Search results for 'Experimental Subjects' (try it on Scholar)

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  1.  9
    Maria Rentetzi (2004). The Women Radium Dial Painters as Experimental Subjects (1920–1990) or What Counts as Human Experimentation. NTM International Journal of History and Ethics of Natural Sciences, Technology and Medicine 12 (4):233-248.
    The case of women radium dial painters — women who tipped their brushes while painting the dials of watches and instruments with radioactive paint — has been extensively discussed in the medical and historical literature. Their painful and abhorrent deaths have occupied the interest of physicians, lawyers, politicians, military agencies, and the public. Hardly any discussion has concerned, however, the use of those women as experimental subjects in a number of epidemiological studies that took place from 1920 to (...)
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  2.  9
    Russell Jacobs (1988). Human Embryos as Experimental Subjects. Southwest Philosophy Review 4 (2):87-92.
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  3. L. A. Wood (forthcoming). Experimental Subjects and Partial Truth Telling During Technological Change in Radiotherapy. Nursing Ethics.
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  4.  6
    Norman Cameron & Ann Magaret (1949). Experimental Studies in Thinking: I. Scattered Speech in the Responses of Normal Subjects to Incomplete Sentences. Journal of Experimental Psychology 39 (5):617.
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  5. David Hume (2000). A Treatise of Human Nature: Being an Attempt to Introduce the Experimental Method of Reasoning Into Moral Subjects. OUP Oxford.
    A Treatise of Human Nature , David Hume's comprehensive attempt to base philosophy on a new, observationally grounded study of human nature, is one of the most important texts in Western philosophy. It is also the focal point of current attempts to understand 18th-century western philosophy. The Treatise addresses many of the most fundamental philosophical issues: causation, existence, freedom and necessity, and morality. The volume also includes Humes own abstract of the Treatise, a substantial introduction, extensive annotations, a glossary, a (...)
     
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  6.  19
    Anne Jaap Jacobson (1989). Inductive Scepticism and Experimental Reasoning in Moral Subjects in Hume's Philosophy. Hume Studies 15 (2):325-338.
  7. Fey Parrill (2008). Subjects in the Hands of Speakers: An Experimental Study of Syntactic Subject and Speech-Gesture Integration. Cognitive Linguistics 19 (2).
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  8.  16
    Brian A. Smith, Ellen Wright Clayton & David Robertson (2011). Experimental Arrest of Cerebral Blood Flow in Human Subjects The Red Wing Studies Revisited. Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 54 (2):121-131.
    Aircraft with increasingly high performance were important to the war effort in World War II. Changes in technology allowed aircraft to reach faster speeds and to complete missions at higher altitudes. With these changes came new obstacles for pilots who had to tolerate these stresses. Of primary concern to the U.S. War Department was the loss of consciousness that often occurred with high-speed maneuvers and especially during pull-up after dive-bombing missions. In some cases, pilots would experience up to 9G of (...)
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  9.  1
    Benjamin W. Libet (2003). Cerebral Physiology of Conscious Experience: Experimental Studies in Human Subjects. In Naoyuki Osaka (ed.), Neural Basis of Consciousness. John Benjamins 49--57.
  10. David Hume & D. ed Macnabb (1967). A Treatise of Human Nature. Being an Attempt to Introduce the Experimental Method of Reasoning Into Moral Subjects. Edited with an Introd. By D.G.C. Macnabb. --. [REVIEW] Collins.
  11. Charles Hutton, J. Davis, Johnson & G. G. Robinson (1796). A Mathematical and Philosophical Dictionary Containing an Explanation of the Terms, and an Account of the Several Subjects, Comprized Under the Heads Mathematics, Astronomy, and Philosophy Both Natural and Experimental: With an Historical Account of the Rise, Progress, and Present State of These Sciences: Also Memoirs of the Lives and Writings of the Most Eminent Authors, Both Ancient and Modern, Who by Their Discoveries or Improvements Have Contributed to the Advance of Them. In Two Volumes. With Many Cuts and Copper Plates. Printed by J. Davis, for J. Johnson, in St. Paul's Church-Yard; and G. G. And J. Robinson, in Paternoster-Row.
