Search results for 'Experiment, Mathematics, Thought' (try it on Scholar)

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  1.  19
    Kristan Shrader-Frechete (2001). Using a Thought Experiment to Clarify a Radiobiological Controversy. Synthese 128 (3):319 - 342.
    Are philosophers of science limited to conducting autopsies on dead scientific theories, or might they also help resolve contemporary methodological disputes in science? This essay (1) gives an overview of thought experiments, especially in mathematics; (2) outlines three major positions on the current dose-response controversy for ionizing radiation; and (3) sketches an original mathematical thought experiment that might help resolve the low-dose radiation conflict. This thought experiment relies on the assumptions that radiation "hits'' are Poisson distributed and (...)
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  2.  25
    Juhana Toivanen (2015). Fate of the Flying Man: Medieval Reception of Avicenna's Thought Experiment. Oxford Studies in Medieval Philosophy 3:64-98.
    This chapter discusses the reception of Avicenna’s well-known “flying man” thought experiment in twelfth- and thirteenth-century Latin philosophy. The central claim is that the argumentative role of the thought experiment changed radically in the latter half of the thirteenth century. The earlier authors—Dominicus Gundissalinus, William of Auvergne, Peter of Spain, and John of la Rochelle—understood it as an ontological proof for the existence and/or the nature of the soul. By contrast, Matthew of Aquasparta and Vital du Four used (...)
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  3. Mona Mamulea (2012). A Thought Experiment of Cross-Cultural Comparison. The Question of Rationality. Cercetări Filosofico-Psihologice 4 (2):105-114.
    David Bloor’s thought experiment is taken into consideration to suggest that the rationality of the Other cannot be inferred by way of argument for the reason that it is unavoidably contained as a hidden supposition by any argument engaged in proving it. We are able to understand a different culture only as far as we recognize in it the same kind of rationality that works in our own culture. Another kind of rationality is either impossible, or indiscernible.
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  4. Marek Picha (2011). How to Reconstruct a Thought Experiment. Organon F: Medzinárodný Časopis Pre Analytickú Filozofiu 18 (2):154-188.
    The paper is a contribution to the debate on the epistemological status of thought experiments. I deal with the epistemological uniqueness of experiments in the sense of their irreducibility to other sources of justification. In particular, I criticize an influential argument for the irreducibility of thought experiments to general arguments. First, I introduce the radical empiricist theory of eliminativism, which considers thought experiments to be rhetorically modified arguments, uninteresting from the epistemological point of view. Second, I present (...)
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  5.  15
    Sören Stenlund (2015). On the Origin of Symbolic Mathematics and Its Significance for Wittgenstein’s Thought. Nordic Wittgenstein Review 4 (1):7-92.
    The main topic of this essay is symbolic mathematics or the method of symbolic construction, which I trace to the end of the sixteenth century when Franciscus Vieta invented the algebraic symbolism and started to use the word ‘symbolic’ in the relevant, non-ontological sense. This approach has played an important role for many of the great inventions in modern mathematics such as the introduction of the decimal place-value system of numeration, Descartes’ analytic geometry, and Leibniz’s infinitesimal calculus. It was also (...)
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  6.  23
    Nenad Miscevic (2013). In Search of the Reason and the Right—Rousseau's Social Contract as a Thought Experiment. Acta Analytica 28 (4):509-526.
    For Rousseau, social contract is a hypothetical one; the paper claims that it is, in contemporary terms, a political thought-experiment (TE). The abductive way of thinking, looking for the best normative pattern in the data, finds its counterpart in the historical abduction in the Second Discourse; the analogy between the two secures the methodological unity of Rousseau’s political philosophy. The proposed reading of the work as a TE shows that it fulfills the necessary requirements put by (hopefully) intuitively acceptable (...)
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  7. Basileios Kroustallis (2012). Film as Thought Experiment: A Happy-Go-Lucky Case? Film-Philosophy 16 (1):72-84.
    Can some films be genuine thought experiments that challenge our commonsense intuitions? Certain filmic narratives and their mise-en-scène details reveal rigorous reasoning and counterintuitive outcomes on philosophical issues, such as skepticism or personal identity. But this philosophical façade may hide a mundane concern for entertainment. Unfamiliar narratives drive spectator entertainment, and every novel cinematic situation could be easily explained as part of a process that lacks motives of philosophical elucidation. -/- The paper inverses the above objection, and proposes that (...)
