Search results for 'Experimental Subjects' (try it on Scholar)

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  1. Maria Rentetzi (2004). The Women Radium Dial Painters as Experimental Subjects (1920–1990) or What Counts as Human Experimentation. NTM International Journal of History and Ethics of Natural Sciences, Technology and Medicine 12 (4):233-248.score: 60.0
    The case of women radium dial painters — women who tipped their brushes while painting the dials of watches and instruments with radioactive paint — has been extensively discussed in the medical and historical literature. Their painful and abhorrent deaths have occupied the interest of physicians, lawyers, politicians, military agencies, and the public. Hardly any discussion has concerned, however, the use of those women as experimental subjects in a number of epidemiological studies that took place from 1920 to (...)
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  2. Shaun Gallagher & Jesper B. Sorensen (2006). Experimenting with Phenomenology. Consciousness and Cognition 15 (1):119-134.score: 45.0
    We review the use of introspective and phenomenological methods in experimental settings. We distinguish different senses of introspection, and further distinguish phenomenological method from introspectionist approaches. Two ways of using phenomenology in experimental procedures are identified: first, the neurophenomenological method, proposed by Varela, involves the training of experimental subjects. This approach has been directly and productively incorporated into the protocol of experiments on perception. A second approach may have wider application and does not involve training (...) subjects in phenomenological method. It requires front-loading phenomenological insights into experimental design. A number of experiments employing this approach are reviewed. We conclude with a discussion of the implications for both the cognitive sciences and phenomenology. Ó 2006 Published by Elsevier Inc. (shrink)
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  3. Norman Cameron & Ann Magaret (1949). Experimental Studies in Thinking: I. Scattered Speech in the Responses of Normal Subjects to Incomplete Sentences. Journal of Experimental Psychology 39 (5):617.score: 45.0
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  4. Russell Jacobs (1988). Human Embryos as Experimental Subjects. Southwest Philosophy Review 4 (2):87-92.score: 45.0
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  5. Brian A. Smith, Ellen Wright Clayton & David Robertson (2011). Experimental Arrest of Cerebral Blood Flow in Human Subjects The Red Wing Studies Revisited. Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 54 (2):121-131.score: 36.0
    Aircraft with increasingly high performance were important to the war effort in World War II. Changes in technology allowed aircraft to reach faster speeds and to complete missions at higher altitudes. With these changes came new obstacles for pilots who had to tolerate these stresses. Of primary concern to the U.S. War Department was the loss of consciousness that often occurred with high-speed maneuvers and especially during pull-up after dive-bombing missions. In some cases, pilots would experience up to 9G of (...)
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  6. Lynn Pasquerella (2002). Confining Choices: Should Inmates' Participation in Research Be Limited? Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 23 (6):519-536.score: 36.0
    Historically, prisoners in the United Stateshave served as an inexpensive and readilyavailable source of human subjects forresearch. Coinciding with the civil rightsmovement, however, was an emerging conceptionof prisoners'' rights that led to the NationalCommission for the Protection of Human Subjectsof Biomedical and Behavioral Research beingcharged with investigating the use of prisonersas research subjects. The recommendations thatevolved and the subsequent guidelines that havebeen implemented by the Department of Healthand Human Services significantly curtail theuse of prisoners as research subjects. (...)
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  7. Anne Jaap Jacobson (1989). Inductive Scepticism and Experimental Reasoning in Moral Subjects in Hume's Philosophy. Hume Studies 15 (2):325-338.score: 36.0
  8. David Hume (2000). A Treatise of Human Nature: Being an Attempt to Introduce the Experimental Method of Reasoning Into Moral Subjects. OUP Oxford.score: 36.0
    A Treatise of Human Nature (1739-40), David Hume's comprehensive attempt to base philosophy on a new, observationally grounded study of human nature, is one of the most important texts in Western philosophy. It is also the focal point of current attempts to understand 18th-century philosophy. -/- The Treatise first explains how we form such concepts as cause and effect, external existence, and personal identity, and to form compelling but unconfirmable beliefs in the entities represented by these concepts. It then offers (...)
