Search results for 'Experimental Methods' (try it on Scholar)

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  1. Johs Clausen (1950). An Evaluation of Experimental Methods of Time Judgment. Journal of Experimental Psychology 40 (6):756.score: 216.0
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  2. Uljana Feest (forthcoming). Phenomenal Experiences, First-Person Methods, and the Artificiality of Experimental Data. Philosophy of Science.score: 168.0
    This paper argues that whereas philosophical discussions of first-person methods often turn on the veridicality of first-person reports, more attention should be paid to the experimental circumstances under which the reports are generated, and to the purposes of designing such experiments. After pointing to the ‘constructedness’ of first-person reports in the science of perception, I raise questions about the criteria by which to judge whether the reports illuminate something about the nature of perception. I illustrate this point with (...)
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  3. Robert Adamson (1878). Prof. Jevons on Mill's Experimental Methods. Mind 3 (11):415-417.score: 150.0
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  4. William M. Dickie (1923). Anticipations in Aristotle of the Four Experimental Methods. Philosophical Review 32 (4):401-409.score: 150.0
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  5. A. D. Krikorian (1982). Experimental Methods for Plant Tissue Culture Experiments in Plant Tissue Culture John H. Dodds Lorin W. Roberts. BioScience 32 (5):353-353.score: 150.0
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  6. Naomi Nagy (2006). Experimental Methods for Study of Variation. In Encyclopedia of Language & Linguistics. 4--390.score: 150.0
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  7. Robert W. Proctor, E. J. Capaldi & Kim‐Phuong L. Vu (2003). Psychology: Experimental Methods. In L. Nadel (ed.), Encyclopedia of Cognitive Science. Nature Publishing Group.score: 150.0
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  8. Thomas O. Sikor (1994). Participatory Methods and Empowerment in Rural Development: Lessons From Two Experimental Workshops with a Chilean NGO. [REVIEW] Agriculture and Human Values 11 (2-3):151-158.score: 144.0
    Increasing attention has been given to participatory methods in agricultural research and rural development. Participatory Rural Appraisal (PRA) has become popular among nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) and applied researchers in development. This paper analyzes PRA with respect to its usefulness for NGOs, drawing upon the outcomes from two experimental PRA workshops conducted with a Chilean NGO. Emphasis is given to discussing farmer participation in PRA and its empowerment effects. It is argued that PRA is potentially empowering if it is (...)
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  9. J. P. Seward (1943). An Experimental Comparison of Code-Learning Methods. Journal of Experimental Psychology 33 (2):115.score: 138.0
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  10. Gregory A. Kimble & John W. Kendall Jr (1953). A Comparison of Two Methods of Producing Experimental Extinction. Journal of Experimental Psychology 45 (2):87.score: 138.0
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  11. Michael J. Shaffer (forthcoming). The Experimental Turn and the Methods of Philosophy. Routledge.score: 138.0
    This book is a examination of the question of the revolutionary character of experimental philosophy.
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  12. B. F. Skinner (1984). Methods and Theories in the Experimental Analysis of Behavior. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 7 (4):511.score: 132.0
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  13. Amie L. Thomasson (2012). Experimental Philosophy and the Methods of Ontology. The Monist 95 (2):175-199.score: 126.0
    Those working in experimental philosophy have raised a number of arguments against the use of conceptual analysis in philosophical inquiries. But they have typically focused on a model that pursues conceptual analysis by taking intuitions as a kind of (defeasible) evidence for philosophical hypotheses. Little attention has been given to the constitutivist alternative, which sees metaphysical modal facts as reflections of constitutive semantic rules. I begin with a brief overview of the constitutivist approach and argue that we can defend (...)
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  14. Richard Sosis (2005). Methods Do Matter: Variation in Experimental Methodologies and Results. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 28 (6):834-835.score: 126.0
    Henrich et al.'s findings are generally consistent with the findings of other experimental field studies. However, the methodological variations deployed across field sites produced several systematic biases in their results. Hence, although the project is destined to become a watershed study, their results should be interpreted prudently.
