Search results for 'Experimental Paradigm' (try it on Scholar)

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  1. John P. Houston (1966). Stimulus Recall and Experimental Paradigm. Journal of Experimental Psychology 72 (4):619.score: 216.0
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  2. Joseph Halpern & C. Richard Chapman (1970). Human Incentive Learning as a Function of Reinforcement Schedule and Experimental Paradigm. Journal of Experimental Psychology 83 (3p1):514.score: 156.0
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  3. Gareth Roberts (2008). Language and the Free-Rider Problem: An Experimental Paradigm. Biological Theory 3 (2):174-183.score: 150.0
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  4. Ullrich Wagner, Lisa Handke, Denise Dörfel & Henrik Walter (2012). An Experimental Decision-Making Paradigm to Distinguish Guilt and Regret and Their Self-Regulating Function Via Loss Averse Choice Behavior. Frontiers in Psychology 3.score: 150.0
    Both guilt and regret typically result from counterfactual evaluations of personal choices that caused a negative outcome and are thought to regulate human decisions by people’s motivation to avoid these emotions. Despite these similarities, studies asking people to describe typical situations of guilt and regret identified the social dimension as a fundamental distinguishing factor, showing that guilt but not regret specifically occurs for choices in interpersonal (social) contexts. However, an experimental paradigm to investigate this distinction systematically by inducing (...)
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  5. Allison K. Allen, Kevin Wilkins, Adam Gazzaley & Ezequiel Morsella (2013). Conscious Thoughts From Reflex-Like Processes: A New Experimental Paradigm for Consciousness Research. Consciousness and Cognition 22 (4):1318-1331.score: 150.0
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  6. Jean‐François Mayol, Corinne Loeuillet, Francis Hérodin & Didier Wion (2009). Characterisation of Normal and Cancer Stem Cells: One Experimental Paradigm for Two Kinds of Stem Cells. Bioessays 31 (9):993-1001.score: 150.0
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  7. Segovia Gregorio (2013). Environmental Enrichment as an Experimental Paradigm to Promote Stress Inoculation-Induced Resilience. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 7.score: 150.0
  8. Meredith Larson, Ryan Doran, Yaron McNabb, Rachel Baker, Matthew Berends, Alex Djalali & Gregory Ward (2009). Distinguishing the Said From the Implicated Using a Novel Experimental Paradigm. In Uli Sauerland & Kazuko Yatsushiro (eds.), Semantics and Pragmatics: From Experiment to Theory. Palgrave Macmillan.score: 150.0
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  9. Kenny Smith (2009). Reconsidering Human Cross-Situational Learning Capacities: A Revision to Yu & Smith's (2007) Experimental Paradigm. In. In N. A. Taatgen & H. van Rijn (eds.), Proceedings of the 31st Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society. 2711--2716.score: 150.0
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  10. Gary D. Shank (1980). A Reconstruction Paradigm for the Experimental Analysis of Semiotic Factors in Cognitive Processing. Semiotics:493-502.score: 126.0
    Cognitive processing in psychology and semiotics are compared in relation to language processing and memory.Active reconstruction in memory is postulated, as well as the representation of whole messages as signs. The paradigm, then, is based on the study of active reconstruction of verbal messages from their semiotic representations in memory. Differences between original and reconstructed messages are used as dimension of empirical study in the paradigm. Research findings are cited in support of this approach.