     
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  9. Benjamin W. Libet (2003). Cerebral Physiology of Conscious Experience: Experimental Studies in Human Subjects. In Naoyuki Osaka (ed.), Neural Basis of Consciousness. John Benjamins. 49--57.score: 36.0
  10. Yutaka Nakamura & R. Chapman (2002). Measuring Pain: An Introspective Look at Introspection. Consciousness and Cognition 11 (4):582-592.score: 30.0
  11. Edi Karni & Zvi Safra (1995). The Impossibility of Experimental Elicitation of Subjective Probabilities. Theory and Decision 38 (3):313-320.score: 30.0
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  12. Jeremy Pierce (2013). Glasgow's Race Antirealism: Experimental Philosophy and Thought Experiments. Journal of Social Philosophy 44 (2):146-168.score: 27.0
    Joshua Glasgow argues against the existence of races. His experimental philosophy asks subjects questions involving racial categorization to discover the ordinary concept of race at work in their judgments. The results show conflicting information about the concept of race, and Glasgow concludes that the ordinary concept of race is inconsistent. I conclude, rather, that Glasgow’s results fit perfectly fine with a social-kind view of races as real social entities. He also presents thought experiments to show that social-kind views (...)
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  13. Hannes Rusch & Matthias Uhl (forthcoming). Order Ethics: An Experimental Perspective. In Christoph Luetge & Nikil Mukerji (eds.), Order Ethics – An Ethical Framework for the Social Market Economy. Springer.score: 27.0
    In this chapter, we present supporting arguments for the claim that Order Ethics is a school of thought within ethics which is especially open to empirical evidence. With its focus on order frameworks, i.e., incentive structures, Order Ethical advice automatically raises questions on implementability, efficacy, and efficiency of such recommended institutions, all of which are empirical questions to a good extent. We illustrate our arguments by presenting a small selection of experiments from economics that we consider highly informative for Order (...)
     
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  14. Benjamin W. Libet (1981). The Experimental Evidence for Subjective Referral of a Sensory Experience Backwards in Time: Reply to P.S. Churchland. Philosophy of Science 48 (June):182-197.score: 24.0
    Evidence that led to the hypothesis of a backwards referral of conscious sensory experiences in time, and the experimental tests of its predictions, is summarized. Criticisms of the data and the conclusion by Churchland that this hypothesis is untenable are analysed and found to be based upon misconceptions and faulty evaluations of facts and theory. Subjective referral in time violates no neurophysiological principles or data and is compatible with the theory of "mental" and "physical" correspondence.
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  15. Kaoru Noguchi (2003). The Relationship Between Visual Illusion and Aesthetic Preference – an Attempt to Unify Experimental Phenomenology and Empirical Aesthetics. Axiomathes 13 (3-4):261-281.score: 24.0
    Experimental phenomenology has demonstrated that perception is much richer than stimulus. As is seen in color perception, one and the same stimulus provides more than several modes of appearance or perceptual dimensions. Similarly, there are various perceptual dimensions in form perception. Even a simple geometrical figure inducing visual illusion gives not only perceptual impressions of size, shape, slant, depth, and orientation, but also affective or aesthetic impressions. The present study reviews our experimental phenomenological work on visual illusion and (...)
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  16. A. Schafer (1983). Experimentation with Human Subjects: A Critique of the Views of Hans Jonas. Journal of Medical Ethics 9 (2):76-79.score: 24.0
    The ethics of experimentation on human subjects has become the subject of much debate among medical scientists and philosophers. Ethical problems and conflicts of interest become especially serious when research subjects are recruited from the class of patients. Are patients who are ill and suffering in a position to give voluntary and informed consent? Are there inevitable conflicts of interest and moral obligation when a personal physician recruits his own patients for an experiment designed partly to advance scientific (...)