     
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  12. Jill Morawski (2015). Epistemological Dizziness in the Psychology Laboratory: Lively Subjects, Anxious Experimenters, and Experimental Relations, 1950–1970. Isis 106 (3):567-597.
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  13. David Fate Norton & Mary J. Norton (eds.) (2000). A Treatise of Human Nature: Being an Attempt to Introduce the Experimental Method of Reasoning Into Moral Subjects. OUP Oxford.
    A Treatise of Human Nature, David Hume's comprehensive attempt to base philosophy on a new, observationally grounded study of human nature, is one of the most important texts in Western philosophy. It is also the focal point of current attempts to understand 18th-century western philosophy. The Treatise addresses many of the most fundamental philosophical issues: causation, existence, freedom and necessity, and morality. The volume also includes Humes own abstract of the Treatise, a substantial introduction, extensive annotations, a glossary, a comprehensive (...)
     
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  14. Shaun Gallagher & Jesper B. Sorensen (2006). Experimenting with Phenomenology. Consciousness and Cognition 15 (1):119-134.
    We review the use of introspective and phenomenological methods in experimental settings. We distinguish different senses of introspection, and further distinguish phenomenological method from introspectionist approaches. Two ways of using phenomenology in experimental procedures are identified: first, the neurophenomenological method, proposed by Varela, involves the training of experimental subjects. This approach has been directly and productively incorporated into the protocol of experiments on perception. A second approach may have wider application and does not involve training (...) subjects in phenomenological method. It requires front-loading phenomenological insights into experimental design. A number of experiments employing this approach are reviewed. We conclude with a discussion of the implications for both the cognitive sciences and phenomenology. Ó 2006 Published by Elsevier Inc. (shrink)
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  15.  23
    Lynn Pasquerella (2002). Confining Choices: Should Inmates' Participation in Research Be Limited? Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 23 (6):519-536.
    Historically, prisoners in the United Stateshave served as an inexpensive and readilyavailable source of human subjects forresearch. Coinciding with the civil rightsmovement, however, was an emerging conceptionof prisoners'' rights that led to the NationalCommission for the Protection of Human Subjectsof Biomedical and Behavioral Research beingcharged with investigating the use of prisonersas research subjects. The recommendations thatevolved and the subsequent guidelines that havebeen implemented by the Department of Healthand Human Services significantly curtail theuse of prisoners as research subjects. (...)
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  16. Jeremy Pierce (2013). Glasgow's Race Antirealism: Experimental Philosophy and Thought Experiments. Journal of Social Philosophy 44 (2):146-168.
    Joshua Glasgow argues against the existence of races. His experimental philosophy asks subjects questions involving racial categorization to discover the ordinary concept of race at work in their judgments. The results show conflicting information about the concept of race, and Glasgow concludes that the ordinary concept of race is inconsistent. I conclude, rather, that Glasgow’s results fit perfectly fine with a social-kind view of races as real social entities. He also presents thought experiments to show that social-kind views (...)
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  17.  12
    Miklos Kurthy & Holly Lawford-Smith (2015). [Comment] A Brief Note on the Ambiguity of ‘Ought’. Reply to Moti Mizrahi’s ‘Ought, Can and Presupposition: An Experimental Study’. Methode: Analytic Perspectives 4 (6):244-249.
    Moti Mizrahi provides experimental evidence according to which subjects judge that a person ought to ? even when she cannot ?. He takes his results to constitute a falsification of the alleged intuitiveness of the ‘Ought Implies Can’ principle. We point out that in the light of the fact that (a) ‘ought’ is multiply ambiguous, that (b) only a restricted set of readings of ‘ought’ will be relevant to the principle, and that (c) he did not instruct his (...)
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  18.  8
    Gil Hersch (2015). Experimental Economics' Inconsistent Ban on Deception. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 52:13-19.