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  11. A. Ahsen (1993). Imagery Paradigm: Imaginative Consciousness in the Experimental and Clinical Setting. Journal of Mental Imagery 17 (1-2).score: 120.0
     
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  12. C. Capel-Boute & A. Koeckelenbergh (1999). Necessity of a New Paradigm in Experimental Research Taking Into Account Space and Time. In S. Smets J. P. Van Bendegem G. C. Cornelis (ed.), Metadebates on Science. Vub-Press and Kluwer. 6--101.score: 120.0
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  13. Matthew Hugh Erdelyi (1986). Experimental Indeterminacies in the Dissociation Paradigm of Subliminal Perception. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 9 (1):30.score: 120.0
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  14. Jacqueline Anne Sullivan (2009). The Multiplicity of Experimental Protocols: A Challenge to Reductionist and Non-Reductionist Models of the Unity of Neuroscience. Synthese 167 (3):511 - 539.score: 96.0
    Descriptive accounts of the nature of explanation in neuroscience and the global goals of such explanation have recently proliferated in the philosophy of neuroscience (e.g., Bechtel, Mental mechanisms: Philosophical perspectives on cognitive neuroscience. New York: Lawrence Erlbaum, 2007; Bickle, Philosophy and neuroscience: A ruthlessly reductive account. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishing, 2003; Bickle, Synthese, 151, 411–434, 2006; Craver, Explaining the brain: Mechanisms and the mosaic unity of neuroscience. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2007) and with them new understandings of the <span class='Hi'> (...)</span> practices of neuroscientists have emerged. In this paper, I consider two models of such practices; one that takes them to be reductive; another that takes them to be integrative. I investigate those areas of the neuroscience of learning and memory from which the examples used to substantiate these models are culled, and argue that the multiplicity of <span class='Hi'>experimental</span> protocols used in these research areas presents specific challenges for both models. In my view, these challenges have been overlooked largely because philosophers have hitherto failed to pay sufficient attention to fundamental features of <span class='Hi'>experimental</span> practice. I demonstrate that when we do pay attention to such features, evidence for reduction and integrative unity in neuroscience is simply not borne out. I end by suggesting some new directions for the philosophy of neuroscience that pertain to taking a closer look at the nature of neuroscientific experiments. (shrink)
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  15. Jacqueline Anne Sullivan (2010). Reconsidering 'Spatial Memory' and the Morris Water Maze. Synthese 177 (2):261-283.score: 72.0
    The Morris water maze has been put forward in the philosophy of neuroscience as an example of an experimental arrangement that may be used to delineate the cognitive faculty of spatial memory (e.g., Craver and Darden, Theory and method in the neurosciences, University of Pittsburgh Press, Pittsburgh, 2001; Craver, Explaining the brain: Mechanisms and the mosaic unity of neuroscience, Oxford University Press, Oxford, 2007). However, in the experimental and review literature on the water maze throughout the history of (...)
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  16. Guillermo Campitelli & Craig Speelman (2013). Expertise Paradigms for Investigating the Neural Substrates of Stable Memories. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 7.score: 72.0
    Expertise paradigms for investigating the neural substrates of stable memories.
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  17. Kaoru Noguchi (2003). The Relationship Between Visual Illusion and Aesthetic Preference – an Attempt to Unify Experimental Phenomenology and Empirical Aesthetics. Axiomathes 13 (3-4):261-281.score: 66.0
    Experimental phenomenology has demonstrated that perception is much richer than stimulus. As is seen in color perception, one and the same stimulus provides more than several modes of appearance or perceptual dimensions. Similarly, there are various perceptual dimensions in form perception. Even a simple geometrical figure inducing visual illusion gives not only perceptual impressions of size, shape, slant, depth, and orientation, but also affective or aesthetic impressions. The present study reviews our experimental phenomenological work on visual illusion and (...)
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  18. Yoshihiko Tanno Mari Kanemoto, Tomohisa Asai, Eriko Sugimori (2013). External Misattribution of Internal Thoughts and Proneness to Auditory Hallucinations: The Effect of Emotional Valence in the Deese–Roediger–McDermott Paradigm. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 7.score: 66.0
    Previous studies have suggested that a tendency to externalize internal thought is related to auditory hallucinations or even proneness to auditory hallucinations (AHp) in the general population. However, although auditory hallucinations are related to emotional phenomena, few studies have investigated the effect of emotional valence on the aforementioned relationship. In addition, we do not know what component of psychotic phenomena relate to externalizing bias. The current study replicated our previous research, which suggested that individual differences in auditory hallucination-like experiences are (...)
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  19. Bradford Z. Mahon Eduardo Navarrete, Paul Del Prato (2012). Factors Determining Semantic Facilitation and Interference in the Cyclic Naming Paradigm. Frontiers in Psychology 3.score: 66.0
    The cyclic naming paradigm, in which participants are slower to name pictures blocked by semantic category than pictures in an unrelated context, offers a window into the dynamics of the mapping between lexical concepts and words. Here we provide evidence for the view that incremental learning effects on the connection weights from semantics to lexical items provide an elegant explanation of a range of observations within the cyclic naming paradigm. Our principal experimental manipulation is to vary the (...)
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  20. Salvatore Campanella Pierre Maurage (2013). Experimental and Clinical Usefulness of Crossmodal Paradigms in Psychiatry: An Illustration From Emotional Processing in Alcohol-Dependence. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 7.score: 60.0
    Cross-modal processing (i.e., the construction of a unified representation stemming from distinct sensorial modalities inputs) constitutes a crucial ability in humans’ everyday life. It has been extensively explored at cognitive and cerebral levels during the last decade among healthy controls. Paradoxically however, and while difficulties to perform this integrative process have been suggested in a large range of psychopathological states (e.g., schizophrenia and autism), these cross-modal paradigms have been very rarely used in the exploration of psychiatric populations. The main aim (...)
