Search results for 'Experimental Methods' (try it on Scholar)

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  1.  6
    Johs Clausen (1950). An Evaluation of Experimental Methods of Time Judgment. Journal of Experimental Psychology 40 (6):756.
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  2. Uljana Feest (2014). Phenomenal Experiences, First-Person Methods, and the Artificiality of Experimental Data. Philosophy of Science 81 (5):927-939.
    This paper argues that whereas philosophical discussions of first-person methods often turn on the veridicality of first-person reports, more attention should be paid to the experimental circumstances under which the reports are generated, and to the purposes of designing such experiments. After pointing to the ‘constructedness’ of first-person reports in the science of perception, I raise questions about the criteria by which to judge whether the reports illuminate something about the nature of perception. I illustrate this point with (...)
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  3. Michael J. Shaffer (2017). The Experimental Turn and the Methods of Philosophy. Routledge.
    Experimental philosophy is one of the most controversial and potentially revolutionary areas of philosophical research today. X-Phi, as it is known by many of its practitioners, questions many basic concepts regarding human intuitions—concepts which have guided centuries of modern philosophers. In their place, x-phi steers philosophical research back to scientific investigations in order to better understand human intuitions, using research techniques borrowed from current research in psychology and neuroscience. While scholars debate whether experimental philosophy signals a sea change (...)
     
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  4. B. A. Joyce & R. R. Bradley (1966). A Study of Nucleation in Chemically Grown Epitaxial Silicon Films Using Molecular Beam Techniques I.—Experimental Methods. Philosophical Magazine 14 (128):289-299.
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  5.  8
    William M. Dickie (1923). Anticipations in Aristotle of the Four Experimental Methods. Philosophical Review 32 (4):401-409.
  6.  4
    Robert Adamson (1878). Prof. Jevons on Mill's Experimental Methods. Mind 3 (11):415-417.
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  7.  1
    Robert W. Proctor, E. J. Capaldi & Kim‐Phuong L. Vu (2003). Psychology: Experimental Methods. In L. Nadel (ed.), Encyclopedia of Cognitive Science. Nature Publishing Group
  8. P. Allan & M. Bevis (1977). Deformation Processes in Thin Melt-Cast Films of High-Density Polyethylene: I. Experimental Methods and Deformation Processes in the Equatorial Regions of Spherulites. Philosophical Magazine 35 (2):405-430.
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  9. Naomi Nagy (2006). Experimental Methods for Study of Variation. In Encyclopedia of Language & Linguistics. 4--390.
     
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  10.  21
    D. Barrell Price & Rainville J. (2002). Integrating Experimental-Phenomenological Methods and Neuroscience to Study Neural Mechanisms of Pain and Consciousness. Consciousness and Cognition 11 (4):593-608.
    Understanding the nature of pain at least partly depends on recognizing its inherent first person epistemology and on using a first person experiential and third person experimental approach to study it. This approach may help to understand some of the neural mechanisms of pain and consciousness by integrating experiential–phenomenological methods with those of neuroscience. Examples that approximate this strategy include studies of second pain summation and its relationship to neural activities and brain imaging-psychophysical studies wherein sensory and affective (...)
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  11.  5
    Thomas O. Sikor (1994). Participatory Methods and Empowerment in Rural Development: Lessons From Two Experimental Workshops with a Chilean NGO. [REVIEW] Agriculture and Human Values 11 (2-3):151-158.
    Increasing attention has been given to participatory methods in agricultural research and rural development. Participatory Rural Appraisal (PRA) has become popular among nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) and applied researchers in development. This paper analyzes PRA with respect to its usefulness for NGOs, drawing upon the outcomes from two experimental PRA workshops conducted with a Chilean NGO. Emphasis is given to discussing farmer participation in PRA and its empowerment effects. It is argued that PRA is potentially empowering if it is (...)
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  12.  1
    J. P. Seward (1943). An Experimental Comparison of Code-Learning Methods. Journal of Experimental Psychology 33 (2):115.
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  13. Gregory A. Kimble & John W. Kendall Jr (1953). A Comparison of Two Methods of Producing Experimental Extinction. Journal of Experimental Psychology 45 (2):87.