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  17. Ana C. Santos (2007). The 'Materials' of Experimental Economics: Technological Versus Behavioral Experiments. Journal of Economic Methodology 14 (3):311-337.score: 24.0
    In the natural sciences there is a general consensus on the epistemic value conferred by the participation of the ?material world? in the experimental process of knowledge production. This is no different in experimental economics. However, an inquiry into the epistemic role of the ?materials? of economics is still underdeveloped. The present paper is meant as a contribution to this inquiry. Two categories of experiments are identified according to the differentiated role of the ?materials? of economics. It is (...)
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  18. Sascha Füllbrunn & Tibor Neugebauer (2013). Varying the Number of Bidders in the First-Price Sealed-Bid Auction: Experimental Evidence for the One-Shot Game. [REVIEW] Theory and Decision 75 (3):421-447.score: 23.0
    The paper reports experimental data on the behavior in the first-price sealed-bid auction for a varying number of bidders when values and bids are private information. This feedback-free design is proposed for the experimental test of the one-shot game situation. We consider both within-subjects and between-subjects variations. In line with the qualitative risk neutral Nash equilibrium prediction, the data show that bids increase in the number of bidders. However, in auctions involving a small number of bidders, (...)
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  19. Jane Johnson (2013). Vulnerable Subjects? The Case of Nonhuman Animals in Experimentation. Journal of Bioethical Inquiry 10 (4):497-504.score: 23.0
    The concept of vulnerability is deployed in bioethics to, amongst other things, identify and remedy harms to participants in research, yet although nonhuman animals in experimentation seem intuitively to be vulnerable, this concept and its attendant protections are rarely applied to research animals. I want to argue, however, that this concept is applicable to nonhuman animals and that a new taxonomy of vulnerability developed in the context of human bioethics can be applied to research animals. This taxonomy does useful explanatory (...)
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  20. Mark McEvoy (2013). Experimental Mathematics, Computers and the a Priori. Synthese 190 (3):397-412.score: 21.0
    In recent decades, experimental mathematics has emerged as a new branch of mathematics. This new branch is defined less by its subject matter, and more by its use of computer assisted reasoning. Experimental mathematics uses a variety of computer assisted approaches to verify or prove mathematical hypotheses. For example, there is “number crunching” such as searching for very large Mersenne primes, and showing that the Goldbach conjecture holds for all even numbers less than 2 × 1018. There are (...)
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  21. Andrew A. Fingelkurts & Alexander A. Fingelkurts (2011). Persistent Operational Synchrony Within Brain Default-Mode Network and Self-Processing Operations in Healthy Subjects. Brain and Cognition 75 (2):79-90.score: 21.0
    Based on the theoretical analysis of self-consciousness concepts, we hypothesized that the spatio-temporal pattern of functional connectivity within the default-mode network (DMN) should persist unchanged across a variety of different cognitive tasks or acts, thus being task-unrelated. This supposition is in contrast with current understanding that DMN activated when the subjects are resting and deactivated during any attention-demanding cognitive tasks. To test our proposal, we used, in retrospect, the results from our two early studies ([Fingelkurts, 1998] and [Fingelkurts et (...)
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  22. E. Chemla & B. Spector (2011). Experimental Evidence for Embedded Scalar Implicatures. Journal of Semantics 28 (3):359-400.score: 21.0
    Scalar implicatures are traditionally viewed as pragmatic inferences that result from a reasoning about speakers' communicative intentions (Grice 1989). This view has been challenged in recent years by theories that propose that scalar implicatures are a grammatical phenomenon. Such theories claim that scalar implicatures can be computed in embedded positions and enter into the recursive computation of meaning—something that is not expected under the traditional pragmatic view. Recently, Geurts and Pouscoulous (2009) presented an experimental study in which embedded scalar (...)