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  21. Sophie Vandenbroucke, Geert Crombez, Dimitri Van Ryckeghem, Marcel Brass, Stefaan Van Damme & Liesbet Goubert (2013). Vicarious Pain While Observing Another in Pain: An Experimental Approach. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 7.score: 60.0
    Objective: This study aimed at developing an experimental paradigm to assess vicarious pain experiences. We further explored the putative moderating role of observer’s characteristics such as hypervigilance for pain and dispositional empathy. Methods: Two experiments are reported using a similar procedure. Undergraduate students were selected based upon whether they reported vicarious pain in daily life, and categorized into a pain responder group or a comparison group. Participants were presented a series of videos showing hands being pricked whilst receiving (...)
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  22. Gordana Dodig-Crnkovic (2003). Shifting the Paradigm of Philosophy of Science: Philosophy of Information and a New Renaissance. [REVIEW] Minds and Machines 13 (4):521-536.score: 54.0
    Computing is changing the traditional field of Philosophy of Science in a very profound way. First as a methodological tool, computing makes possible ``experimental Philosophy'' which is able to provide practical tests for different philosophical ideas. At the same time the ideal object of investigation of the Philosophy of Science is changing. For a long period of time the ideal science was Physics (e.g., Popper, Carnap, Kuhn, and Chalmers). Now the focus is shifting to the field of Computing/Informatics. There (...)
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  23. Carol E. Cleland (2002). Methodological and Epistemic Differences Between Historical Science and Experimental Science. Philosophy of Science 69 (3):447-451.score: 54.0
    Experimental research is commonly held up as the paradigm of "good" science. Although experiment plays many roles in science, its classical role is testing hypotheses in controlled laboratory settings. Historical science (which includes work in geology, biology, and astronomy, as well as paleontology and archaeology) is sometimes held to be inferior on the grounds that its hypothesis cannot be tested by controlled laboratory experiments. Using contemporary examples from diverse scientific disciplines, this paper explores differences in practice between (...)
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  24. Sylvain Moutier, Nathalie Angeard & Olivier Houde (2002). Deductive Reasoning and Matching-Bias Inhibition Training: Evidence From a Debiasing Paradigm. Thinking and Reasoning 8 (3):205 – 224.score: 54.0
    Using the matching bias example, the aim of the present studies was to show that adults' reasoning biases are due to faulty executive inhibition programming. In the first study, the subjects were trained on Wason's classical card selection task; half were given training in how to inhibit the perceptual matching bias (experimental group) and half in logic without the inhibition component (control group). On the pre- and post-tests, their performance was assessed on the Evans conditional rule falsification task (with (...)
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  25. Niki Pfeifer & Igor Douven (2013). Formal Epistemology and the New Paradigm Psychology of Reasoning. Review of Philosophy and Psychology (2):1-23.score: 54.0
    This position paper advocates combining formal epistemology and the new paradigm psychology of reasoning in the studies of conditionals and reasoning with uncertainty. The new paradigm psychology of reasoning is characterized by the use of probability theory as a rationality framework instead of classical logic, used by more traditional approaches to the psychology of reasoning. This paper presents a new interdisciplinary research program which involves both formal and experimental work. To illustrate the program, the paper discusses recent (...)
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  26. M. Bizzarri, A. Cucina, F. Conti & F. D.’Anselmi (2008). Beyond the Oncogene Paradigm: Understanding Complexity in Cancerogenesis. Acta Biotheoretica 56 (3).score: 54.0
    In the past decades, an enormous amount of precious information has been collected about molecular and genetic characteristics of cancer. This knowledge is mainly based on a reductionistic approach, meanwhile cancer is widely recognized to be a ‘system biology disease’. The behavior of complex physiological processes cannot be understood simply by knowing how the parts work in isolation. There is not solely a matter how to integrate all available knowledge in such a (...)
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  27. Francesca Siclari, Joshua J. LaRocque, Bradley R. Postle & Giulio Tononi (2013). Assessing Sleep Consciousness Within Subjects Using a Serial Awakening Paradigm. Frontiers in Psychology 4.score: 54.0
    Dreaming - a particular form of consciousness that occurs during sleep - undergoes major changes in the course of the night. We aimed to outline state-dependent features of consciousness using a paradigm with multiple serial awakenings/questionings that allowed for within as well as between subject comparisons. Seven healthy participants who spent 44 experimental study nights in the laboratory were awakened by a computerized sound at 15-30 minute intervals, regardless of sleep stage, and questioned for the presence or absence (...)
