterpart in the historical abduction in the Second Discourse; the analogy between the two secures the methodological unity of Rousseau’s political philosophy. The proposed reading of the work as a TE shows that it fulfills the necessary requirements put by (hopefully) intuitively acceptable (...)
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  18. Bruce Rosenblum & Fred Kuttner (2002). The Observer in the Quantum Experiment. Foundations of Physics 32 (8):1273-1293.score: 24.0
    A goal of most interpretations of quantum mechanics is to avoid the apparent intrusion of the observer into the measurement process. Such intrusion is usually seen to arise because observation somehow selects a single actuality from among the many possibilities represented by the wavefunction. The issue is typically treated in terms of the mathematical formulation of the quantum theory. We attempt to address a different manifestation of the quantum measurement problem in a theory-neutral manner. With a version of the two-slit (...)
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  19. V. Ivanenko & V. Labkovskii (2004). Experiment in the General Decision Problem. Theory and Decision 57 (4):309-330.score: 24.0
    We consider an experiment that conducts observations on an uncertain parameter. Experiments observing a parameter with a stochastic uncertainty have been studied exhaustively and their characteristics have been described by many authors [see, e.g., De Groot, M. (1974), Optimal Statistical Decisions (Russian translation)]. In this article, we assume that uncertainty is generated by a mechanism which is “random in the broad sense” [a term introduced by Kolmogorov, A.N. (1986), in Probability Theory and Mathematical Statistics (in Russia), pp. 467–471]. Ivanenko, (...)
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  20. Joanna P. Ganning, Courtney G. Flint & Stephen Gasteyer (2012). A Case Study From the Post-New Deal State Agricultural Experiment Station System: A Life of Mixed Signals in Southern Illinois. [REVIEW] Agriculture and Human Values 29 (4):493-506.score: 24.0
    A wide literature in the sociology of agriculture has depicted the development of agricultural experiment stations at land grant colleges as part of a development project to improve agricultural productivity in particular commodities. Some experiment stations developed regional agricultural centers or stations to improve productivity and address local concerns, recognizing the importance of context in rural development. Through analysis of one such station, the Dixon Springs Agricultural Center in Southern Illinois, this paper describes how regional agricultural stations played (...)
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  21. Heather J. Carmack, Benjamin R. Bates & Lynn M. Harter (2008). Narrative Constructions of Health Care Issues and Policies: The Case of President Clinton's Apology-by-Proxy for the Tuskegee Syphilis Experiment. [REVIEW] Journal of Medical Humanities 29 (2):89-109.score: 24.0
    The Tuskegee Syphilis Experiment (TSE) has shaped African Americans’ views of the American health care system, contributing to a reluctance to participate in biomedical research and a suspicion of the medical system. This essay examines public discourses surrounding President Clinton’s attempt to restore African Americans’ trust by apologizing for the TSE. Through a narrative reading, we illustrate the failure of this text as an attempt to reconcile the United States Public Health Service and the African American public. We conclude (...)
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  22. Basileios Kroustallis (2012). Film as Thought Experiment: A Happy-Go-Lucky Case? Film-Philosophy 16 (1):72-84.score: 22.0
    Can some films be genuine thought experiments that challenge our commonsense intuitions? Certain filmic narratives and their mise-en-scène details reveal rigorous reasoning and counterintuitive outcomes on philosophical issues, such as skepticism or personal identity. But this philosophical façade may hide a mundane concern for entertainment. Unfamiliar narratives drive spectator entertainment, and every novel cinematic situation could be easily explained as part of a process that lacks motives of philosophical elucidation. -/- The paper inverses the above objection, and proposes that when (...)
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  23. Nicholas Georgalis (2003). Burge's Thought Experiment: Still in Need of Defense. [REVIEW] Erkenntnis 58 (2):267-273.score: 21.0
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  24. Daniel C. Dennett, Cog as a Thought Experiment.score: 21.0
    In her presentation at the Monte Verità workshop, Maja Mataric showed us a videotape of her robots cruising together through the lab, and remarked, aptly: "They're flocking, but that's not what they think they're doing." This is a vivid instance of a phenomenon that lies at the heart of all the research I learned about at Monte Verità: the execution of surprisingly successful "cognitive" behaviors by systems that did not explicitly represent, and did not need to explicitly represent, what they (...)