    According to what I call the ‘argument from public bads’, if a researcher deceived subjects in the past, there is a chance that subjects will discount the information that a subsequent researcher provides, thus compromising the validity of the subsequent researcher’s experiment. While this argument is taken to justify an existing informal ban on explicit deception in experimental economics, it can also apply to implicit deception, yet implicit deception is not banned and is sometimes used in (...) economics. Thus, experimental economists are being inconsistent when they appeal to the argument from public bads to justify banning explicit deception but not implicit deception. (shrink)
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  19.  44
    Yutaka Nakamura & R. Chapman (2002). Measuring Pain: An Introspective Look at Introspection. Consciousness and Cognition 11 (4):582-592.
    The measurement of pain depends upon subjective reports, but we know very little about how research subjects or pain patients produce self-reported judgments. Representationalist assumptions dominate the field of pain research and lead to the critical conjecture that the person in pain examines the contents of consciousness before making a report about the sensory or affective magnitude of pain experience as well as about its nature. Most studies to date have investigated what Fechner termed “outer psychophysics”: the relationship between (...)
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  20. Hannes Rusch & Matthias Uhl (forthcoming). Order Ethics: An Experimental Perspective. In Christoph Luetge & Nikil Mukerji (eds.), Order Ethics – An Ethical Framework for the Social Market Economy. Springer
    In this chapter, we present supporting arguments for the claim that Order Ethics is a school of thought within ethics which is especially open to empirical evidence. With its focus on order frameworks, i.e., incentive structures, Order Ethical advice automatically raises questions on implementability, efficacy, and efficiency of such recommended institutions, all of which are empirical questions to a good extent. We illustrate our arguments by presenting a small selection of experiments from economics that we consider highly informative for Order (...)
     
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  21. Matthew Rabin (2006). The Experimental Study of Social Preferences. Social Research: An International Quarterly 73 (2):405-428.
    In recent years, experimental economists have complemented earlier research by psychologists on equity theory, altruism, and related theories, by studying the anonymous allocation of dollar prizes by experimental subjects. This research has helped us understand the nature of attitudes towards fairness, reciprocity, and other "social preferences," and how these attitudes interact with self interest. The author critically reviews some of this evidence and the prevalent interpretations of this evidence to suggest some general lessons and ideas for where (...)
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  22.  4
    Ana C. Santos (2007). The 'Materials' of Experimental Economics: Technological Versus Behavioral Experiments. Journal of Economic Methodology 14 (3):311-337.
    In the natural sciences there is a general consensus on the epistemic value conferred by the participation of the ?material world? in the experimental process of knowledge production. This is no different in experimental economics. However, an inquiry into the epistemic role of the ?materials? of economics is still underdeveloped. The present paper is meant as a contribution to this inquiry. Two categories of experiments are identified according to the differentiated role of the ?materials? of economics. It is (...)
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  23.  96
    Ben Merriman (2014). Ethical Issues in the Employment of User-Generated Content as Experimental Stimulus: Defining the Interests of Creators. Research Ethics 10 (4):196-207.
    Social experimental research commonly employs media to elicit responses from research subjects. This use of media is broadly protected under fair use exemptions to copyright, and creators of content used in experiments are generally not afforded any formal consideration or protections in existing research ethics frameworks. Online social networking sites are an emerging and important setting for social experiments, and in this context the material used to elicit responses is often content produced by other users. This article argues (...)
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  24.  36
    E. Chemla & B. Spector (2011). Experimental Evidence for Embedded Scalar Implicatures. Journal of Semantics 28 (3):359-400.
    Scalar implicatures are traditionally viewed as pragmatic inferences that result from a reasoning about speakers' communicative intentions (Grice 1989). This view has been challenged in recent years by theories that propose that scalar implicatures are a grammatical phenomenon. Such theories claim that scalar implicatures can be computed in embedded positions and enter into the recursive computation of meaning—something that is not expected under the traditional pragmatic view. Recently, Geurts and Pouscoulous (2009) presented an experimental study in which embedded scalar (...)