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  8.  74
    Kent Bach (1988). Burge's New Thought Experiment: Back to the Drawing Room. Journal of Philosophy 85 (February):88-97.
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  9.  77
    Paul Benioff (2005). Towards a Coherent Theory of Physics and Mathematics: The Theory–Experiment Connection. Foundations of Physics 35 (11):1825-1856.
  10.  71
    N. Georgalis (1999). Rethinking Burge's Thought Experiment. Synthese 118 (2):145-64.
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  11.  86
    Nicholas Georgalis (2003). Burge's Thought Experiment: Still in Need of Defense. [REVIEW] Erkenntnis 58 (2):267-273.
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  12.  63
    Daniel C. Dennett, Cog as a Thought Experiment.
    In her presentation at the Monte Verità workshop, Maja Mataric showed us a videotape of her robots cruising together through the lab, and remarked, aptly: "They're flocking, but that's not what they think they're doing." This is a vivid instance of a phenomenon that lies at the heart of all the research I learned about at Monte Verità: the execution of surprisingly successful "cognitive" behaviors by systems that did not explicitly represent, and did not need to explicitly represent, what they (...)
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  13.  57
    Anthony L. Brueckner (2001). Defending Burge's Thought Experiment. Erkenntnis 55 (3):387-391.
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  14. Jonathan Ichikawa & Benjamin Jarvis (2009). Thought-Experiment Intuitions and Truth in Fiction. Philosophical Studies 142 (2):221 - 246.
    What sorts of things are the intuitions generated via thought experiment? Timothy Williamson has responded to naturalistic skeptics by arguing that thought-experiment intuitions are judgments of ordinary counterfactuals. On this view, the intuition is naturalistically innocuous, but it has a contingent content and could be known at best a posteriori. We suggest an alternative to Williamson's account, according to which we apprehend thought-experiment intuitions through our grasp on truth in fiction. On our view, intuitions like the Gettier (...)
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  15. Tamar Szabó Gendler (2000). Thought Experiment: On the Powers and Limits of Imaginary Cases. Garland Pub..
    This book offers a novel analysis of the widely-used but ill-understood technique of thought experiment. The author argues that the powers and limits of this methodology can be traced to the fact that when the contemplation of an imaginary scenario brings us to new knowledge, it does so by forcing us to make sense of exceptional cases.
     
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  16. Maarten Van Dyck (2003). The Roles of One Thought Experiment in Interpreting Quantum Mechanics. Werner Heisenberg Meets Thomas Kuhn. Philosophica 72 (3):79-103.
    Recent years saw the rise of an interest in the roles and significance of thought experiments in different areas of human thinking. Heisenberg's gamma ray microscope is no doubt one of the most famous examples of a thought experiment in physics. Nevertheless, this particular thought experiment has not received much detailed attention in the philosophical literature on thought experiments up to date, maybe because of its often claimed inadequacies. In this paper, I try to do two (...)
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  17.  87
    Harald Wiltsche (2013). How Essential Are Essential Laws? A Thought Experiment on Physical Things and Their Givenness in Adumbrations. In Karl Mertens & Ingo Günzler (eds.), Wahrnehmen, Fühlen, Handeln. Phänomenologie im Widerstreit der Methoden. Mentis 421-436.
    Husserl holds the view that givenness through adumbrations (i.e. perspectival givenness) is an essential characteristic of the givenness of spatiotemporal things. He goes so far to say that we are dealing with an essential law. In this article I try to make sense of this claim. I am also dealing with a thought experiment that is designed to show that the givenness through adumbrations is just a consequence of our physiological make-up, a view that Husserl explicitly rejects. Amongst other (...)
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  18.  30
    Simon Beck & Stephen de Wijze (2015). Interrogating the ‘Ticking Bomb Scenario’: Reassessing the Thought Experiment. International Journal of Applied Philosophy 29 (1):53-70.
    The aim of this paper is to re-evaluate the manner in which the Ticking Bomb Scenario (TBS), a thought experiment in philosophical enquiry, has been used in the discussion of the justifiability or otherwise of forward-looking interrogational torture (FLIT). The paper argues that criticisms commonly raised against the thought experiment are often inappropriate or irrelevant. A great many criticisms misunderstand the way in which thought experiments in general, and the TBS in particular, are supposed to work in (...)
