Search results for 'Experimental Paradigm' (try it on Scholar)

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  1.  1
    John P. Houston (1966). Stimulus Recall and Experimental Paradigm. Journal of Experimental Psychology 72 (4):619.
  2.  2
    Christian C. Emedolu (2015). From Magic to African Experimental Science: Toward a New Paradigm. Filosofia Theoretica: Journal of African Philosophy, Culture and Religions 4 (2):68-88.
    This paper assumes that there is a distinction between empirical and non-empirical science. It also assumes that empirical science has two complementary parts, namely, theorization and experimentation. The paper focuses strictly on the experimental aspect of science. It is a call for reformation in African experimental science. Following a deep historical understanding of the revolution that brought about experimental philosophy this paper admits that magic was the mother, not just the “bastard sister” of empirical science. It uncovers (...)
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  3.  22
    Allison K. Allen, Kevin Wilkins, Adam Gazzaley & Ezequiel Morsella (2013). Conscious Thoughts From Reflex-Like Processes: A New Experimental Paradigm for Consciousness Research. Consciousness and Cognition 22 (4):1318-1331.
    The contents of our conscious mind can seem unpredictable, whimsical, and free from external control. When instructed to attend to a stimulus in a work setting, for example, one might find oneself thinking about household chores. Conscious content thus appears different in nature from reflex action. Under the appropriate conditions, reflexes occur predictably, reliably, and via external control. Despite these intuitions, theorists have proposed that, under certain conditions, conscious content resembles reflexes and arises reliably via external control. We introduce the (...)
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  4.  7
    Gareth Roberts (2008). Language and the Free-Rider Problem: An Experimental Paradigm. Biological Theory 3 (2):174-183.
    Change and variation, while inherent to language, might be seen as running counter to human communicative needs. However, variation also gives language the power to convey reliable indexical information about the speaker. This has been argued to play a significant role in allowing the establishment of large communities based on cooperative exchange , although there has been little experimental investigation of the hypothesis. Here I present a preliminary study intended to help fill this gap. Participants played an online team (...)
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  5.  2
    Joseph Halpern & C. Richard Chapman (1970). Human Incentive Learning as a Function of Reinforcement Schedule and Experimental Paradigm. Journal of Experimental Psychology 83 (3p1):514.
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  6. Kenny Smith (2009). Reconsidering Human Cross-Situational Learning Capacities: A Revision to Yu & Smith's (2007) Experimental Paradigm. In N. A. Taatgen & H. van Rijn (eds.), Proceedings of the 31st Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society. 2711--2716.
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  7. Meredith Larson, Ryan Doran, Yaron McNabb, Rachel Baker, Matthew Berends, Alex Djalali & Gregory Ward (2009). Distinguishing the Said From the Implicated Using a Novel Experimental Paradigm. In Uli Sauerland & Kazuko Yatsushiro (eds.), Semantics and Pragmatics: From Experiment to Theory. Palgrave Macmillan
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  8.  3
    Jean‐François Mayol, Corinne Loeuillet, Francis Hérodin & Didier Wion (2009). Characterisation of Normal and Cancer Stem Cells: One Experimental Paradigm for Two Kinds of Stem Cells. Bioessays 31 (9):993-1001.
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  9.  27
    Gary D. Shank (1980). A Reconstruction Paradigm for the Experimental Analysis of Semiotic Factors in Cognitive Processing. Semiotics:493-502.
    Cognitive processing in psychology and semiotics are compared in relation to language processing and memory.Active reconstruction in memory is postulated, as well as the representation of whole messages as signs. The paradigm, then, is based on the study of active reconstruction of verbal messages from their semiotic representations in memory. Differences between original and reconstructed messages are used as dimension of empirical study in the paradigm. Research findings are cited in support of this approach.
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  10.  3
    Matthew Hugh Erdelyi (1986). Experimental Indeterminacies in the Dissociation Paradigm of Subliminal Perception. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 9 (1):30.
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  11. A. Ahsen (1993). Imagery Paradigm: Imaginative Consciousness in the Experimental and Clinical Setting. Journal of Mental Imagery 17 (1-2).