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  28. Marieke Rohde Malika Auvray (2012). Perceptual Crossing: The Simplest Online Paradigm. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 6.score: 54.0
    Researchers in social cognition increasingly realize that many phenomena cannot be understood by investigating offline situations only, focusing on individual mechanisms and an observer perspective. There are processes of dynamic emergence specific to online situations, when two or more persons are engaged in a real-time interaction that are more than just the sum of the individual capacities or behaviours, and these require the study of online social interaction. Auvray et al.’s (2009) perceptual crossing paradigm offers possibly the simplest (...) for studying such online interactions: two persons, a one-dimensional space, one bit of information, and a yes/no answer. Despite, or maybe because of its simplicity, this study has provoked a lot of resonance in different areas of research, including experimental psychology, computer/robot modelling, philosophy, more recently psychopathology, and even in the field of design. In this article, we review and critically assess this body of literature. We give an overview over work on the perceptual crossing paradigm, both concerning behavioural experiments and computational agent modelling, and review the different contexts in which it has been referred to. We discuss the controversy about the possible constitutive role of perceptual crossing for social cognition and other theoretical contexts in which the research has been cited, offering our own interpretation. We conclude with an outlook on future research possibilities, in particular those that could elucidate the link between online interaction dynamics and individual social cognition. (shrink)
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  29. Eyal M. Reingold & Jiye Shen, Peripheral and Parafoveal Cueing and Masking Effects on Saccadic Selectivity in a Gaze-Contingent Window Paradigm.score: 54.0
    The present study employed the gaze-contingent window paradigm to investigate parafoveal and peripheral cueing and masking effects on saccadic selectivity in a triple-conjunction visual search task. In the cueing conditions, the information shown outside the gaze-contingent window was restricted to the feature or feature pair shared between the target and a particular distractor type. In the masking conditions, no stimulus features were shown outside the window. Significant cueing and masking effects on saccadic selectivity were observed for saccades directed at (...)
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  30. Felicia Pei-Hsin Cheng, Michael Grossbach & Eckart Altenmüller (2013). Altered Sensory Feedbacks in Pianist's Dystonia: The Altered Auditory Feedback Paradigm and the Glove Effect. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 7:868.score: 54.0
    Background: This study investigates the effect of altered auditory feedback (AAF) in musician's dystonia (MD) and discusses whether altered auditory feedback can be considered as a sensory trick in MD. Furthermore, the effect of AAF is compared with altered tactile feedback, which can serve as a sensory trick in several other forms of focal dystonia. Methods: The method is based on scale analysis (Jabusch et al. 2004). Experiment 1 employs synchronization paradigm: 12 MD patients and 25 healthy pianists had (...)
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  31. Ann Meulders, Nele Vandebroek, Bram Vervliet & Johan Ws Vlaeyen (2013). Generalization Gradients in Cued and Contextual Pain-Related Fear: An Experimental Study in Healthy Participants. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 1.score: 54.0
    Increasing evidence supports the notion that pain-related fear plays a key role in the transition from acute to chronic pain. Recent experimental data show that associative learning processes are involved in the acquisition of pain-related fear. An intriguing yet underinvestigated question entails how spreading of pain-related fear in chronic pain occurs. In a voluntary movement paradigm in which one arm movement (CS+) was followed by a painful stimulus and another was not (CS-) in the predictable group and painful (...)
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  32. Max Seeger (2010). Experimental Philosophy and the Twin Earth Intuition. Grazer Philosophische Studien 80:237-244.score: 48.0
    Jonathan Weinberg (2007) has argued that we should not appeal to intuition as evidence because it cannot be externally corroborated. This paper argues for the normative claim that Weinberg’s demand for external corroboration is misguided. The idea is that Weinberg goes wrong in treating philosophical appeal to intuition analogous to the appeal to evidence in the sciences. Traditional practice is defended against Weinberg’s critique with the argument that some intuitions are true simply in virtue of being intuited by the majority (...)
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  33. Chris Starmer (1999). Cycling with Rules of Thumb: An Experimental Test for a New Form of Non-Transitive Behaviour. Theory and Decision 46 (2):139-157.score: 48.0
    This paper tests a novel implication of the original version of prospect theory (Kahneman and Tversky, 1979): that choices may systematically violate transitivity. Some have interpreted this implication as a weakness, viewing it as an anomaly generated by the ‘editing phase’ of prospect theory which can be rendered redundant by an appropriate re-specification of the preference function. Although there is some existing evidence that transitivity fails descriptively, the particular form of non-transitivity implied by prospect theory is quite distinctive and hence (...)