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  14.  6
    B. F. Skinner (1984). Methods and Theories in the Experimental Analysis of Behavior. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 7 (4):511.
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  15.  49
    Amie L. Thomasson (2012). Experimental Philosophy and the Methods of Ontology. The Monist 95 (2):175-199.
    Those working in experimental philosophy have raised a number of arguments against the use of conceptual analysis in philosophical inquiries. But they have typically focused on a model that pursues conceptual analysis by taking intuitions as a kind of (defeasible) evidence for philosophical hypotheses. Little attention has been given to the constitutivist alternative, which sees metaphysical modal facts as reflections of constitutive semantic rules. I begin with a brief overview of the constitutivist approach and argue that we can defend (...)
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  16.  2
    Richard Sosis (2005). Methods Do Matter: Variation in Experimental Methodologies and Results. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 28 (6):834-835.
    Henrich et al.'s findings are generally consistent with the findings of other experimental field studies. However, the methodological variations deployed across field sites produced several systematic biases in their results. Hence, although the project is destined to become a watershed study, their results should be interpreted prudently.
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  17.  16
    Elena Bougleux (2009). Scientific Methods and Creative Practices. An Evaluation of Constraints and Possibilities in an Experimental Research Environment. World Futures 65 (8):560-567.
    How do scientists who devote their entire lives to solving a small problem in theoretical physics work? What causes a team of young researchers to be completely devoted to its work? What do they share with and what distinguishes them from teams who do not have creativity as a necessary goal of their mission? This article discusses some possible answers to these questions, starting from a research team in physics, in which the author took part as a researcher over a (...)
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  18.  4
    L. Doncaster (1913). Light Thrown by the Experimental Study of Heredity Upon the Factors and Methods of Evolution. The Eugenics Review 4 (4):399.
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  19.  14
    Fredrick J. Wertz (1999). Multiple Methods in Psychology: Epistemological Grounding and the Possibility of Unity. Journal of Theoretical and Philosophical Psychology 19 (2):131-166.
    The problem of methodological pluralism in psychology is addressed. The dominant paradigm, in which experimental methods are assigned top priority and quantification is preferred over qualitative methods, is no longer tenable in light of criticisms by philosophers of science and psychologists. The emergence of a panoply of alternative methods is reviewed and the problems of constructionism, eclecticism, and fragmentation are delineated. Solutions based on an indigenous epistemological foundation for psychology are sought in Continental philosophy. The commensurability (...)
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  20.  2
    Avis H. Cohen (1980). A New Generation of Experimental and Theoretical Methods is Needed in Neuroblology. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 3 (4):543.
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  21. L. Hejna (1983). The Experimental Character of Empirical-Methods in Contemporary Astronomy. Filosoficky Casopis 31 (6):855-865.
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  22. R. Hertwig, A. Ortmann & M. Maratsos (2001). Experimental Practices in Economics: A Methodological Challenge for Psychologists?-Open Peer Commentary-We Should Not Impose Narrow Restrictions on Psychological Methods. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 24 (3):422-422.
     
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  23. Sosis Richard (2005). Methods Do Matter: Variation in Experimental Methodologies and Results. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 28 (6).
     
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  24. Stuart Silvers (1963). The Evolutionary Development of Scientific Method in England From Bacon to Mill, Being an Historical Analysis of the Methods of Experimental Investigation. Dissertation, University of Pittsburgh
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  25. G. Tawney (1896). The Present Condition of Experimental Psychology, its Methods and its Problems. Psychological Review 3 (1):100-105.
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  26.  48
    James Andow (forthcoming). Qualitative Tools & Experimental Philosophy. Philosophical Psychology.
    Experimental philosophy brings empirical methods to philosophy. These methods are used to probe how people think about philosophically interesting things such as knowledge, morality, freedom, etc. This paper explores the contribution that qualitative methods have to make in this enterprise. I argue that qualitative methods have the potential to make a much greater contribution than they have so far. Along the way, I acknowledge a few types of resistance that proponents of qualitative methods in (...)