     
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  12. C. Capel-Boute & A. Koeckelenbergh (1999). Necessity of a New Paradigm in Experimental Research Taking Into Account Space and Time. In S. Smets J. P. Van Bendegem G. C. Cornelis (ed.), Metadebates on Science. Vub-Press and Kluwer 6--101.
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  13.  87
    Jacqueline Anne Sullivan (2009). The Multiplicity of Experimental Protocols: A Challenge to Reductionist and Non-Reductionist Models of the Unity of Neuroscience. Synthese 167 (3):511-539.
    Descriptive accounts of the nature of explanation in neuroscience and the global goals of such explanation have recently proliferated in the philosophy of neuroscience and with them new understandings of the experimental practices of neuroscientists have emerged. In this paper, I consider two models of such practices; one that takes them to be reductive; another that takes them to be integrative. I investigate those areas of the neuroscience of learning and memory from which the examples used to substantiate these (...)
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  14.  69
    Jacqueline Anne Sullivan (2010). Reconsidering 'Spatial Memory' and the Morris Water Maze. Synthese 177 (2):261-283.
    The Morris water maze has been put forward in the philosophy of neuroscience as an example of an experimental arrangement that may be used to delineate the cognitive faculty of spatial memory (e.g., Craver and Darden, Theory and method in the neurosciences, University of Pittsburgh Press, Pittsburgh, 2001; Craver, Explaining the brain: Mechanisms and the mosaic unity of neuroscience, Oxford University Press, Oxford, 2007). However, in the experimental and review literature on the water maze throughout the history of (...)
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  15.  49
    Kaoru Noguchi (2003). The Relationship Between Visual Illusion and Aesthetic Preference – an Attempt to Unify Experimental Phenomenology and Empirical Aesthetics. Axiomathes 13 (3-4):261-281.
    Experimental phenomenology has demonstrated that perception is much richer than stimulus. As is seen in color perception, one and the same stimulus provides more than several modes of appearance or perceptual dimensions. Similarly, there are various perceptual dimensions in form perception. Even a simple geometrical figure inducing visual illusion gives not only perceptual impressions of size, shape, slant, depth, and orientation, but also affective or aesthetic impressions. The present study reviews our experimental phenomenological work on visual illusion and (...)
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  16.  5
    E. Rae Harcum (1991). Behavioral Paradigm for a Psychological Resolution of the Free Will Issue. Journal of Mind and Behavior 93 (1):93-114.
    This study provides data for a behavioral paradigm to resolve the free will issue in psychological terms. As predicted, college students selecting among many alternative responses consistently selected according to experimental set, environmental conditions, past experiences and other unknown factors. These explained and unexplained causal factors supplement one another and make varying relative contributions to different behaviors - the Principle of Behavioral Supplementarity. The more psychologically remote the causal factors, the greater proportion of unexplained ones relative to explained (...)
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  17.  11
    Jacqueline Sullivan (2016). Stabilizing Constructs Through Collaboration Across Different Research Fields as a Way to Foster the Integrative Approach of the Research Domain Criteria (RDoC) Project. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience (00):00.
  18. Carol E. Cleland (2002). Methodological and Epistemic Differences Between Historical Science and Experimental Science. Philosophy of Science 69 (3):447-451.
    Experimental research is commonly held up as the paradigm of "good" science. Although experiment plays many roles in science, its classical role is testing hypotheses in controlled laboratory settings. Historical science is sometimes held to be inferior on the grounds that its hypothesis cannot be tested by controlled laboratory experiments. Using contemporary examples from diverse scientific disciplines, this paper explores differences in practice between historical and experimental research vis-à-vis the testing of hypotheses. It rejects the claim that (...)
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  19.  70
    Niki Pfeifer & Igor Douven (2013). Formal Epistemology and the New Paradigm Psychology of Reasoning. Review of Philosophy and Psychology (2):1-23.
    This position paper advocates combining formal epistemology and the new paradigm psychology of reasoning in the studies of conditionals and reasoning with uncertainty. The new paradigm psychology of reasoning is characterized by the use of probability theory as a rationality framework instead of classical logic, used by more traditional approaches to the psychology of reasoning. This paper presents a new interdisciplinary research program which involves both formal and experimental work. To illustrate the program, the paper discusses recent (...)