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  15. D. Barrell Price & Rainville J. (2002). Integrating Experimental-Phenomenological Methods and Neuroscience to Study Neural Mechanisms of Pain and Consciousness. Consciousness and Cognition 11 (4):593-608.score: 120.0
  16. Elena Bougleux (2009). Scientific Methods and Creative Practices. An Evaluation of Constraints and Possibilities in an Experimental Research Environment. World Futures 65 (8):560-567.score: 120.0
    How do scientists who devote their entire lives to solving a small problem in theoretical physics work? What causes a team of young researchers to be completely devoted to its work? What do they share with and what distinguishes them from teams who do not have creativity as a necessary goal of their mission? This article discusses some possible answers to these questions, starting from a research team in physics, in which the author took part as a researcher over a (...)
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  17. Avis H. Cohen (1980). A New Generation of Experimental and Theoretical Methods is Needed in Neuroblology. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 3 (4):543.score: 120.0
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  18. L. Doncaster (1913). Light Thrown by the Experimental Study of Heredity Upon the Factors and Methods of Evolution. The Eugenics Review 4 (4):399.score: 120.0
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  19. L. Hejna (1983). The Experimental Character of Empirical-Methods in Contemporary Astronomy. Filosoficky Casopis 31 (6):855-865.score: 120.0
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  20. R. Hertwig, A. Ortmann & M. Maratsos (2001). Experimental Practices in Economics: A Methodological Challenge for Psychologists?-Open Peer Commentary-We Should Not Impose Narrow Restrictions on Psychological Methods. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 24 (3):422-422.score: 120.0
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  21. Sosis Richard (2005). Methods Do Matter: Variation in Experimental Methodologies and Results. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 28 (6).score: 120.0
     
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  22. Tamás Demeter (2012). Hume's Experimental Method. British Journal for the History of Philosophy 20 (3):577-599.score: 94.0
    In this article I attempt to reconstruct David Hume's use of the label ?experimental? to characterise his method in the Treatise. Although its meaning may strike the present-day reader as unusual, such a reconstruction is possible from the background of eighteenth-century practices and concepts of natural inquiry. As I argue, Hume's inquiries into human nature are experimental not primarily because of the way the empirical data he uses are produced, but because of the way those data are theoretically (...)
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  23. Fredrick J. Wertz (1999). Multiple Methods in Psychology: Epistemological Grounding and the Possibility of Unity. Journal of Theoretical and Philosophical Psychology 19 (2):131-166.score: 90.0
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  24. John Pickering (2000). Methods Are a Message. In Max Velmans (ed.), Investigating Phenomenal Consciousness: New Methodologies and Maps. John Benjamins. 279-300.score: 90.0
  25. Howard Shevrin (2000). The Experimental Investigation of Unconscious Conflict, Unconscious Affect, and Unconscious Signal Anxiety. In Max Velmans (ed.), Investigating Phenomenal Consciousness: New Methodologies and Maps. Advances in Consciousness Research, Vol. 13. John Benjamins. 33-65.score: 90.0
  26. Shaun Gallagher Patricia Bockelman, Lauren Reinerman-Jones (2013). Methodological Lessons in Neurophenomenology: Review of a Baseline Study and Recommendations for Research Approaches. [REVIEW] Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 7.score: 84.0
    Neurophenomenological methods integrate objective and subjective data in ways that retain the statistical power of established disciplines (like cognitive science) while embracing the value of first-person reports of experience. The present paper positions neurophenomenology as an approach that pulls from traditions of cognitive science but includes techniques that are challenging for cognitive science in some ways. A baseline study is reviewed for “lessons learned”, that is, the potential methodological improvements that will support advancements in understanding consciousness and cognition using (...)