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  23. Mark S. Peacock (2007). The Conceptual Construction of Altruism: Ernst Fehr’s Experimental Approach to Human Conduct. Philosophy of the Social Sciences 37 (1):3-23.score: 21.0
    I offer an appreciation and critique of Ernst Fehr’s altruism research in experimental economics that challenges the "selfishness axiom" as an account of human behavior. I describe examples of Fehr’s experiments and their results and consider his conceptual terminology, particularly his "biological" definition of altruism and its counterintuitive implications. I also look at Fehr’s experiments from a methodological perspective and examine his explanations of subjects’ behavior. In closing, I look at Fehr’s neuroscientific work in experimental economics and (...)
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  24. Murat Aydede & D. Price (2005). The Experimental Use of Introspection in the Scientific Study of Pain and its Integration with Third-Person Methodologies: The Experiential-Phenomenological Approach. In , Pain: New Essays on its Nature and the Methodology of its Study. Mit Press. 243--273.score: 21.0
    Understanding the nature of pain depends, at least partly, on recognizing its subjectivity (thus, its first-person epistemology). This in turn requires using a first-person experiential method in addition to third-person experimental approaches to study it. This paper is an attempt to spell out what the former approach is and how it can be integrated with the latter. We start our discussion by examining some foundational issues raised by the use of introspection. We argue that such a first-person method in (...)
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  25. Jennifer Nagel & Kaija Mortensen (forthcoming). Armchair-Friendly Experimental Philosophy. In Justin Sytsma & Wesley Buckwalter (eds.), A Companion to Experimental Philosophy. Blackwell.score: 21.0
    Once symbolized by a burning armchair, experimental philosophy has in recent years shifted away from its original hostility to traditional methods. Starting with a brief historical review of the experimentalist challenge to traditional philosophical practice, this chapter looks at research undercutting that challenge, and at ways in which experimental work has evolved to complement and strengthen traditional approaches to philosophical questions.
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  26. Peter Richerson, Group Size and Sincere Communication in Experimental Social Dilemmas.score: 21.0
    This paper makes two contributions to the research on cooperation in experimental social dilemmas. First, we demonstrate an interaction between group size and communication in which the effectiveness of communication in promoting cooperation declines as group size increases. Second, we corroborate some previous research showing the positive effect of communication is due to sincere signaling of cooperative intentions. The experimental data comes from 289 undergraduate student subjects playing public goods games over a computer network. These findings suggest (...)
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  27. M. L. Peters, S. A. Uyterlinde, J. Consemulder & O. van der Hart (1998). Apparent Amnesia on Experimental Memory Tests in Dissociative Identity Disorder: An Exploratory Study. Consciousness and Cognition 7 (1):27-41.score: 21.0
    Dissociative identity disorder (DID; called multiple personality disorder in DSMIII-R) is a psychiatric condition in which two or more identity states recurrently take control of the person's behavior. A characteristic feature of DID is the occurrence of apparently severe amnestic symptoms. This paper is concerned with experimental research of memory function in DID and focuses on between-identity transfer of newly learned neutral material. Previous studies on this subject are reviewed and a pilot study with four subjects is described. (...)
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  28. Leonardo D. de Castro (1995). Exploitation in the Use of Human Subjects for Medical Experimentation: A Re-Examination of Basic Issues. Bioethics 9 (3):259–268.score: 21.0
    Relatively subtle forms of exploitation of human subjects may arise from the inefficiency or incompetence of a researcher, from the existence of a power imbalance between principal and subject, or from the uneven distribution of research risks among various segments of the population. A powerful and knowledgeable person (or institution) may perpetrate the exploitation of an unempowered and ignorant individual even without intending to. There is an ethical burden on the former to protect the interests of the vulnerable. Excessive (...)
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  29. Giovanna Devetag, Hykel Hosni & Giacomo Sillari (2013). You Better Play 7: Mutual Versus Common Knowledge of Advice in a Weak-Link Experiment. Synthese 190 (8):1351-1381.score: 21.0
    This paper presents the results of an experiment on mutual versus common knowledge of advice in a two-player weak-link game with random matching. Our experimental subjects play in pairs for thirteen rounds. After a brief learning phase common to all treatments, we vary the knowledge levels associated with external advice given in the form of a suggestion to pick the strategy supporting the payoff-dominant equilibrium. Our results are somewhat surprising and can be summarized as follows: in all our (...)