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  34. David S. Gorfein & David E. Jacobson (1973). Memory Search in a Brown-Peterson Short-Term Memory Paradigm. Journal of Experimental Psychology 99 (1):82-87.score: 48.0
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  35. David T. Hakes, Carlton T. James & Robert K. Young (1964). A Re-Examination of the Ebbinghaus Derived-List Paradigm. Journal of Experimental Psychology 68 (5):508.score: 48.0
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  36. Coleman T. Merryman (1971). Retroactive Inhibition in the A-B, A-D Paradigm as Measured by a Multiple-Choice Test. Journal of Experimental Psychology 91 (2):212-214.score: 48.0
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  37. Margaret J. Peterson & Joanne Koltnow (1968). Retention of the Acquisition Pairs in a Mediation Paradigm Before and After the Test Trial. Journal of Experimental Psychology 76 (3p2):1.score: 48.0
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  38. Karen Stark (1973). Components of Transfer in the A-B, A-B' Paradigm. Journal of Experimental Psychology 97 (3):378.score: 48.0
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  39. George E. Weaver & Rudolph W. Schulz (1968). A-B, B-C, a-C Mediation Paradigm: Recall of a-B Following Varying Numbers of Trials of a-C Learning. Journal of Experimental Psychology 78 (1):113.score: 48.0
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  40. George E. Weaver, Robert L. McCann & Robert J. Wehr (1970). Stimulus Meaningfulness, Transfer, and Retroactive Inhibition in the A-B, A-C Paradigm. Journal of Experimental Psychology 85 (2):255.score: 48.0
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  41. Isabel M. Birnbaum (1972). General and Specific Components of Retroactive Inhibition in the A-B, A-C Paradigm. Journal of Experimental Psychology 93 (1):188.score: 48.0
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  42. Michael J. Cohen & Harold J. Johnson (1971). Relationship Between Heart Rate and Muscular Activity Within a Classical Conditioning Paradigm. Journal of Experimental Psychology 90 (2):222-226.score: 48.0
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  43. Kent M. Dallett & Lester D'Andrea (1965). Mediation Instructions Versus Unlearning Instructions in the A-B, A-C Paradigm. Journal of Experimental Psychology 69 (5):460.score: 48.0
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  44. Alfred H. Fuchs & Arthur W. Melton (1974). Effects of Frequency of Presentation and Stimulus Length on Retention in the Brown-Peterson Paradigm. Journal of Experimental Psychology 103 (4):629.score: 48.0
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  45. John R. Mull & Charles L. Richman (1973). Positive Transfer Found in an A-C Paradigm. Journal of Experimental Psychology 99 (3):424-426.score: 48.0
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  46. Judith A. Petrich (1970). S-R and R-S Unlearning as a Function of Transfer Paradigm. Journal of Experimental Psychology 83 (1p1):19.score: 48.0
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  47. Arthur W. Staats, Carolyn K. Staats & William G. Heard (1959). Language Conditioning of Meaning Using a Semantic Generalization Paradigm. Journal of Experimental Psychology 57 (3):187.score: 48.0
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  48. William P. Wallace, Ronald K. Remington & Alea Beito (1972). Retroactive Inhibition as a Function of Transfer Paradigm in Verbal Discrimination. Journal of Experimental Psychology 96 (2):463.score: 48.0
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  49. Robert K. Young, David T. Hakes & R. Yale Hicks (1965). Effects of List Length in the Ebbinghaus Derived-List Paradigm. Journal of Experimental Psychology 70 (3):338.score: 48.0
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  50. Gunnar Björnsson, John Eriksson, Caj Strandberg, Ragnar Francén Olinder & Fredrik Björklund (forthcoming). Motivational Internalism and Folk Intuitions. Philosophical Psychology:1-20.score: 42.0
    Motivational internalism postulates a necessary connection between moral judgments and motivation. In arguing for and against internalism, metaethicists traditionally appeal to intuitions about cases, but crucial cases often yield conflicting intuitions. One way to try to make progress, possibly uncovering theoretical bias and revealing whether people have conceptions of moral judgments required for noncognitivist accounts of moral thinking, is to investigate non-philosophers' willingness to attribute moral judgments. A pioneering study by Shaun Nichols seemed to undermine internalism, as a large majority (...)
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