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  27. L. W. Allison (1932). An Experimental Study of Reflex and Voluntary Eyelid Responses. Journal of Experimental Psychology 15 (1):56.score: 84.0
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  28. Franklin O. Smith (1925). An Experimental Study on Retinal Sensitivity and Discrimination for Purple Under Different Degrees of Intensity of Stimulation. Journal of Experimental Psychology 8 (5):381.score: 84.0
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  29. Jennifer Nagel & Kaija Mortensen (forthcoming). Armchair-Friendly Experimental Philosophy. In Justin Sytsma & Wesley Buckwalter (eds.), A Companion to Experimental Philosophy. Blackwell.score: 72.0
    Once symbolized by a burning armchair, experimental philosophy has in recent years shifted away from its original hostility to traditional methods. Starting with a brief historical review of the experimentalist challenge to traditional philosophical practice, this chapter looks at research undercutting that challenge, and at ways in which experimental work has evolved to complement and strengthen traditional approaches to philosophical questions.
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  30. Hannes Rusch & Matthias Uhl (forthcoming). Order Ethics: An Experimental Perspective. In Christoph Luetge & Nikil Mukerji (eds.), Order Ethics – An Ethical Framework for the Social Market Economy. Springer.score: 72.0
    In this chapter, we present supporting arguments for the claim that Order Ethics is a school of thought within ethics which is especially open to empirical evidence. With its focus on order frameworks, i.e., incentive structures, Order Ethical advice automatically raises questions on implementability, efficacy, and efficiency of such recommended institutions, all of which are empirical questions to a good extent. We illustrate our arguments by presenting a small selection of experiments from economics that we consider highly informative for Order (...)
     
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  31. James Maxwell Little (1961). An Introduction to the Experimental Method. Minneapolis, Burgess Pub. Co..score: 68.0
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  32. Mark McEvoy (2013). Experimental Mathematics, Computers and the a Priori. Synthese 190 (3):397-412.score: 66.0
    In recent decades, experimental mathematics has emerged as a new branch of mathematics. This new branch is defined less by its subject matter, and more by its use of computer assisted reasoning. Experimental mathematics uses a variety of computer assisted approaches to verify or prove mathematical hypotheses. For example, there is “number crunching” such as searching for very large Mersenne primes, and showing that the Goldbach conjecture holds for all even numbers less than 2 × 1018. There are (...)
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  33. Peter Anstey & Alberto Vanzo (2012). The Origins of Early Modern Experimental Philosophy. Intellectual History Review 22 (4):499-518.score: 66.0
    This paper argues that early modern experimental philosophy emerged as the dominant member of a pair of methods in natural philosophy, the speculative versus the experimental, and that this pairing derives from an overarching distinction between speculative and operative philosophy that can be ultimately traced back to Aristotle. The paper examines the traditional classification of natural philosophy as a speculative discipline from the Stagirite to the seventeenth century; medieval and early modern attempts to articulate a scientia experimentalis; (...)
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  34. Robert L. Woolfolk (2013). Experimental Philosophy: A Methodological Critique. Metaphilosophy 44 (1-2):79-87.score: 66.0
    This article offers a critique of research practices typical of experimental philosophy. To that end, it presents a review of methodological issues that have proved crucial to the quality of research in the biobehavioral sciences. It discusses various shortcomings in the experimental philosophy literature related to (1) the credibility of self-report questionnaires, (2) the validity and reliability of measurement, (3) the adherence to appropriate procedures for sampling, random assignment, and handling of participants, and (4) the meticulousness of study (...)
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  35. Justin Sytsma (2012). Experimental Philosophy and Philosophical Disputes. Essays in Philosophy (1):9.score: 66.0
    One view of philosophy that is sometimes expressed, especially by scientists, is that while philosophers are good at asking questions, they are poor at producing convincing answers. And the perceived divide between philosophical and scientific methods is often pointed to as the major culprit behind this lack of progress. Looking back at the history of philosophy, however, we find that this methodological divide is a relatively recent invention. Further, it is one that has been challenged over the past decade (...)