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  30. Marie-Laure Cabon-Dhersin & Nathalie Etchart-Vincent (2012). The Puzzle of Cooperation in a Game of Chicken: An Experimental Study. [REVIEW] Theory and Decision 72 (1):65-87.score: 21.0
    The objective of this article is to investigate the impact of agent heterogeneity (as regards their attitude towards cooperation) and payoff structure on cooperative behaviour, using an experimental setting with incomplete information. A game of chicken is played considering two types of agents: ‘unconditional cooperators’, who always cooperate, and ‘strategic cooperators’, who do not cooperate unless it is in their interest to do so. Overall, our data show a much higher propensity to cooperate than predicted by theory. They also (...)
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  31. Robin P. Cubitt, Chris Starmer & Robert Sugden (2001). Discovered Preferences and the Experimental Evidence of Violations of Expected Utility Theory. Journal of Economic Methodology 8 (3):385-414.score: 21.0
    The discovered preference hypothesis appears to insulate expected utility theory (EU) from disconfirming experimental evidence. It asserts that individuals have coherent underlying preferences, which experiments may not reveal unless subjects have adequate opportunities and incentives to discover which actions best satisfy their preferences. We identify the confounding effects to be expected in experiments, were that hypothesis true, and consider how they might be controlled for. We argue for a design in which each subject faces just one distinct choice (...)
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  32. Robin Hanson, Information Aggregation and Manipulation in an Experimental Market.score: 21.0
    Prediction markets are increasingly being considered as methods for gathering, summarizing and aggregating diffuse information by governments and businesses alike. Critics worry that these markets are susceptible to price manipulation by agents who wish to distort decision making. We study the effect of manipulators on an experimental market, and find that manipulators are unable to distort price accuracy. Subjects without manipulation incentives compensate for the bias in offers from manipulators by setting a different threshold at which they are (...)
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  33. David Ingle (2005). Two Kinds of “Memory Images”: Experimental Models for Hallucinations? Behavioral and Brain Sciences 28 (6):768-768.score: 21.0
    Collerton et al. postulate that in a variety of different clinical conditions, hallucinations are derived from object schema lodged in long-term memory. I review two new experiments in which memory images can be easily triggered in neurologically intact subjects. These examples of making visible items in memory may provide experimental models for genesis of hallucinations.
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  34. Jane Johnson & Neal D. Barnard (2014). Chimpanzees as Vulnerable Subjects in Research. Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 35 (2):133-141.score: 21.0
    Using an approach developed in the context of human bioethics, we argue that chimpanzees in research can be regarded as vulnerable subjects. This vulnerability is primarily due to communication barriers and situational factors—confinement and dependency—that make chimpanzees particularly susceptible to risks of harm and exploitation in experimental settings. In human research, individuals who are deemed vulnerable are accorded special protections. Using conceptual and moral resources developed in the context of research with vulnerable humans, we show how chimpanzees warrant (...)
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  35. Gary Gigliotti & Barry Sopher (2003). Analysis of Intertemporal Choice: A New Framework and Experimental Results. Theory and Decision 55 (3):209-233.score: 21.0
    This paper reports the results of a series of experiments examining intertemporal choice. The paper makes three contributions: First, it presents a new analytic device, the intertemporal choice triangle, which is analogous to the Marschak--Machina choice triangle used in the analysis of choice under risk. Second, we have developed a new experimental design based on the intertemporal choice triangle which allows subjects greater flexibility in making choices, and which allows the researcher to make more subtle inferences, than are (...)
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  36. Takashi Hayashi & Ryoko Wada (2010). Choice with Imprecise Information: An Experimental Approach. [REVIEW] Theory and Decision 69 (3):355-373.score: 21.0
    This article provides an experimental analysis of attitude toward imprecise and variable information. Imprecise information is provided in the form of a set of possible probability values, such that it is virtually impossible for the subjects to guess or estimate, which one in the set is true or more likely to be true. We investigate how geometric features of such information pieces affect choices. We find that the subjects care about more features than the pairs of best-case (...)