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  25.  20
    Gary Hatfield (2015). Objectifying the Phenomenal in Experimental Psychology: Titchener and Beyond. Philosophia Scientiae 19 (3):73-94.
    This paper examines the origins and legacy of Titchener’s notion of stimulus error in the experimental study of sensory experience. It places Titchener’s introspective methods into the intellectual world of early experimental psychology. It follows the subsequent development of perceptual experimentation primarily in the American literature, with notice to British and German studies as needed. Subsequent investigators transformed the specific notion of a “stimulus error” into experimental questions in which subjects’ attitudes toward their perceptual tasks became (...)
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  26.  10
    Hsueh Qu (2016). Prescription, Description, and Hume's Experimental Method. British Journal for the History of Philosophy 24 (2):279-301.
    There seems a potential tension between Hume's naturalistic project and his normative ambitions. Hume adopts what I call a methodological naturalism: that is, the methodology of providing explanations for various phenomena based on natural properties and causes. This methodology takes the form of introducing ‘the experimental method of reasoning into moral subjects’, as stated in the subtitle of the Treatise; this ‘experimental method’ seems a paradigmatically descriptive one, and it remains unclear how Hume derives genuinely normative prescriptions (...)
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  27.  64
    Murat Aydede & D. Price (2005). The Experimental Use of Introspection in the Scientific Study of Pain and its Integration with Third-Person Methodologies: The Experiential-Phenomenological Approach. In Pain: New Essays on its Nature and the Methodology of its Study. MIT Press 243--273.
    Understanding the nature of pain depends, at least partly, on recognizing its subjectivity (thus, its first-person epistemology). This in turn requires using a first-person experiential method in addition to third-person experimental approaches to study it. This paper is an attempt to spell out what the former approach is and how it can be integrated with the latter. We start our discussion by examining some foundational issues raised by the use of introspection. We argue that such a first-person method in (...)
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  28.  18
    Takashi Hayashi & Ryoko Wada (2010). Choice with Imprecise Information: An Experimental Approach. [REVIEW] Theory and Decision 69 (3):355-373.
    This article provides an experimental analysis of attitude toward imprecise and variable information. Imprecise information is provided in the form of a set of possible probability values, such that it is virtually impossible for the subjects to guess or estimate, which one in the set is true or more likely to be true. We investigate how geometric features of such information pieces affect choices. We find that the subjects care about more features than the pairs of best-case (...)
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  29.  14
    Jane Johnson & Neal D. Barnard (2014). Chimpanzees as Vulnerable Subjects in Research. Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 35 (2):133-141.
    Using an approach developed in the context of human bioethics, we argue that chimpanzees in research can be regarded as vulnerable subjects. This vulnerability is primarily due to communication barriers and situational factors—confinement and dependency—that make chimpanzees particularly susceptible to risks of harm and exploitation in experimental settings. In human research, individuals who are deemed vulnerable are accorded special protections. Using conceptual and moral resources developed in the context of research with vulnerable humans, we show how chimpanzees warrant (...)
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  30.  16
    Maxwell J. Mehlman & Jessica W. Berg (2008). Human Subjects Protections in Biomedical Enhancement Research: Assessing Risk and Benefit and Obtaining Informed Consent. Journal of Law, Medicine & Ethics 36 (3):546-549.
    The protection of human subjects in biomedical research relies on two principal mechanisms: assessing and comparing the risks and potential benefits of proposed research, and obtaining potential subjects' informed consent. While these have been discussed extensively in the literature, no attention has been paid to whether the processes should be different when the objective of an experimental biomedical intervention is to improve individual appearance, performance, or capability rather than to prevent, cure, or mitigate disease . This essay (...)
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  31.  9
    Robin P. Cubitt, Chris Starmer & Robert Sugden (2001). Discovered Preferences and the Experimental Evidence of Violations of Expected Utility Theory. Journal of Economic Methodology 8 (3):385-414.
