Search results for 'Expertise' (try it on Scholar)

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  1. Timothy Williamson (2011). Philosophical Expertise and the Burden of Proof. Metaphilosophy 42 (3):215-229.score: 24.0
    Abstract: Some proponents of “experimental philosophy” criticize philosophers' use of thought experiments on the basis of evidence that the verdicts vary with truth-independent factors. However, their data concern the verdicts of philosophically untrained subjects. According to the expertise defence, what matters are the verdicts of trained philosophers, who are more likely to pay careful attention to the details of the scenario and track their relevance. In a recent article, Jonathan M. Weinberg and others reply to the expertise defence (...)
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  2. Regina A. Rini (2013). Analogies, Moral Intuitions, and the Expertise Defence. Review of Philosophy and Psychology (2):1-13.score: 24.0
    The evidential value of moral intuitions has been challenged by psychological work showing that the intuitions of ordinary people are affected by distorting factors. One reply to this challenge, the expertise defence, claims that training in philosophical thinking confers enhanced reliability on the intuitions of professional philosophers. This defence is often expressed through analogy: since we do not allow doubts about folk judgments in domains like mathematics or physics to undermine the plausibility of judgments by experts in these domains, (...)
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  3. Jimmy Alfonso Licon (2012). Sceptical Thoughts on Philosophical Expertise. Logos and Episteme 3 (3):449-458.score: 24.0
    My topic is two-fold: a reductive account of expertise as an epistemic phenomenon, and applying the reductive account to the question of whether or not philosophers enjoy expertise. I conclude, on the basis of the reductive account, that even though philosophers enjoy something akin to second-order expertise (i.e. they are often experts on the positions of other philosophers, current trends in the philosophical literature, the history of philosophy, conceptual analysis and so on), they nevertheless lack first-order philosophical (...)
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  4. Harry Collins (2013). Three Dimensions of Expertise. Phenomenology and the Cognitive Sciences 12 (2):253-273.score: 24.0
    Psychologists and philosophers tend to treat expertise as a property of special individuals. These are individuals who have devoted much more time than the general population to the acquisition of their specific expertises. They are often said to pass through stages as they move toward becoming experts, for example, passing from an early stage, in which they follow self-conscious rules, to an expert stage in which skills are executed unconsciously. This approach is ‘one-dimensional’. Here, two extra dimensions are added. (...)
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  5. Kyle Powys Whyte & Robert Crease (2010). Trust, Expertise and the Philosophy of Science. Synthese 177 (3):411-425.score: 24.0
    Trust is a central concept in the philosophy of science. We highlight how trust is important in the wide variety of interactions between science and society. We claim that examining and clarifying the nature and role of trust (and distrust) in relations between science and society is one principal way in which the philosophy of science is socially relevant. We argue that philosophers of science should extend their efforts to develop normative conceptions of trust that can serve to facilitate trust (...)
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  6. Fernand Gobet & Philippe Chassy (2009). Expertise and Intuition: A Tale of Three Theories. [REVIEW] Minds and Machines 19 (2):151-180.score: 24.0
    Several authors have hailed intuition as one of the defining features of expertise. In particular, while disagreeing on almost anything that touches on human cognition and artificial intelligence, Hubert Dreyfus and Herbert Simon agreed on this point. However, the highly influential theories of intuition they proposed differed in major ways, especially with respect to the role given to search and as to whether intuition is holistic or analytic. Both theories suffer from empirical weaknesses. In this paper, we show how, (...)
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  7. Michael Cholbi (2007). Moral Expertise and the Credentials Problem. Ethical Theory and Moral Practice 10 (4):323-334.score: 24.0
    Philosophers have harbored doubts about the possibility of moral expertise since Plato. I argue that irrespective of whether moral experts exist, identifying who those experts are is insurmountable because of the credentials problem: Moral experts have no need to seek out others’ moral expertise, but moral non-experts lack sufficient knowledge to determine whether the advice provided by a putative moral expert in response to complex moral situations is correct and hence whether an individual is a bone fide expert. (...)
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  8. Mark Addis (2013). Linguistic Competence and Expertise. Phenomenology and the Cognitive Sciences 12 (2):327-336.score: 24.0
    Questions about the relationship between linguistic competence and expertise will be examined in the paper. Harry Collins and others distinguish between ubiquitous and esoteric expertise. Collins places considerable weight on the argument that ordinary linguistic competence and related phenomena exhibit a high degree of expertise. His position and ones which share close affinities are methodologically problematic. These difficulties matter because there is continued and systematic disagreement over appropriate methodologies for the empirical study of expertise. Against Collins, (...)
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  9. Nicolas Bommarito (2010). Rationally Self-Ascribed Anti-Expertise. Philosophical Studies 151 (3):413-19.score: 24.0
    In their paper, “I Can’t Believe I’m Stupid,” Adam Elga and Andy Egan introduce a notion of anti-expertise and argue that it is never rational to believe oneself to be an anti-expert. I wish to deny the claim that it is never rational for agents like us to ascribe anti-expertise to ourselves by describing cases where self-ascribed anti-expertise makes real life agents more rational.