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  27. Jonah N. Schupbach (forthcoming). Experimental Philosophy Meets Formal Epistemology. In Sytsma & Buckwalter (eds.), Blackwell Companion to Experimental Philosophy. Blackwell
    Formal epistemology is just what it sounds like: epistemology done with formal tools. Coinciding with the general rise in popularity of experimental philosophy, formal epistemologists have begun to apply experimental methods in their own work. In this entry, I survey some of the work at the intersection of formal and experimental epistemology. I show that experimental methods have unique roles to play when epistemology is done formally, and I highlight some ways in which results (...)
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  28.  6
    Howard Shevrin (2000). The Experimental Investigation of Unconscious Conflict, Unconscious Affect, and Unconscious Signal Anxiety. In Max Velmans (ed.), Investigating Phenomenal Consciousness: New Methodologies and Maps. Advances in Consciousness Research, Vol. 13. John Benjamins 33-65.
  29. John Pickering (2000). Methods Are a Message. In Max Velmans (ed.), Investigating Phenomenal Consciousness: New Methodologies and Maps. John Benjamins 279-300.
  30.  39
    Roland Bluhm (2014). Empirical Methods of Linguistics in Philosophy. The Reasoner 8 (4):41.
    Report on the workshop "Empirical Methods of Linguistics in Philosophy", which took place at TU Dortmund University, Germany, on March 13–14, 2014.
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  31. Uriah Kriegel (forthcoming). Metaphysics and Conceptual Analysis: Experimental Philosophy's Place Under the Sun. In D. Rose (ed.), Experimental Metaphysics. Bloomsbury
    What is the rationale for the methodological innovations of experimental philosophy? This paper starts from the contention that common answers to this question are implausible. It then develops a framework within which experimental philosophy fulfills a specific function in an otherwise traditionalist picture of philosophical inquiry. The framework rests on two principal ideas. The first is Frank Jackson’s claim that conceptual analysis is unavoidable in ‘serious metaphysics’. The second is that the psychological structure of concepts is extremely intricate, (...)
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  32.  7
    L. W. Allison (1932). An Experimental Study of Reflex and Voluntary Eyelid Responses. Journal of Experimental Psychology 15 (1):56.
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  33.  1
    Franklin O. Smith (1925). An Experimental Study on Retinal Sensitivity and Discrimination for Purple Under Different Degrees of Intensity of Stimulation. Journal of Experimental Psychology 8 (5):381.
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  34. Jennifer Nagel & Kaija Mortensen (forthcoming). Armchair-Friendly Experimental Philosophy. In Justin Sytsma & Wesley Buckwalter (eds.), A Companion to Experimental Philosophy. Blackwell
    Once symbolized by a burning armchair, experimental philosophy has in recent years shifted away from its original hostility to traditional methods. Starting with a brief historical review of the experimentalist challenge to traditional philosophical practice, this chapter looks at research undercutting that challenge, and at ways in which experimental work has evolved to complement and strengthen traditional approaches to philosophical questions.
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  35. Florian Cova, Amanda Garcia & Shen-yi Liao (2015). Experimental Philosophy of Aesthetics. Philosophy Compass 10 (12):927-939.
    In the past decade, experimental philosophy---the attempt at making progress on philosophical problems using empirical methods---has thrived in a wide range of domains. However, only in recent years has aesthetics succeeded in drawing the attention of experimental philosophers. The present paper constitutes the first survey of these works and of the nascent field of 'experimental philosophy of aesthetics'. We present both recent experimental works by philosophers on topics such as the ontology of aesthetics, aesthetic epistemology, (...)
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  36.  73
    Nathaniel Hansen, Experimental Philosophy of Language. Oxford Handbooks Online.
    Experimental philosophy of language uses experimental methods developed in the cognitive sciences to investigate topics of interest to philosophers of language. This article describes the methodological background for the development of experimental approaches to topics in philosophy of language, distinguishes negative and positive projects in experimental philosophy of language, and evaluates experimental work on the reference of proper names and natural kind terms. The reliability of expert judgments vs. the judgments of ordinary speakers, the (...)
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  37.  40
    Jonathan M. Weinberg (2015). The Methodological Necessity of Experimental Philosophy. Discipline Filosofiche 25:23-42.
    Must philosophers incorporate tools of experimental science into their methodological toolbox? I argue here that they must. Tallying up all the resources that are now part of standard practice in analytic philosophy, we see the problem that they do not include adequate resources for detecting and correcting for their own biases and proclivities towards error. Methodologically sufficient resources for error- detection and error-correction can only come, in part, from the deployment of specific methods from the sciences. However, we (...)