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  37. Hermann Ackermann Ingo Hertrich, Susanne Dietrich (2013). How Can Audiovisual Pathways Enhance the Temporal Resolution of Time-Compressed Speech in Blind Subjects? Frontiers in Psychology 4.score: 21.0
    In blind people, the visual channel cannot assist face-to-face communication via lipreading or visual prosody. Nevertheless, the visual system may enhance the evaluation of auditory information due to its cross-links to (1) the auditory system, (2) supramodal representations, and (3) frontal action-related areas. Apart from feedback or top-down support of, for example, the processing of spatial or phonological representations, experimental data have shown that the visual system can impact auditory perception at more basic computational stages such as temporal resolution. (...)
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  38. Anna Maffioletti & Michele Santoni (2005). Do Trade Union Leaders Violate Subjective Expected Utility? Some Insights From Experimental Data. Theory and Decision 59 (3):207-253.score: 21.0
    This paper presents the results of two experiments designed to test violations of Subjective Expected Utility Theory (SEUT) within a sample of Italian trade union delegates and leaders. Subjects priced risky and ambiguous prospects in the domain of gains. Risky prospects were based on games of chance, while ambiguous prospects were built on the standard Ellsberg paradox and on event lotteries whose outcomes were based either on the results of a fictional election or on the future results of the (...)
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  39. Laura Razzolini, Michael Reksulak & Robert Dorsey (2007). An Experimental Evaluation of the Serial Cost Sharing Rule. Theory and Decision 63 (3):283-314.score: 21.0
    This paper proposes an experimental test to evaluate the performance of the serial cost sharing rule, originally proposed by Shenker [Sigmetrics, 241–242 (1990)] and then analyzed by Moulin and Shenker [Econometrica 60, 1009–1037 (1992)]. We report measures of the performance and efficiency of the serial mechanism by comparing the choices and payoffs attained by the subjects to the expected equilibrium allocations. Experimental evidence shows that learning is needed for the subjects to converge to the equilibrium strategy. (...)
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  40. Francesca Siclari, Joshua J. LaRocque, Bradley R. Postle & Giulio Tononi (2013). Assessing Sleep Consciousness Within Subjects Using a Serial Awakening Paradigm. Frontiers in Psychology 4.score: 21.0
    Dreaming - a particular form of consciousness that occurs during sleep - undergoes major changes in the course of the night. We aimed to outline state-dependent features of consciousness using a paradigm with multiple serial awakenings/questionings that allowed for within as well as between subject comparisons. Seven healthy participants who spent 44 experimental study nights in the laboratory were awakened by a computerized sound at 15-30 minute intervals, regardless of sleep stage, and questioned for the presence or absence of (...)
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  41. Ullrich Wagner, Lisa Handke, Denise Dörfel & Henrik Walter (2012). An Experimental Decision-Making Paradigm to Distinguish Guilt and Regret and Their Self-Regulating Function Via Loss Averse Choice Behavior. Frontiers in Psychology 3.score: 21.0
    Both guilt and regret typically result from counterfactual evaluations of personal choices that caused a negative outcome and are thought to regulate human decisions by people’s motivation to avoid these emotions. Despite these similarities, studies asking people to describe typical situations of guilt and regret identified the social dimension as a fundamental distinguishing factor, showing that guilt but not regret specifically occurs for choices in interpersonal (social) contexts. However, an experimental paradigm to investigate this distinction systematically by inducing emotions (...)
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  42. E. Bjorn, P. Rossel & S. Holm (1999). Can the Written Information to Research Subjects Be Improved?--An Empirical Study. Journal of Medical Ethics 25 (3):263-267.score: 21.0
    OBJECTIVES: To study whether linguistic analysis and changes in information leaflets can improve readability and understanding. DESIGN: Randomised, controlled study. Two information leaflets concerned with trials of drugs for conditions/diseases which are commonly known were modified, and the original was tested against the revised version. SETTING: Denmark. PARTICIPANTS: 235 persons in the relevant age groups. MAIN MEASURES: Readability and understanding of contents. RESULTS: Both readability and understanding of contents was improved: readability with regard to both information leaflets and understanding with (...)