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  10. Harry Collins & Martin Weinel (2011). Transmuted Expertise: How Technical Non-Experts Can Assess Experts and Expertise. [REVIEW] Argumentation 25 (3):401-413.score: 24.0
    To become an expert in a technical domain means acquiring the tacit knowledge pertaining to the relevant domain of expertise, at least, according to the programme known as “Studies of Expertise and Experience” (SEE). We know only one way to acquire tacit knowledge and that is through some form of sustained social contact with the group that has it. Those who do not have such contact cannot acquire the expertise needed to make technical judgments. They can, however, (...)
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  11. Michael Harré, Terry Bossomaier & Allan Snyder (2011). The Development of Human Expertise in a Complex Environment. Minds and Machines 21 (3):449-464.score: 24.0
    We introduce an innovative technique that quantifies human expertise development in such a way that humans and artificial systems can be directly compared. Using this technique we are able to highlight certain fundamental difficulties associated with the learning of a complex task that humans are still exceptionally better at than their computer counterparts. We demonstrate that expertise goes through significant developmental transitions that have previously been predicted but never explicated. The first signals the onset of a steady increase (...)
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  12. Justin Tiwald (2012). Xunzi on Moral Expertise. Dao: A Journal of Comparative Philosophy 11 (3):275-293.score: 24.0
    This paper is about two proposals endorsed by Xunzi. The first is that there is such a thing as a moral expert, whose moral advice we should adopt even when we cannot appreciate for ourselves the considerations in favor of it. The second is that certain political authorities should be treated as moral experts. I identify three fundamental questions about moral expertise that contemporary philosophy has yet to address in depth, explicate Xunzi’s answers to them, and then give an (...)
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  13. Wesley Buckwalter (forthcoming). Intuition Fail: Philosophical Activity and the Limits of Expertise. Philosophy and Phenomenological Research.score: 24.0
    Experimental philosophers have empirically challenged the connection between intuition and philosophical expertise. This paper reviews these challenges alongside other research findings in cognitive science on expert performance and argues for three claims. First, evidence taken to challenge philosophical expertise may also be explained by the well-researched failures and limitations of genuine expertise. Second, studying the failures and limitations of experts across many fields provides a promising research program upon which to base a new model of philosophical (...). Third, a model of philosophical expertise based on the limitations of genuine experts may suggest a series of constraints on the reliability of professional philosophical intuition. (shrink)
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  14. Axel Gelfert (2011). Expertise, Argumentation, and the End of Inquiry. Argumentation 25 (3):297-312.score: 24.0
    This paper argues that the problem of expertise calls for a rapprochement between social epistemology and argumentation theory. Social epistemology has tended to emphasise the role of expert testimony, neglecting the argumentative function of appeals to expert opinion by non-experts. The first half of the paper discusses parallels and contrasts between the two cases of direct expert testimony and appeals to expert opinion by our epistemic peers, respectively. Importantly, appeals to expert opinion need to be advertised as such, if (...)
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  15. Harry Collins (2004). Interactional Expertise as a Third Kind of Knowledge. Phenomenology and the Cognitive Sciences 3 (2):125-143.score: 24.0
    Between formal propositional knowledge and embodied skill lies ‘interactional expertise’—the ability to converse expertly about a practical skill or expertise, but without being able to practice it, learned through linguistic socialisation among the practitioners. Interactional expertise is exhibited by sociologists of scientific knowledge, by scientists themselves and by a large range of other actors. Attention is drawn to the distinction between the social and the individual embodiment theses: a language does depend on the form of the bodies (...)
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  16. William Rehg (2011). Evaluating Complex Collaborative Expertise: The Case of Climate Change. [REVIEW] Argumentation 25 (3):385-400.score: 24.0
    Science advisory committees exercise complex collaborative expertise. Not only do committee members collaborate, they do so across disciplines, producing expert reports that make synthetic multidisciplinary arguments. When reports are controversial, critics target both report content and committee process. Such controversies call for the assessment of expert arguments, but the multidisciplinary character of the debate outstrips the usual methods developed by informal logicians for assessing appeals to expert authority. This article proposes a multi-dimensional contextualist framework for critical assessment and tests (...)
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  17. Gregory J. Feist (2013). The Nature and Nurture of Expertise: A Fourth Dimension. [REVIEW] Phenomenology and the Cognitive Sciences 12 (2):275-288.score: 24.0
    One formative idea behind the workshop on expertise in Berkeley in August of 2010 was to develop a viable “trading zone” of ideas, which is defined as a location “in which communities with a deep problem of communication manage to communicate” (Collins et al. 2010, p. 8). In the current case, the goal is to have a trading zone between philosophers, sociologists, and psychologists who communicate their ideas on expertise such that productive interdisciplinary collaboration results. In this paper, (...)