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  25. Marek Żukowski (2008). Comment On: Nonlocal “Realistic” Leggett Models Can Be Considered Refuted by the Before-Before Experiment. Foundations of Physics 38 (11):1070-1071.score: 21.0
    It is shown here that Suarez (Found. Phys. 38:583, 2008) wrongly presents the assumptions behind the Leggett’s inequalities, and their modified form used by Groeblacher et al. (Nature 446:871, 2007) for an experimental falsification of a certain class of non-local hidden variable models.
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  26. N. Georgalis (1999). Rethinking Burge's Thought Experiment. Synthese 118 (2):145-64.score: 21.0
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  27. Kent Bach (1988). Burge's New Thought Experiment: Back to the Drawing Room. Journal of Philosophy 85 (February):88-97.score: 21.0
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  28. Anthony L. Brueckner (2001). Defending Burge's Thought Experiment. Erkenntnis 55 (3):387-391.score: 21.0
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  29. Paul Benioff (2005). Towards a Coherent Theory of Physics and Mathematics: The Theory–Experiment Connection. Foundations of Physics 35 (11):1825-1856.score: 21.0
  30. Sven Dupr (2008). Inside the Camera Obscura. Kepler's Experiment and Theory of Optical Imagery. Early Science and Medicine 13 (3):219-244.score: 21.0
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  31. Elaheh Kheirandish (2009). Footprints of "Experiment" in Early Arabic Optics. Early Science and Medicine 14 (1):79-104.score: 21.0
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  32. Rose-Mary Sargent (1989). Scientific Experiment and Legal Expertise: The Way of Experience in Seventeenth-Century England. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 20 (1):19-45.score: 21.0
  33. Edward R. Floyd (2007). Welcher Weg? A Trajectory Representation of a Quantum Young's Diffraction Experiment. Foundations of Physics 37 (9):1403-1420.score: 21.0
    The double slit problem is idealized by simplifying each slit by a point source. A composite reduced action for the two correlated point sources is developed. Contours of the reduced action, trajectories and loci of transit times are developed in the region near the two point sources. The trajectory through any point in Euclidean 3-space also passes simultaneously through both point sources.
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  34. James Bogen (2002). Experiment and Observation. In Peter K. Machamer & Michael Silberstein (eds.), The Blackwell Guide to the Philosophy of Science. Cambridge: Blackwell. 128--148.score: 21.0
  35. R. A. Bobbit (1940). A New Apparatus for the Luria Experiment. Journal of Experimental Psychology 27 (5):578.score: 21.0
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  36. C. E. Lauterbach (1933). An Improved Technique in the Mirror-Tracing Experiment. Journal of Experimental Psychology 16 (3):451.score: 21.0
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  37. Alva Noë (2000). Experience and Experiment in Art. Journal of Consciousness Studies 7 (8-9):123-135.score: 21.0
  38. Tsung‐Tai Chen, Kuo‐Piao Chung, Heng‐Chiang Huang, Lao‐Nga Man & Mei‐Shu Lai (2010). Using Discrete Choice Experiment to Elicit Doctors' Preferences for the Report Card Design of Diabetes Care in Taiwan – a Pilot Study. Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 16 (1):14-20.score: 21.0
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  39. In-Mao Liu (1972). Effects of "Right" and "Wrong" in a Thorndikian Experiment. Journal of Experimental Psychology 95 (2):365.score: 21.0
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  40. Arnaud Reynaud & Stéphane Couture (2012). Stability of Risk Preference Measures: Results From a Field Experiment on French Farmers. Theory and Decision 73 (2):203-221.score: 21.0
    We compare two different elicitation methods for measuring risk attitudes on a sample of French farmers. We consider the lottery tasks initially proposed by Holt and Laury (Econ Rev 92:1644–1655, 2002) and by Eckel and Grossman (Evol Hum Behav 23:281–295, 2002; J Econ Behav Org 68:1–7, 2008). The main empirical result from this within-subject study is that risk preference measures are affected by the type of mechanism used. We first show that this risk preference instability can be related to non-expected (...)