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  20.  2
    Jutta Jahnel (2015). Conceptual Questions and Challenges Associated with the Traditional Risk Assessment Paradigm for Nanomaterials. NanoEthics 9 (3):261-276.
    Risk assessment is an evidence-based analytical framework used to evaluate research findings related to environmental and public health decision-making. Different routines have been adopted for assessing the potential risks posed by substances and products to human health. In general, the traditional paradigm is a hazard-driven approach, based on a monocausal toxicological perspective. Questions have been raised about the applicability of the general chemical risk assessment approach in the specific case of nanomaterials. Most scientists and stakeholders assume that the current (...)
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  21.  79
    Gordana Dodig-Crnkovic (2003). Shifting the Paradigm of Philosophy of Science: Philosophy of Information and a New Renaissance. [REVIEW] Minds and Machines 13 (4):521-536.
    Computing is changing the traditional field of Philosophy of Science in a very profound way. First as a methodological tool, computing makes possible ``experimental Philosophy'' which is able to provide practical tests for different philosophical ideas. At the same time the ideal object of investigation of the Philosophy of Science is changing. For a long period of time the ideal science was Physics (e.g., Popper, Carnap, Kuhn, and Chalmers). Now the focus is shifting to the field of Computing/Informatics. There (...)
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  22.  1
    Máximo Trench & Ricardo A. Minervino (2015). The Role of Surface Similarity in Analogical Retrieval: Bridging the Gap Between the Naturalistic and the Experimental Traditions. Cognitive Science 39 (6):1292-1319.
    Blanchette and Dunbar have claimed that when participants are allowed to draw on their own source analogs in the service of analogical argumentation, retrieval is less constrained by surface similarity than traditional experiments suggest. In two studies, we adapted this production paradigm to control for the potentially distorting effects of analogy fabrication and uneven availability of close and distant sources in memory. Experiment 1 assessed whether participants were reminded of central episodes from popular movies while generating analogies for superficially (...)
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  23.  27
    M. Bizzarri, A. Cucina, F. Conti & F. D’Anselmi (2008). Beyond the Oncogene Paradigm: Understanding Complexity in Cancerogenesis. Acta Biotheoretica 56 (3):173-196.
    In the past decades, an enormous amount of precious information has been collected about molecular and genetic characteristics of cancer. This knowledge is mainly based on a reductionistic approach, meanwhile cancer is widely recognized to be a ‘system biology disease’. The behavior of complex physiological processes cannot be understood simply by knowing how the parts work in isolation. There is not solely a matter how to integrate all available knowledge in such a way that we can still deal with complexity, (...)
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  24.  37
    Sylvain Moutier, Nathalie Angeard & Olivier Houde (2002). Deductive Reasoning and Matching-Bias Inhibition Training: Evidence From a Debiasing Paradigm. Thinking and Reasoning 8 (3):205 – 224.
    Using the matching bias example, the aim of the present studies was to show that adults' reasoning biases are due to faulty executive inhibition programming. In the first study, the subjects were trained on Wason's classical card selection task; half were given training in how to inhibit the perceptual matching bias (experimental group) and half in logic without the inhibition component (control group). On the pre- and post-tests, their performance was assessed on the Evans conditional rule falsification task (with (...)
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  25.  23
    D. Barrell Price & Rainville J. (2002). Integrating Experimental-Phenomenological Methods and Neuroscience to Study Neural Mechanisms of Pain and Consciousness. Consciousness and Cognition 11 (4):593-608.
    Understanding the nature of pain at least partly depends on recognizing its inherent first person epistemology and on using a first person experiential and third person experimental approach to study it. This approach may help to understand some of the neural mechanisms of pain and consciousness by integrating experiential–phenomenological methods with those of neuroscience. Examples that approximate this strategy include studies of second pain summation and its relationship to neural activities and brain imaging-psychophysical studies wherein sensory and affective qualities (...)
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  26.  18
    Eyal M. Reingold & Jiye Shen, Peripheral and Parafoveal Cueing and Masking Effects on Saccadic Selectivity in a Gaze-Contingent Window Paradigm.