    The discovered preference hypothesis appears to insulate expected utility theory (EU) from disconfirming experimental evidence. It asserts that individuals have coherent underlying preferences, which experiments may not reveal unless subjects have adequate opportunities and incentives to discover which actions best satisfy their preferences. We identify the confounding effects to be expected in experiments, were that hypothesis true, and consider how they might be controlled for. We argue for a design in which each subject faces just one distinct choice (...)
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  32.  37
    Andrew A. Fingelkurts & Alexander A. Fingelkurts (2011). Persistent Operational Synchrony Within Brain Default-Mode Network and Self-Processing Operations in Healthy Subjects. Brain and Cognition 75 (2):79-90.
    Based on the theoretical analysis of self-consciousness concepts, we hypothesized that the spatio-temporal pattern of functional connectivity within the default-mode network (DMN) should persist unchanged across a variety of different cognitive tasks or acts, thus being task-unrelated. This supposition is in contrast with current understanding that DMN activated when the subjects are resting and deactivated during any attention-demanding cognitive tasks. To test our proposal, we used, in retrospect, the results from our two early studies ([Fingelkurts, 1998] and [Fingelkurts et (...)
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  33.  30
    Marie-Laure Cabon-Dhersin & Nathalie Etchart-Vincent (2012). The Puzzle of Cooperation in a Game of Chicken: An Experimental Study. [REVIEW] Theory and Decision 72 (1):65-87.
    The objective of this article is to investigate the impact of agent heterogeneity (as regards their attitude towards cooperation) and payoff structure on cooperative behaviour, using an experimental setting with incomplete information. A game of chicken is played considering two types of agents: ‘unconditional cooperators’, who always cooperate, and ‘strategic cooperators’, who do not cooperate unless it is in their interest to do so. Overall, our data show a much higher propensity to cooperate than predicted by theory. They also (...)
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  34.  18
    Y. Rossetti (1998). Implicit Short-Lived Motor Representations of Space in Brain Damaged and Healthy Subjects. Consciousness and Cognition 7 (3):520-558.
    This article reviews experimental evidence for a specific sensorimotor function which can be dissociated from higher level representations of space. It attempts to delineate this function on the basis of results obtained by psychophysical experiments performed with brain damaged and healthy subjects. Eye and hand movement control exhibit automatic features, such that they are incompatible with conscious control. In addition, they rely on a reference frame different from the one used by conscious perception. Neuropsychological cases provide a strong (...)
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  35.  22
    Robin Hanson, Information Aggregation and Manipulation in an Experimental Market.
    Prediction markets are increasingly being considered as methods for gathering, summarizing and aggregating diffuse information by governments and businesses alike. Critics worry that these markets are susceptible to price manipulation by agents who wish to distort decision making. We study the effect of manipulators on an experimental market, and find that manipulators are unable to distort price accuracy. Subjects without manipulation incentives compensate for the bias in offers from manipulators by setting a different threshold at which they are (...)
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  36.  23
    Mark S. Peacock (2007). The Conceptual Construction of Altruism: Ernst Fehr’s Experimental Approach to Human Conduct. Philosophy of the Social Sciences 37 (1):3-23.
    I offer an appreciation and critique of Ernst Fehr’s altruism research in experimental economics that challenges the "selfishness axiom" as an account of human behavior. I describe examples of Fehr’s experiments and their results and consider his conceptual terminology, particularly his "biological" definition of altruism and its counterintuitive implications. I also look at Fehr’s experiments from a methodological perspective and examine his explanations of subjects’ behavior. In closing, I look at Fehr’s neuroscientific work in experimental economics and (...)
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  37.  16
    M. L. Peters, S. A. Uyterlinde, J. Consemulder & O. van der Hart (1998). Apparent Amnesia on Experimental Memory Tests in Dissociative Identity Disorder: An Exploratory Study. Consciousness and Cognition 7 (1):27-41.