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  19.  19
    David Reed (1994). Figures of Thought: Mathematics and Mathematical Texts. Routledge.
    Figures of Thought looks at how mathematical works can be read as texts and examines their textual strategies. David Reed offers the first sustained and critical attempt to find a consistent argument or narrative thread in mathematical texts. Reed selects mathematicians from a range of historical periods and compares their approaches to organizing and arguing texts, using an extended commentary on Euclid's Elements as a central structuring framework. He develops fascinating interpretations of mathematicians' work throughout history, from Descartes to (...)
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  20. Picha Marek (2016). A Minimalist Framework for Thought Experiment Analysis. Organon F: Medzinárodný Časopis Pre Analytickú Filozofiu 23 (4):503-524.
    Thought experiments are frequently vague and obscure hypothetical scenarios that are difficult to assess. The paper proposes a simple model of thought experiments. In the first part, I introduce two contemporary frameworks for thought experiment analysis: an experimentalist approach that relies on similarities between real and thought experiment, and a reasonist approach focusing on the answers provided by thought experimenting. Further, I articulate a minimalist approach in which thought experiment is considered strictly as doxastic (...)
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  21.  7
    Jean-Yves Goffi & Sophie Roux (2011). On the Very Idea of a Thought Experiment. In Katerina Ierodiakonou & Sophie Roux (eds.), Thought Experiments in Methodological and Historical Contexts. Brill
    Goffi and Roux are interested in what makes some thought experiments work, while others do not work. They do not attempt to draw an a priori line between two types of thought experiments, but rather ask the following question: inasmuch as thought experiments are arguments, and notwithstanding the fact that some of them might involve the contemplation of an imaginary scenario, how is it that some of them work, while others do not? Taking inspiration from a counterfactual (...)
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  22.  9
    C. P. Hertogh (2016). Thought Experiment Analyses of René Descartes' Cogito. Trans/Form/Ação 39 (3):9-22.
    ABSTRACT: René Descartes' Cogito is an example of a paradigmatic thought experiment, herald of both subjectivism and new science in Europe's Modern Age, that seems to have escaped the attention of thought experiment philosophers. On deep analysis, the Cogito appears as universal instantiation. The Cogito has strong rhetorical effects for it narratively generalizes from I to all human kind, and its historical and philosophical success can be explained from its concise enthymematic structure that rings true in many possible (...)
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  23.  74
    Mike Bruno & Eric Mandelbaum (2010). Locke's Answer to Molyneux's Thought Experiment. History of Philosophy Quarterly 27 (2):165-80.
    Philosophical discussions of Molyneux's problem within contemporary philosophy of mind tend to characterize the problem as primarily concerned with the role innately known principles, amodal spatial concepts, and rational cognitive faculties play in our perceptual lives. Indeed, for broadly similar reasons, rationalists have generally advocated an affirmative answer, while empiricists have generally advocated a negative one, to the question Molyneux posed after presenting his famous thought experiment. This historical characterization of the dialectic, however, somewhat obscures the role Molyneux's problem (...)
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  24.  25
    Nenad Miščević (2012). Plato's Republic as a Political Thought Experiment. Croatian Journal of Philosophy 12 (2):153-165.
    Plato’s Republic is a political thought experiment, claims the present paper. Thought-experimenting is announced in the story of the Ring of Gyges, and done in a thorough and systematic way through a series of political scenarios: community of goods, of women and children, educational system and the philosopher rule? The paper considers the longstanding issue of plausibility, putting it in the context of current debates about thought-experiments, and the issue of replaceability: can a given political thought (...)
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  25. John D. Norton, Chasing the Light Einsteinʼs Most Famous Thought Experiment.
    At the age of sixteen, Einstein imagined chasing after a beam of light. He later recalled that the thought experiment had played a memorable role in his development of special relativity. Famous as it is, it has proven difficult to understand just how the thought experiment delivers its results. It fails to generate problems for an ether-based electrodynamics. I propose that Einstein’s canonical statement of the thought experiment from his 1946 “Autobiographical Notes,” makes most sense not as (...)