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  38.  35
    Eugen Fischer & John Collins (2015). Rationalism and Naturalism in the Age of Experimental Philosophy. In Eugen Fischer & John Collins (eds.), Experimental Philosophy, Rationalism, and Naturalism. Rethinking Philosophical Method. Routledge 3-33.
    The paper outlines the evolution of on-going meta-philosophical debates about intuitions, explains different notions of 'intuition' employed in these debates, and argues for the philosophical relevance of intuitions in an aetiological sense taken from cognitive psychology. On this basis, it advocates a new kind of methodological naturalism which it finds implicit, for instance, in the warrant project in experimental philosophy: a meta-philosophical naturalism that promotes the use of scientific methods in meta-philosophical investigations. This 'higher-order' naturalism is consistent with (...)
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  39.  47
    Roland Bluhm (2013). Don't Ask, Look! Linguistic Corpora as a Tool for Conceptual Analysis. In Migue Hoeltje, Thomas Spitzley & Wolfgang Spohn (eds.), Was dürfen wir glauben? Was sollen wir tun? Sektionsbeiträge des achten internationalen Kongresses der Gesellschaft für Analytische Philosophie e.V. DuEPublico 7-15.
    Ordinary Language Philosophy has largely fallen out of favour, and with it the belief in the primary importance of analyses of ordinary language for philosophical purposes. Still, in their various endeavours, philosophers not only from analytic but also from other backgrounds refer to the use and meaning of terms of interest in ordinary parlance. In doing so, they most commonly appeal to their own linguistic intuitions. Often, the appeal to individual intuitions is supplemented by reference to dictionaries. In recent times, (...)
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  40. Hannes Rusch & Matthias Uhl (forthcoming). Order Ethics: An Experimental Perspective. In Christoph Luetge & Nikil Mukerji (eds.), Order Ethics – An Ethical Framework for the Social Market Economy. Springer
    In this chapter, we present supporting arguments for the claim that Order Ethics is a school of thought within ethics which is especially open to empirical evidence. With its focus on order frameworks, i.e., incentive structures, Order Ethical advice automatically raises questions on implementability, efficacy, and efficiency of such recommended institutions, all of which are empirical questions to a good extent. We illustrate our arguments by presenting a small selection of experiments from economics that we consider highly informative for Order (...)
     
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  41.  24
    Mark Alfano (2016). Christoph Luetge, Hannes Rusch, & Matthias Uhl , Experimental Ethics: Toward an Empirical Moral Philosophy. Ethical Theory and Moral Practice:1-4.
    It would be unkind but not inaccurate to say that most experimental philosophy is just psychology with worse methods and better theories. In Experimental Ethics: Towards an Empirical Moral Philosophy, Christoph Luetge, Hannes Rusch, and Matthias Uhl set out to make this comparison less invidious and more flattering. Their book has 16 chapters, organized into five sections and bookended by the editors’ own introduction and prospectus. Contributors hail from four countries (Germany, USA, Spain, and the United Kingdom) (...)
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  42. Peter Anstey & Alberto Vanzo (2012). The Origins of Early Modern Experimental Philosophy. Intellectual History Review 22 (4):499-518.
    This paper argues that early modern experimental philosophy emerged as the dominant member of a pair of methods in natural philosophy, the speculative versus the experimental, and that this pairing derives from an overarching distinction between speculative and operative philosophy that can be ultimately traced back to Aristotle. The paper examines the traditional classification of natural philosophy as a speculative discipline from the Stagirite to the seventeenth century; medieval and early modern attempts to articulate a scientia experimentalis; (...)
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  43.  49
    Robert L. Woolfolk (2013). Experimental Philosophy: A Methodological Critique. Metaphilosophy 44 (1-2):79-87.
    This article offers a critique of research practices typical of experimental philosophy. To that end, it presents a review of methodological issues that have proved crucial to the quality of research in the biobehavioral sciences. It discusses various shortcomings in the experimental philosophy literature related to (1) the credibility of self-report questionnaires, (2) the validity and reliability of measurement, (3) the adherence to appropriate procedures for sampling, random assignment, and handling of participants, and (4) the meticulousness of study (...)