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  41. C. S. Yoakum (1916). The Complication Experiment and the After Image. Journal of Experimental Psychology 1 (2):99.score: 21.0
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  42. Pavlo Blavatskyy & Ganna Pogrebna (2008). Risk Aversion When Gains Are Likely and Unlikely: Evidence From a Natural Experiment with Large Stakes. [REVIEW] Theory and Decision 64 (2-3):395-420.score: 21.0
    In the television show Deal or No Deal a contestant is endowed with a sealed box, which potentially contains a large monetary prize. In the course of the show the contestant learns more information about the distribution of possible monetary prizes inside her box. Consider two groups of contestants, who learned that the chances of their boxes containing a large prize are 20% and 80% correspondingly. Contestants in both groups receive qualitatively similar price offers for selling the content of their (...)
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  43. H. R. Crosland (1931). Letter-Position Effects, in the Range of Attention Experiment, as Affected by the Number of Letters in Each Exposure. Journal of Experimental Psychology 14 (5):477.score: 21.0
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  44. R. James Holzworth & Michael E. Doherty (1974). Visual Masking by Light Offset: An Experiment in Reply to Hogben and DiLollo. Journal of Experimental Psychology 103 (4):815-816.score: 21.0
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  45. Jerome L. Singer (1952). Personal and Environmental Determinants of Perception in a Size Constancy Experiment. Journal of Experimental Psychology 43 (6):420.score: 21.0
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  46. H. B. Reed (1917). A Repetition of Ebert and Meumann's Practice Experiment on Memory. Journal of Experimental Psychology 2 (5):315-346.score: 21.0
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  47. Jonathan Ichikawa & Benjamin Jarvis (2009). Thought-Experiment Intuitions and Truth in Fiction. Philosophical Studies 142 (2):221 - 246.score: 20.0
    What sorts of things are the intuitions generated via thought experiment? Timothy Williamson has responded to naturalistic skeptics by arguing that thought-experiment intuitions are judgments of ordinary counterfactuals. On this view, the intuition is naturalistically innocuous, but it has a contingent content and could be known at best a posteriori. We suggest an alternative to Williamson's account, according to which we apprehend thought-experiment intuitions through our grasp on truth in fiction. On our view, intuitions like the Gettier (...)
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  48. Maarten Van Dyck (2003). The Roles of One Thought Experiment in Interpreting Quantum Mechanics. Werner Heisenberg Meets Thomas Kuhn. Philosophica 72 (3):79-103.score: 20.0
    Recent years saw the rise of an interest in the roles and significance of thought experiments in different areas of human thinking. Heisenberg's gamma ray microscope is no doubt one of the most famous examples of a thought experiment in physics. Nevertheless, this particular thought experiment has not received much detailed attention in the philosophical literature on thought experiments up to date, maybe because of its often claimed inadequacies. In this paper, I try to do two things: to (...)
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  49. Allan Franklin (1990). Experiment, Right or Wrong. Cambridge University Press.score: 20.0
    In Experiment, Right or Wrong, Allan Franklin continues his investigation of the history and philosophy of experiment presented in his previous book, The Neglect of Experiment. In this new study, Franklin considers the fallibility and corrigibility of experimental results and presents detailed histories of two such episodes: 1) the experiment and the development of the theory of weak interactions from Fermi's theory in 1934 to the V-A theory of 1957 and 2) atomic parity violation experiments and (...)
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  50. Gregory Radick (2005). Primate Language and the Playback Experiment, in 1890 and 1980. Journal of the History of Biology 38 (3):461 - 493.score: 20.0
    The playback experiment -- the playing back of recorded animal sounds to the animals in order to observe their responses -- has twice become central to celebrated researches on non-human primates. First, in the years around 1890, Richard Garner, an amateur scientist and evolutionary enthusiast, used the new wax cylinder phonograph to record and reproduce monkey utterances with the aim of translating them. Second, in the years around 1980, the ethologists Peter Marler, Robert Seyfarth, and Dorothy Cheney used (...)
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