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  26.  20
    Paolo Palmieri (2005). 'Spuntar Lo Scoglio Più Duro': Did Galileo Ever Think the Most Beautiful Thought Experiment in the History of Science? Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 36 (2):223-240.
    Still today it remains unclear whether Galileo ever climbed the leaning tower of Pisa in order to drop bodies from its top. Some believe that he established the principle of equal speeds for falling bodies by means of an ingenious thought experiment. However, the reconstruction of that thought experiment circulating in the philosophical literature is no more than a cartoon. In this paper I will tell the story of the thought processes behind the cartoon.Keywords: Galileo Galilei; (...) experiment; Falling bodies. (shrink)
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  27.  82
    James Robert Brown (2007). Thought Experiments in Science, Philosophy, and Mathematics. Croatian Journal of Philosophy 7 (1):3-27.
    Most disciplines make use of thought experiments, but physics and philosophy lead the pack with heavy dependence upon them. Often this is for conceptual clarification, but occasionally they provide real theoretical advances. In spite of their importance, however, thought experiments have received rather little attention as a topic in their own right until recently. The situation has improved in the past few years, but a mere generation ago the entire published literature on thought experiments could have been (...)
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  28.  93
    Lothar Schäfer, Diogo Valadas Ponte & Sisir Roy (2009). Quantum Reality and Ethos: A Thought Experiment Regarding the Foundation of Ethics in Cosmic Order. Zygon 44 (2):265-287.
    The authors undertake a thought experiment the purpose of which is to explore possibilities for understanding moral principles in analogy with cosmic order. The experiment is based on three proposals, which are described in detail: an ontological, a neurological, and a moral proposal. The ontological proposal accepts from the phenomena of quantum physics that there is a nonempirical domain of physical reality that consists not of material things but of what is philosophically conceptualized as a realm of nonmaterial forms. (...)
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  29.  97
    Jacques Mallah, The Partial Brain Thought Experiment: Partial Consciousness and its Implications.
    The ‘Fading Qualia’ thought experiment of Chalmers purports to show that computationalism is very probably true even if dualism is true by considering a series of brains, with biological parts increasingly substituted for by artificial but functionally analagous parts in small steps, and arguing that consciousness would not plausibly vanish in either a gradual or sudden way. This defense of computationalism inspired an attack on computationalism by Bishop, who argued that a similar series of substitutions by parts that have (...)
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  30.  94
    Shannon Dea (2006). "Merely a Veil Over the Living Thought": Mathematics and Logic in Peirce's Forgotten Spinoza Review. Transactions of the Charles S. Peirce Society 42 (4):501-517.
    This paper considers Peirce's striking remarks about mathematics in a little-known review of Spinoza's Ethics within the larger context of his philosophy of mathematics. It argues that, for Peirce, true mathematical reasoning is always at the vanguard of thought, and resists logical demonstration. Through diagrammatic thought and her pre-theoretical innate faculty of logica utens, the great mathematician is able to see a theorem as true long before the logical apparatus necessary to demonstrate its truth exists. For Peirce, true (...)
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  31.  23
    Jonathan H. Harris & Mark D. Semon (1980). A Review of the Aharonov-Carmi Thought Experiment Concerning the Inertial and Electromagnetic Vector Potentials. [REVIEW] Foundations of Physics 10 (1-2):151-162.
    We review and elaborate upon a thought experiment of Aharonov and Carmi concerning the inertial and electromagnetic vector potentials. We discuss several conclusions suggested by this experiment which involve extensions of the equivalence principle, and then emphasize the use of the experiment as a predictive tool.
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  32. Tamar Szabo Gendler (1996). Imaginary Exceptions: On the Powers and Limits of Thought Experiment. Dissertation, Harvard University
    Thought experiment is one of the most widely-used and least understood techniques in philosophy. A thought experiment is a process of reasoning carried out within the context of a well-articulated imaginary scenario in order to answer a specific question about a non-imaginary situation. The aim of my dissertation is to show that both the powers and the limits of this methodology can be traced to the fact that when the contemplation of an imaginary scenario brings us to new (...)
     
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  33.  5
    Sam S. Rakover (1996). The Place of Consciousness in the Information Processing Approach: The Mental-Pool Thought Experiment. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 19 (3):537-538.