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  44.  4
    Manuel Križ & Emmanuel Chemla (2015). Two Methods to Find Truth-Value Gaps and Their Application to the Projection Problem of Homogeneity. Natural Language Semantics 23 (3):205-248.
    Presupposition, vagueness, and oddness can lead to some sentences failing to have a clear truth value. The homogeneity property of plural predication with definite descriptions may also create truth-value gaps: The books are written in Dutch is true if all relevant books are in Dutch, false if none of them are, and neither true nor false if, say, half of the books are written in Dutch. We study the projection property of homogeneity by deploying methods of general interest to (...)
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  45.  52
    Justin Sytsma (2012). Experimental Philosophy and Philosophical Disputes. Essays in Philosophy (1):9.
    One view of philosophy that is sometimes expressed, especially by scientists, is that while philosophers are good at asking questions, they are poor at producing convincing answers. And the perceived divide between philosophical and scientific methods is often pointed to as the major culprit behind this lack of progress. Looking back at the history of philosophy, however, we find that this methodological divide is a relatively recent invention. Further, it is one that has been challenged over the past decade (...)
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  46.  7
    Patrick Frierson (2015). Maria Montessori's Philosophy of Experimental Psychology. Hopos: The Journal of the International Society for the History of Philosophy of Science 5 (2):240-268.
    Through philosophical analysis of Montessori’s critiques of psychology, I aim to show the enduring relevance of those critiques. Maria Montessori sees experimental psychology as fundamental to philosophy and pedagogy, but she objects to the experimental psychology of her day in four ways: as disconnected from practice, as myopic, as based excessively on methods from physical sciences, and—most fundamentally—as offering detailed examinations of human beings (particularly children) under abnormal conditions. In place of these prevailing norms, Montessori suggests a (...)
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  47.  27
    Joachim Horvath & Thomas Grundmann (eds.) (2012). Experimental Philosophy and its Critics. Routledge.
    Experimental philosophy is one of the most recent and controversial developments in philosophy. Its basic idea is rather simple: to test philosophical thought experiments and philosophers’ intuitions about them with scientific methods, mostly taken from psychology and the social sciences. The ensuing experimental results, such as the cultural relativity of certain philosophical intuitions, has engaged – and at times infuriated – many more traditionally minded "armchair" philosophers since then. In this volume, the metaphilosophical reflection on experimental (...)
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  48.  46
    Mark McEvoy (2013). Experimental Mathematics, Computers and the a Priori. Synthese 190 (3):397-412.
    In recent decades, experimental mathematics has emerged as a new branch of mathematics. This new branch is defined less by its subject matter, and more by its use of computer assisted reasoning. Experimental mathematics uses a variety of computer assisted approaches to verify or prove mathematical hypotheses. For example, there is “number crunching” such as searching for very large Mersenne primes, and showing that the Goldbach conjecture holds for all even numbers less than 2 × 1018. There are (...)
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  49.  14
    Frank W. Stahnisch (2005). Historical and Philosophical Perspectives on Experimental Practice in Medicine and the Life Sciences. Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 26 (5):397-425.
    The aim of this paper is to discuss a key question in the history and philosophy of medicine, namely how scholars should treat the practices and experimental hypotheses of modern life science laboratories. The paper seeks to introduce some prominent historiographical methods and theoretical approaches associated with biomedical research. Although medical scientists need no convincing that experimentation has a significant function in their laboratory work, historians, philosophers, and sociologists long neglected its importance when examining changes in medical theories (...)
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  50.  22
    Thomas Bartz-Beielstein (2008). How Experimental Algorithmics Can Benefit From Mayo's Extensions to Neyman–Pearson Theory of Testing. Synthese 163 (3):385 - 396.
    Although theoretical results for several algorithms in many application domains were presented during the last decades, not all algorithms can be analyzed fully theoretically. Experimentation is necessary. The analysis of algorithms should follow the same principles and standards of other empirical sciences. This article focuses on stochastic search algorithms, such as evolutionary algorithms or particle swarm optimization. Stochastic search algorithms tackle hard real-world optimization problems, e.g., problems from chemical engineering, airfoil optimization, or bio-informatics, where classical methods from mathematical optimization (...)
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