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  43. B. Brown & M. W. Merritt (2012). A Global Public Incentive Database for Human Subjects Research. Irb 35 (2):14-17.score: 21.0
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  44. Y. Rossetti (1998). Implicit Short-Lived Motor Representations of Space in Brain Damaged and Healthy Subjects. Consciousness and Cognition 7 (3):520-558.score: 21.0
    This article reviews experimental evidence for a specific sensorimotor function which can be dissociated from higher level representations of space. It attempts to delineate this function on the basis of results obtained by psychophysical experiments performed with brain damaged and healthy subjects. Eye and hand movement control exhibit automatic features, such that they are incompatible with conscious control. In addition, they rely on a reference frame different from the one used by conscious perception. Neuropsychological cases provide a strong (...)
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  45. Colin Klein, Experimental Philosophy and Individual Differences: Some Pitfalls.score: 21.0
    Reasonable individuals can disagree about philosophical questions. This disagreement sometimes takes the form of conflicting intuitions; the seminar room provides many examples. Experimental philosophers, who have devoted themselves to the systematic study of intuitions, have found empirical support for what anecdotes suggest. Their data often reveals that a significant minority of subjects have intuitions counter to those of the majority.1 A recent replication of [Knobe, 2003a] discovered three distinct subgroups of subjects with three distinct patterns of response. (...)
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  46. Don Ross (2001). The Game-Theoretic Innocence of Experimental Behavioral Psychology. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 24 (3):426-427.score: 21.0
    Hertwig and Ortmann imply that failure of many behavioral psychologists to observe several central methodological principles of experimental economics derives mainly from differences in disciplinary culture. I suggest that there are deeper philosophical causes, based (ironically) on a legacy of methodological individualism in psychology from which economists have substantially cured themselves through use of game theory. Psychologists often misidentify their objects of study by trying to wrench subjects out of their normal behavioral contexts in games.
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  47. Niklas Dworazik & Hannes Rusch (forthcoming). A Brief History of Experimental Ethics. In Christoph Luetge, Hannes Rusch & Matthias Uhl (eds.), Experimental Ethics. Palgrave Macmillan.score: 21.0
    Recent years have seen a continual rise of interest in the empirical study of questions traditionally located in moral philosophy, i.e., studies in Experimental Ethics. In this chapter we briefly outline the recent history of this field. To do so we have to cross disciplinary borders to quite some extent. Tracing the beginnings of Experimental Ethics back to early works in moral psychology, we delineate a sequence of theories which eventually flow into current Experimental Ethics. We then (...)
     
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  48. M. Groman & J. Sugarman (2012). The Presidential Bioethics Commission's Database of Human Subjects Research. Irb 35 (2):18-19.score: 21.0
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  49. Reinhold Kliegl, Ping Wei, Michael Dambacher, Ming Yan & Xiaolin Zhou (2010). Experimental Effects and Individual Differences in Linear Mixed Models: Estimating the Relationship Between Spatial, Object, and Attraction Effects in Visual Attention. Frontiers in Psychology 1:238-238.score: 21.0
    Linear mixed models (LMMs) provide a still underused methodological perspective on combining experimental and individual-differences research. Here we illustrate this approach with two-rectangle cueing in visual attention (Egly, Driver, & Rafal, 1994). We replicated previous experimental cue-validity effects relating to a spatial shift of attention within an object (spatial effect), to attention switch between objects (object effect), and to the attraction of attention towards the display centroid (attraction effect), taking also into account the design-inherent imbalance of valid and (...)
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  50. R. Macklin (1981). On Paying Money to Research Subjects: 'Due' and 'Undue' Inducements. Irb 3 (5):1-6.score: 21.0
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