    The present study employed the gaze-contingent window paradigm to investigate parafoveal and peripheral cueing and masking effects on saccadic selectivity in a triple-conjunction visual search task. In the cueing conditions, the information shown outside the gaze-contingent window was restricted to the feature or feature pair shared between the target and a particular distractor type. In the masking conditions, no stimulus features were shown outside the window. Significant cueing and masking effects on saccadic selectivity were observed for saccades directed at (...)
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  27.  5
    H. G. Burström (1975). Ethics of Experimental Research. Dialectica 29 (4):237-247.
    SummaryThe ethical fundaments of research are objectivity and logic. The subjective and objective elements in the procedure: formulation of a problem — hypothesis — experimentation — selection of arguments — theory are discussed with examples from experimental biology, foremost plant physiology. A certain amount of subjectivity is essential in research, but violations of ethical rules beyond that are not uncommon. The importance of a paradigm is emphasized; research ethics may be low under pre‐paradigm conditions. The reasons for (...)
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  28.  2
    Cliff Hooker, Introduction to Philosophy of Complex Systems: Part B: Scientific Paradigm + Philosophy of Science for Complex Systems: A First Presentation C. 2009.
    Pursuit of every scientific framework — that is, of a paradigm and philosophy for science — is underwritten by a practical act of faith that its cognitive apparatus — including concepts, classes of models and underlying mathematics, and experimental instruments, techniques and interpretations — is adequate to understand the domain concerned. The focus of this essay is the consequences of the cognitive apparatus of complex systems for methodology, epistemology and metaphysics.
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  29. James P. Blevins (2016). Word and Paradigm Morphology. Oxford University Press Uk.
    This volume provides an introduction to word and paradigm models of morphology and the general perspectives on linguistic morphology that they embody. The recent revitalization of these models is placed in the larger context of the intellectual lineage that extends from classical grammars to current information-theoretic and discriminative learning paradigms. The synthesis of this tradition outlined in the volume highlights leading ideas about the organization of morphological systems that are shared by word and paradigm approaches, along with strategies (...)
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  30. Max Seeger (2010). Experimental Philosophy and the Twin Earth Intuition. Grazer Philosophische Studien 80:237-244.
    Jonathan Weinberg (2007) has argued that we should not appeal to intuition as evidence because it cannot be externally corroborated. This paper argues for the normative claim that Weinberg’s demand for external corroboration is misguided. The idea is that Weinberg goes wrong in treating philosophical appeal to intuition analogous to the appeal to evidence in the sciences. Traditional practice is defended against Weinberg’s critique with the argument that some intuitions are true simply in virtue of being intuited by the majority (...)
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  31.  27
    Chris Starmer (1999). Cycling with Rules of Thumb: An Experimental Test for a New Form of Non-Transitive Behaviour. Theory and Decision 46 (2):139-157.
    This paper tests a novel implication of the original version of prospect theory (Kahneman and Tversky, 1979): that choices may systematically violate transitivity. Some have interpreted this implication as a weakness, viewing it as an anomaly generated by the ‘editing phase’ of prospect theory which can be rendered redundant by an appropriate re-specification of the preference function. Although there is some existing evidence that transitivity fails descriptively, the particular form of non-transitivity implied by prospect theory is quite distinctive and hence (...)
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  32. Jonathan Evans (2002). Logic and Human Reasoning: An Assessment of the Deduction Paradigm. Psychological Bulletin 128 (6):978-996.
    The study of deductive reasoning has been a major paradigm in psychology for approximately the past 40 years. Research has shown that people make many logical errors on such tasks and are strongly influenced by problem content and context. It is argued that this paradigm was developed in a context of logicist thinking that is now outmoded. Few reasoning researchers still believe that logic is an appropriate normative system for most human reasoning, let alone a model for describing (...)
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  33.  10
    George E. Weaver, Robert L. McCann & Robert J. Wehr (1970). Stimulus Meaningfulness, Transfer, and Retroactive Inhibition in the A-B, A-C Paradigm. Journal of Experimental Psychology 85 (2):255.
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  34.  6
    Coleman T. Merryman (1971). Retroactive Inhibition in the A-B, A-D Paradigm as Measured by a Multiple-Choice Test. Journal of Experimental Psychology 91 (2):212-214.