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  36. Thomas Bartz-Beielstein (2008). How Experimental Algorithmics Can Benefit From Mayo's Extensions to Neyman–Pearson Theory of Testing. Synthese 163 (3):385 - 396.score: 66.0
    Although theoretical results for several algorithms in many application domains were presented during the last decades, not all algorithms can be analyzed fully theoretically. Experimentation is necessary. The analysis of algorithms should follow the same principles and standards of other empirical sciences. This article focuses on stochastic search algorithms, such as evolutionary algorithms or particle swarm optimization. Stochastic search algorithms tackle hard real-world optimization problems, e.g., problems from chemical engineering, airfoil optimization, or bio-informatics, where classical methods from mathematical optimization (...)
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  37. Frank W. Stahnisch (2005). Historical and Philosophical Perspectives on Experimental Practice in Medicine and the Life Sciences. Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 26 (5):397-425.score: 66.0
    The aim of this paper is to discuss a key question in the history and philosophy of medicine, namely how scholars should treat the practices and experimental hypotheses of modern life science laboratories. The paper seeks to introduce some prominent historiographical methods and theoretical approaches associated with biomedical research. Although medical scientists need no convincing that experimentation has a significant function in their laboratory work, historians, philosophers, and sociologists long neglected its importance when examining changes in medical theories (...)
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  38. Shaun Hargreaves Heap, Arjan Verschoor & Daniel John Zizzo (2012). A Test of the Experimental Method in the Spirit of Popper. Journal of Economic Methodology 19 (1):63-76.score: 64.0
    Do the insights into human behavior generated by laboratory experiments hold outside the lab? This is a crucial question that naturally troubles both experimentalists and their critics. We address this question by adopting Popper's injunction that hypotheses should be tested, not by seeking instances of confirmation, but through exposure to conditions where falsification is a serious possibility. We test the hypothesis ?that experimental insights hold outside the lab? by selecting a population where the non-experimental evidence points to behavior (...)
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  39. Paul E. Griffiths & Karola Stotz (2008). Experimental Philosophy of Science. Philosophy Compass 3 (3):507–521.score: 60.0
    Experimental philosophy of science gathers empirical data on how key scientific concepts are understood by particular scientific communities. In this paper we briefly describe two recent studies in experimental philosophy of biology, one investigating the concept of the gene, the other the concept of innateness. The use of experimental methods reveals facts about these concepts that would not be accessible using the traditional method of intuitions about possible cases. It also contributes to the study of conceptual (...)
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  40. Joshua Knobe (2004). What is Experimental Philosophy? The Philosophers' Magazine 28:37-39.score: 60.0
    Since the earliest days of analytic philosophy, it has been a common practice to appeal to intuitions about particular cases. Typically, the philosopher presents a hypothetical situation and then makes a claim of the form: ‘In this case, we would surely say....’ This claim about people’s intuitions then forms a part of an argument for some more general theory about the nature of our concepts or our use of language. One puzzling aspect of this practice is that it so rarely (...)
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  41. Fran (2008). Experimental Philosophers, Conceptual Analysts, and the Rest of Us. Philosophical Explorations 11 (2):143 – 149.score: 60.0
    In an interesting recent exchange, Antti Kauppinen (2007) disagrees with Thomas Nadelhoffer and Eddy Nahmias (2007) over the prospects of experimental methods in philosophy. Kauppinen's critique of experimental philosophy is premised on an endorsement of a priori conceptual analysis. This premise has shaped the trajectory of their debate. In this note, I consider what foes of conceptual analysis will have to say about their exchange.
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  42. Stewart Candlish, Testing Wittgenstein's Dismissal of Experimental Psychology Against Examples.score: 60.0
    One of the most notorious — and dismissive — passages in Wittgenstein’s Philosophical Investigations is Part II section xiv, which begins like this: The confusion and barrenness of psychology is not to be explained by calling it a “young science”; its state is not comparable with that of physics, for instance, in its beginnings. (Rather with that of certain branches of mathematics. Set theory.) For in psychology there are experimental methods and conceptual confusion. (As in the other case (...)