    Dissociative identity disorder (DID; called multiple personality disorder in DSMIII-R) is a psychiatric condition in which two or more identity states recurrently take control of the person's behavior. A characteristic feature of DID is the occurrence of apparently severe amnestic symptoms. This paper is concerned with experimental research of memory function in DID and focuses on between-identity transfer of newly learned neutral material. Previous studies on this subject are reviewed and a pilot study with four subjects is described. (...)
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  38. W. F. Brewer & C. A. Chinn (1994). The Theory-Ladenness of Data: An Experimental Demonstration. In Ashwin Ram & Kurt Eiselt (eds.), Proceedings of the Sixteenth Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society. Erlbaum 61--65.
    Most philosophers of science now believe that scientific data are theory laden, i.e., the evaluation of data is influenced by prior theoretical beliefs. Although there is historical and psychological evidence that is consistent with the theory-laden position, experimental evidence is needed to directly test whether prior beliefs influence the evaluation of scientific data. In a fully counterbalanced design, one group of subjects received evidence that dinosaurs were cold-blooded, and another group of subjects received evidence that dinosaurs were (...)
     
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  39.  2
    Maria Jimenez-Buedo & Francesco Guala (2016). Artificiality, Reactivity, and Demand Effects in Experimental Economics. Philosophy of the Social Sciences 46 (1):3-23.
    A series of recent debates in experimental economics have associated demand effects with the artificiality of the experimental setting and have linked it to the problem of external validity. In this paper, we argue that these associations can be misleading, partly because of the ambiguity with which “artificiality” has been defined, but also because demand effects and external validity are related in complex ways. We argue that artificiality may be directly as well as inversely correlated with demand effects. (...)
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  40.  14
    Laura Razzolini, Michael Reksulak & Robert Dorsey (2007). An Experimental Evaluation of the Serial Cost Sharing Rule. Theory and Decision 63 (3):283-314.
    This paper proposes an experimental test to evaluate the performance of the serial cost sharing rule, originally proposed by Shenker [Sigmetrics, 241–242 (1990)] and then analyzed by Moulin and Shenker [Econometrica 60, 1009–1037 (1992)]. We report measures of the performance and efficiency of the serial mechanism by comparing the choices and payoffs attained by the subjects to the expected equilibrium allocations. Experimental evidence shows that learning is needed for the subjects to converge to the equilibrium strategy. (...)
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  41.  16
    David Ingle (2005). Two Kinds of “Memory Images”: Experimental Models for Hallucinations? Behavioral and Brain Sciences 28 (6):768-768.
    Collerton et al. postulate that in a variety of different clinical conditions, hallucinations are derived from object schema lodged in long-term memory. I review two new experiments in which memory images can be easily triggered in neurologically intact subjects. These examples of making visible items in memory may provide experimental models for genesis of hallucinations.
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  42.  9
    S. R. Coleman & Sandra Webster (1988). The Problem of Volition and the Conditioned Reflex. Part II. Voluntary-Responding Subjects, 1951-1980. Behaviorism 16 (1):17-49.
    The operation of voluntary processes can contaminate the study of Pavlovian conditioned responses in humans. The problem of voluntary control had apparently been solved by about 1940, particularly in human eyelid conditioning. Nonetheless, the problem returned in the early 1950s, calling forth a variety of methodological procedures for removing voluntary responses and/or voluntary-responding subjects from eyelid-conditioning data. During the 1960s, disagreement arose regarding the efficiency and comparability of alternative data-correction procedures; the rationale for data-correction; and whether, and under what (...)
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  43.  12
    Sascha Füllbrunn & Tibor Neugebauer (2013). Varying the Number of Bidders in the First-Price Sealed-Bid Auction: Experimental Evidence for the One-Shot Game. [REVIEW] Theory and Decision 75 (3):421-447.
    The paper reports experimental data on the behavior in the first-price sealed-bid auction for a varying number of bidders when values and bids are private information. This feedback-free design is proposed for the experimental test of the one-shot game situation. We consider both within-subjects and between-subjects variations. In line with the qualitative risk neutral Nash equilibrium prediction, the data show that bids increase in the number of bidders. However, in auctions involving a small number of bidders, (...)