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  35.  6
    David S. Gorfein & David E. Jacobson (1973). Memory Search in a Brown-Peterson Short-Term Memory Paradigm. Journal of Experimental Psychology 99 (1):82-87.
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  36.  3
    Alfred H. Fuchs & Arthur W. Melton (1974). Effects of Frequency of Presentation and Stimulus Length on Retention in the Brown-Peterson Paradigm. Journal of Experimental Psychology 103 (4):629.
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  37.  3
    Margaret J. Peterson & Joanne Koltnow (1968). Retention of the Acquisition Pairs in a Mediation Paradigm Before and After the Test Trial. Journal of Experimental Psychology 76 (3p2):1.
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  38.  3
    George E. Weaver & Rudolph W. Schulz (1968). A-B, B-C, a-C Mediation Paradigm: Recall of a-B Following Varying Numbers of Trials of a-C Learning. Journal of Experimental Psychology 78 (1):113.
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  39.  3
    David T. Hakes, Carlton T. James & Robert K. Young (1964). A Re-Examination of the Ebbinghaus Derived-List Paradigm. Journal of Experimental Psychology 68 (5):508.
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  40.  2
    Isabel M. Birnbaum (1972). General and Specific Components of Retroactive Inhibition in the A-B, A-C Paradigm. Journal of Experimental Psychology 93 (1):188.
  41.  2
    John R. Mull & Charles L. Richman (1973). Positive Transfer Found in an A-C Paradigm. Journal of Experimental Psychology 99 (3):424-426.
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  42.  2
    William P. Wallace, Ronald K. Remington & Alea Beito (1972). Retroactive Inhibition as a Function of Transfer Paradigm in Verbal Discrimination. Journal of Experimental Psychology 96 (2):463.
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  43.  1
    Michael J. Cohen & Harold J. Johnson (1971). Relationship Between Heart Rate and Muscular Activity Within a Classical Conditioning Paradigm. Journal of Experimental Psychology 90 (2):222-226.
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  44.  1
    Kent M. Dallett & Lester D'Andrea (1965). Mediation Instructions Versus Unlearning Instructions in the A-B, A-C Paradigm. Journal of Experimental Psychology 69 (5):460.
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  45.  1
    Judith A. Petrich (1970). S-R and R-S Unlearning as a Function of Transfer Paradigm. Journal of Experimental Psychology 83 (1p1):19.
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  46.  1
    Arthur W. Staats, Carolyn K. Staats & William G. Heard (1959). Language Conditioning of Meaning Using a Semantic Generalization Paradigm. Journal of Experimental Psychology 57 (3):187.
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  47.  1
    Robert K. Young, David T. Hakes & R. Yale Hicks (1965). Effects of List Length in the Ebbinghaus Derived-List Paradigm. Journal of Experimental Psychology 70 (3):338.
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  48.  2
    Karen Stark (1973). Components of Transfer in the A-B, A-B' Paradigm. Journal of Experimental Psychology 97 (3):378.
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  49. Gunnar Björnsson, John Eriksson, Caj Strandberg, Ragnar Francén Olinder & Fredrik Björklund (2014). Motivational Internalism and Folk Intuitions. Philosophical Psychology 28 (5):715-734.
    Motivational internalism postulates a necessary connection between moral judgments and motivation. In arguing for and against internalism, metaethicists traditionally appeal to intuitions about cases, but crucial cases often yield conflicting intuitions. One way to try to make progress, possibly uncovering theoretical bias and revealing whether people have conceptions of moral judgments required for noncognitivist accounts of moral disagreement, is to investigate non-philosophers' willingness to attribute moral judgments. A pioneering study by Shaun Nichols seemed to undermine internalism, as a large majority (...)
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  50.  4
    Roland Bluhm (2016). Corpus Analysis in Philosophy. In Martin Hinton (ed.), Evidence, Experiment and Argument in Linguistics and the Philosophy of Language. Peter Lang 91-109.
    The experimental philosophy movement advocates the use of empirical methods in philosophy. The methods most often discussed and in fact employed in experimental philosophy are appropriated from the experimental paradigm in psychology. But there is a variety of other (at least partly) empirical methods from various disciplines that are and others that could be used in philosophy. The paper explores the application of corpus analysis to philosophical issues. Although the method is well established in linguistics, there (...)
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