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  43. Vincenzo Crupi & Stephan Hartmann (2010). Formal and Empirical Methods in Philosophy of Science. In Friedrich Stadler et al (ed.), The Present Situation in the Philosophy of Science. Springer. 87--98.score: 60.0
    This essay addresses the methodology of philosophy of science and illustrates how formal and empirical methods can be fruitfully combined. Special emphasis is given to the application of experimental methods to confirmation theory and to recent work on the conjunction fallacy, a key topic in the rationality debate arising from research in cognitive psychology. Several other issue can be studied in this way. In the concluding section, a brief outline is provided of three further examples.
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  44. Carol Cleland, Historical Science, Experimental Science, and the Scientific Method.score: 60.0
    Many scientists believe that there is a uniform, interdisciplinary method for the prac- tice of good science. The paradigmatic examples, however, are drawn from classical ex- perimental science. Insofar as historical hypotheses cannot be tested in controlled labo- ratory settings, historical research is sometimes said to be inferior to experimental research. Using examples from diverse historical disciplines, this paper demonstrates that such claims are misguided. First, the reputed superiority of experimental research is based upon accounts of scientific methodology (...)
     
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  45. F. Wemelsfelder (2001). The Inside and Outside Aspects of Consciousness: Complementary Approaches to the Study of Animal Emotion. Animal Welfare Supplement 10:129- 139.score: 60.0
  46. M. Hochel, E. G. Milan, A. Gonzalez, F. Tornay, K. McKenney, R. Diaz Caviedes, J. L. Mata Martin, M. A. Rodriguez Artacho, E. Dominguez Garcia & J. Vila (2007). Experimental Study of Phantom Colours in a Colour Blind Synaesthete. Journal of Consciousness Studies 14 (4):75-95.score: 60.0
    Synaesthesia is a condition in which one type of stimulation evokes the sensation of another, as when the hearing of a sound produces photisms, i.e. mental percepts of colours. R is a 20 year old colour blind subject who, in addition to the relatively common grapheme-colour synaesthesia, presents a rarely reported cross modal perception in which a variety of visual stimuli elicit aura-like percepts of colour. In R, photisms seem to be closely related to the affective valence of stimuli and (...)
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  47. François Schroeter (2008). Experimental Philosophers, Conceptual Analysts, and the Rest of Us. Philosophical Explorations 11 (2):143-149.score: 60.0
    In an interesting recent exchange, Antti Kauppinen (2007) disagrees with Thomas Nadelhoffer and Eddy Nahmias (2007) over the prospects of experimental methods in philosophy. Kauppinen's critique of experimental philosophy is premised on an endorsement of a priori conceptual analysis. This premise has shaped the trajectory of their debate. In this note, I consider what foes of conceptual analysis will have to say about their exchange.
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  48. Matthew Inglis & Juan Pablo Mejía-Ramos (2009). On the Persuasiveness of Visual Arguments in Mathematics. Foundations of Science 14 (1-2):97-110.score: 60.0
    Two experiments are reported which investigate the factors that influence how persuaded mathematicians are by visual arguments. We demonstrate that if a visual argument is accompanied by a passage of text which describes the image, both research-active mathematicians and successful undergraduate mathematics students perceive it to be significantly more persuasive than if no text is given. We suggest that mathematicians’ epistemological concerns about supporting a claim using visual images are less prominent when the image is described in words. Finally we (...)
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  49. Gustav Jahoda (2013). Critical Comments on Experimental, Discursive, and General Social Psychology. Journal for the Theory of Social Behaviour 43 (3):341-360.score: 60.0
    The historical background of the contrasting traditions of experimental and discursive social psychologies is outlined, and two illustrative experimental and discursive studies are described in detail and critically scrutinised. Among the major weaknesses of the experimental approach is an increasing tendency towards an a-social computer-mediated procedure and a decontextualised setting. While experimental methods and results are clearly set out, the discursive research presents only small and highly selected fragments of masses of data. Hence the actual (...)
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  50. Natalie Depraz, F. Varela & Pierre Vermersch (2000). The Gesture of Awareness: An Account of its Structural Dynamics. In Max Velmans (ed.), Investigating Phenomenal Consciousness: New Methodologies and Maps. John Benjamins. 13--121.score: 60.0
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