    Velmans (1991a; 1991b) proposed that consciousness plays a minor explanatory role in the information processing approach and that unconscious mechanisms process stimuli and responses and intervene between them. In contrast, the present commentary describes a thought experiment suggesting that, although input information is initially processed unconsciously, subsequent processing involves consciousness, and consciousness plays an important role in the explanation of behavior.
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  34.  40
    Aspasia S. Moue (2008). The Thought Experiment of Maxwell's Demon and the Origin of Irreversibility. Journal for General Philosophy of Science / Zeitschrift für Allgemeine Wissenschaftstheorie 39 (1):69 - 84.
    The problem of the irreversibility’s origin in thermodynamic processes occupies a distinguished place among many and lasting attempts by researchers to derive irreversibility from molecular-mechanical principles. However, this problem is still open and no universally accepted solution may be given during any course. In this paper, I shall try to show that the examining of Maxwell’s demon thought experiment may provide insight into the difficulties that emerge, looking for this origin because: (i) it is connected with the notion of (...)
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  35. W. J. (1996). The Evidential Significance of Thought Experiment in Science. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 27 (2):233-250.
    The most promising way to regard thought experiment is as a species of experiment, alongside concrete experiment. Of the authors who take this view, many portray thought experiment as possessing evidential significance intrinsically. In contrast, concrete experiment is nowadays most convincingly portrayed as acquiring evidential significance in a particular area of science at a particular time in consequence of the persuasive efforts of scientists. I argue that the claim that thought experiment possesses evidential significance intrinsically is contradicted (...)
     
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  36. Teed Rockwell, Commentary on a Hard Problem Thought Experiment.
    In the seventh paragraph of the post, you say "This question [which machine, if any or both, is conscious/] seems to be in principle unfalsifiable, and yet genuinely meaningful." (I'm assuming that you mean that any answer to it is unfalsifiable.) My neo-Carnapian intuitions diagnoses the problem right at this point. Forget about attributions of meaningless and all that stuff. Replace it in your statement with more pragmatically-oriented evaluative notions: theoretically fruitless, arbitray without even being helpful for any theoretical, experimental, (...)
     
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  37.  21
    P. Thomas, A. Shah & T. Thornton (2009). Language, Games and the Role of Interpreters in Psychiatric Diagnosis: A Wittgensteinian Thought Experiment. Medical Humanities 35 (1):13-18.
    British society is becoming increasingly culturally and linguistically diverse. This poses a major challenge to mental health services charged with the responsibility to work in ways that respect cultural and linguistic difference. In this paper we investigate the problems of interpretation in the diagnosis of depression using a thought experiment to demonstrate important features of language-games, an idea introduced by Ludwig Wittgenstein in his late work, Philosophical investigations. The thought experiment draws attention to the importance of culture and (...)
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  38. Teed Rockwell, Reply to Commentaries on Thought Experiment.
    He describes his position as "neo-Carnapian", i.e. he is claiming that even if the question is meaningful, that doesn't mean it's worth looking into. He's probably right, in the sense that anyone can be right about a personal evaluative choice. And until I started questioning the belief that there is only one kind of physical process that could embody consciousness, I felt the same way myself. But the point about this thought experiment is that the current state of cognitive (...)
     
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  39. Tamar Szabo Gendler (2014). Thought Experiment: On the Powers and Limits of Imaginary Cases. Routledge.
    This book offers a novel analysis of the widely-used but ill-understood technique of thought experiment. The author argues that the powers and limits of this methodology can be traced to the fact that when the contemplation of an imaginary scenario brings us to new knowledge, it does so by forcing us to make sense of exceptional cases.
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  40. Tamar Szabo Gendler (2016). Thought Experiment: On the Powers and Limits of Imaginary Cases. Routledge.
    This book offers a novel analysis of the widely-used but ill-understood technique of thought experiment. The author argues that the powers and limits of this methodology can be traced to the fact that when the contemplation of an imaginary scenario brings us to new knowledge, it does so by forcing us to make sense of exceptional cases.
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  41. David Reed (2003). Figures of Thought: Mathematics and Mathematical Texts. Routledge.