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  44.  27
    Peter Richerson, Group Size and Sincere Communication in Experimental Social Dilemmas.
    This paper makes two contributions to the research on cooperation in experimental social dilemmas. First, we demonstrate an interaction between group size and communication in which the effectiveness of communication in promoting cooperation declines as group size increases. Second, we corroborate some previous research showing the positive effect of communication is due to sincere signaling of cooperative intentions. The experimental data comes from 289 undergraduate student subjects playing public goods games over a computer network. These findings suggest (...)
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  45.  11
    Don Ross (2001). The Game-Theoretic Innocence of Experimental Behavioral Psychology. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 24 (3):426-427.
    Hertwig and Ortmann imply that failure of many behavioral psychologists to observe several central methodological principles of experimental economics derives mainly from differences in disciplinary culture. I suggest that there are deeper philosophical causes, based (ironically) on a legacy of methodological individualism in psychology from which economists have substantially cured themselves through use of game theory. Psychologists often misidentify their objects of study by trying to wrench subjects out of their normal behavioral contexts in games.
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  46.  16
    Gary Gigliotti & Barry Sopher (2003). Analysis of Intertemporal Choice: A New Framework and Experimental Results. Theory and Decision 55 (3):209-233.
    This paper reports the results of a series of experiments examining intertemporal choice. The paper makes three contributions: First, it presents a new analytic device, the intertemporal choice triangle, which is analogous to the Marschak--Machina choice triangle used in the analysis of choice under risk. Second, we have developed a new experimental design based on the intertemporal choice triangle which allows subjects greater flexibility in making choices, and which allows the researcher to make more subtle inferences, than are (...)
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  47. Colin Klein, Experimental Philosophy and Individual Differences: Some Pitfalls.
    Reasonable individuals can disagree about philosophical questions. This disagreement sometimes takes the form of conflicting intuitions; the seminar room provides many examples. Experimental philosophers, who have devoted themselves to the systematic study of intuitions, have found empirical support for what anecdotes suggest. Their data often reveals that a significant minority of subjects have intuitions counter to those of the majority.1 A recent replication of [Knobe, 2003a] discovered three distinct subgroups of subjects with three distinct patterns of response. (...)
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  48. Ana Cordeiro dos Santos (2009). The Social Epistemology of Experimental Economics. Routledge.
    Any experimental field consists of preparing special conditions for examining interesting objects for research. So naturally, the particular ways in which scientists prepare their objects determine the kind and the content of knowledge produced. This book provides a framework for the analysis of experimental practices - the Social Epistemology of Experiment - that incorporates both the ‘material’ and the ‘social’ dimensions of knowledge production. The Social Epistemology of Experiment is applied to experimental economics and in so doing, (...)
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  49. Michele Farisco & Kathinka Evers (eds.) (2016). Neurotechnology and Direct Brain Communication: New Insights and Responsibilities Concerning Speechless but Communicative Subjects. Routledge.
    __Neurotechnology and Direct Brain Communication__ focuses on recent neuroscientific investigations of infant brains and of patients with disorders of consciousness, both of which are at the forefront of contemporary neuroscience. The prospective use of neurotechnology to access mental states in these subjects, including neuroimaging, brain simulation and brain computer interfaces, offers new opportunities for clinicians and researchers, but has also received specific attention from philosophical, scientific, ethical and legal points of view. This book offers the first systematic assessment of (...)
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  50.  6
    Ibo van de Poel (2016). An Ethical Framework for Evaluating Experimental Technology. Science and Engineering Ethics 22 (3):667-686.
    How are we to appraise new technological developments that may bring revolutionary social changes? Currently this is often done by trying to predict or anticipate social consequences and to use these as a basis for moral and regulatory appraisal. Such an approach can, however, not deal with the uncertainties and unknowns that are inherent in social changes induced by technological development. An alternative approach is proposed that conceives of the introduction of new technologies into society as a social experiment. An (...)
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