    Rarely has the history or philosophy of mathematics been written about by mathematicians, and the analysis of mathematical texts themselves has been an area almost entirely unexplored. _Figures of Thought_ looks at ways in which mathematical works can be read as texts, examines their textual strategies and demonstrates that such readings provide a rich source of philosophical issues regarding mathematics: issues which traditional approaches to the history and philosophy of mathematics have neglected. David Reed, a professional mathematician himself, offers the (...)
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  42. David Reed (2013). Figures of Thought: Mathematics and Mathematical Texts. Routledge.
    Rarely has the history or philosophy of mathematics been written about by mathematicians, and the analysis of mathematical texts themselves has been an area almost entirely unexplored. _Figures of Thought_ looks at ways in which mathematical works can be read as texts, examines their textual strategies and demonstrates that such readings provide a rich source of philosophical issues regarding mathematics: issues which traditional approaches to the history and philosophy of mathematics have neglected. David Reed, a professional mathematician himself, offers the (...)
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  43. Norman Yujen Teng (1992). An Inquiry Into Thought Experiment. Dissertation, Southern Illinois University at Carbondale
    What are thought experiments? How and why do they work? What do they reveal about the nature of rationality? These are the problems that I attempt to solve in my inquiry. ;Regarding the first problem, my preliminary answer can be stated as follows: Thought experiments are our imaginative explorations of new ways to experience and understand our world. It is my conviction that the ability to try out new ways of experiencing and understanding various phenomena is essential to (...)
     
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  44.  13
    Vladimir Tasić (2001). Mathematics and the Roots of Postmodern Thought. Oxford University Press.
    This is a charming and insightful contribution to an understanding of the "Science Wars" between postmodernist humanism and science, driving toward a resolution of the mutual misunderstanding that has driven the controversy. It traces the root of postmodern theory to a debate on the foundations of mathematics early in the 20th century, then compares developments in mathematics to what took place in the arts and humanities, discussing issues as diverse as literary theory, arts, and artificial intelligence. This is a straightforward, (...)
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  45. Massimo Pigliucci (2006). What is a Thought Experiment, Anyhow? Philosophy Now (Nov/Dec):30.
    Thought experiments are cheap and popular, but how do they work?
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  46. Robert James M. Boyles (2011). The Enemy: A Thought Experiment on Patriarchies, Feminisms and Memes. In Jeane Peracullo & Noelle Leslie Dela Cruz (eds.), Feminista: Gender, Race, and Class in the Philippines. Anvil Publishing, Inc. 53–64.
    This article examines who or what should be the target of feminist criticism. Throughout the discussion, the concept of memes is applied in analyzing systems such as patriarchy and feminism itself. Adapting Dawkins' theory on genes, this research puts forward the possibility that patriarchies and feminisms are memeplexes competing for the limited energy and memory space of humanity.
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  47. Selmer Bringsjord & Ron Noel (2003). Real Robots and the Missing Thought-Experiment in the Chinese Room Dialectic. In John Preston & John Mark Bishop (eds.), Views Into the Chinese Room: New Essays on Searle and Artificial Intelligence. Oxford University Press 144--166.
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  48. Tamar Szabó Gendler (1998). Galileo and the Indispensability of Scientific Thought Experiment. British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 49 (3):397-424.
    By carefully examining one of the most famous thought experiments in the history of science—that by which Galileo is said to have refuted the Aristotelian theory that heavier bodies fall faster than lighter ones—I attempt to show that thought experiments play a distinctive role in scientific inquiry. Reasoning about particular entities within the context of an imaginary scenario can lead to rationally justified concluusions that—given the same initial information—would not be rationally justifiable on the basis of a straightforward (...)
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  49.  40
    Everett H. Larguier (1937). The Schools of Thought in Modern Mathematics. Thought: A Journal of Philosophy 12 (2):225-240.
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  50.  19
    Michael Stöltzner, The Dynamics of Thought Experiments - Comment to Atkinson.
    Commenting on Atkinson 's paper I argue that leading to a successful real experiment is not the only scale on which a thought experiment's value is judged. Even the path from the original EPR thought experiment to Aspect's verification of the Bell inequalities was long-winded and involved considerable input from the sides of technology and mathematics. Von Neumann's construction of hidden variables was, moreover, a genuinely mathematical thought experiment that was successfully criticized by Bell. Such thought (...)
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