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  18. Robert C. Reed (2013). Euthyphro's Elenchus Experience: Ethical Expertise and Self-Knowledge. [REVIEW] Ethical Theory and Moral Practice 16 (2):245-259.score: 24.0
    The paper argues that everyday ethical expertise requires an openness to an experience of self-doubt very different from that involved in becoming expert in other skills—namely, an experience of profound vulnerability to the Other similar to that which Emmanuel Levinas has described. Since the experience bears a striking resemblance to that of undergoing cross-examination by Socrates as depicted in Plato’s early dialogues, I illustrate it through a close reading of the Euthyphro, arguing that Euthyphro’s vaunted “expertise” conceals a (...)
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  19. Rodrigo Ribeiro (2013). Levels of Immersion, Tacit Knowledge and Expertise. Phenomenology and the Cognitive Sciences 12 (2):367-397.score: 24.0
    This paper elaborates on the link between different types and degrees of experience that can be gone through within a form of life or collectivity—the so-called levels of immersion—and the development of distinct types of tacit knowledge and expertise. The framework is then probed empirically and theoretically. In the first case, its ‘predictions’ are compared with the accounts of novices who have gone through different ‘learning opportunities’ during a pre-operational training programme for running a huge nickel industrial plant in (...)
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  20. Harry Collins (2013). The Core of Expertise. Phenomenology and the Cognitive Sciences 12 (2):399-416.score: 24.0
    I reply to my critics in respect of my work on expertise. I define the 'core' of the multidisciplinary 'expertise studies'. I argue that those who have taken the work seriously could resolve their problems by paying more attention to the core. Each could have made good use of an aspect of the core.
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  21. Zoltan P. Majdik & William M. Keith (2011). Expertise as Argument: Authority, Democracy, and Problem-Solving. [REVIEW] Argumentation 25 (3):371-384.score: 24.0
    This article addresses the problem of expertise in a democratic political system: the tension between the authority of expertise and the democratic values that guide political life. We argue that for certain problems, expertise needs to be understood as a dialogical process, and we conceptualize an understanding of expertise through and as argument that positions expertise as constituted by and a function of democratic values and practices, rather than in the possession of, acquisition of, or (...)
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  22. Theresa Schilhab (2013). Derived Embodiment and Imaginative Capacities in Interactional Expertise. Phenomenology and the Cognitive Sciences 12 (2):309-325.score: 24.0
    Interactional expertise is said to be a form of knowledge achieved in a linguistic community and, therefore, obtained entirely outside practice. Supposedly, it is not or only minimally sustained by the so-called embodied knowledge. Here, drawing upon studies in contemporary neuroscience and cognitive psychology, I propose that ‘derived’ embodiment is deeply involved in competent language use and, therefore, also in interactional expertise. My argument consists of two parts. First, I argue for a strong relationship among language acquisition, language (...)
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  23. Michael H. Connors, Bruce D. Burns & Guillermo Campitelli (2011). Expertise in Complex Decision Making: The Role of Search in Chess 70 Years After de Groot. Cognitive Science 35 (8):1567-1579.score: 24.0
    One of the most influential studies in all expertise research is de Groot’s (1946) study of chess players, which suggested that pattern recognition, rather than search, was the key determinant of expertise. Many changes have occurred in the chess world since de Groot’s study, leading some authors to argue that the cognitive mechanisms underlying expertise have also changed. We decided to replicate de Groot’s study to empirically test these claims and to examine whether the trends in the (...)
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  24. Markus Seidel (2014). Throwing the Baby Out with the Water: From Reasonably Scrutinizing Authorities to Rampant Scepticism About Expertise. Informal Logic 34 (2):192-218.score: 24.0
    In this paper, I argue that many arguments from expert opinion are strong arguments. Therefore, in many cases it is rational to rely on experts since in many cases the fact that an expert says that p makes it highly likely that p is true. I will defend this claim by providing 5 arguments that illuminate and elaborate on 5 crucial claims about expertise. In this way, I aim to undermine recent attempts to establish a rampant scepticism about arguments (...)
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  25. Michael Harré & Allan Snyder (2012). Intuitive Expertise and Perceptual Templates. Minds and Machines 22 (3):167-182.score: 24.0
    We provide the first demonstration of an artificial neural network encoding the perceptual templates that form an important component of the high level strategic understanding developed by experts. Experts have a highly refined sense of knowing where to look, what information is important and what information to ignore. The conclusions these experts reach are of a higher quality and typically made in a shorter amount of time than those of non-experts. Understanding the manifestation of such abilities in terms of both (...)
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  26. Sergio Román & Pedro J. Cuestas (2008). The Perceptions of Consumers Regarding Online Retailers' Ethics and Their Relationship with Consumers' General Internet Expertise and Word of Mouth: A Preliminary Analysis. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 83 (4):641 - 656.score: 24.0
    Ethical concerns of Internet users continue to rise. Accordingly, several scholars have called for systematic empirical research to address these issues. This study examines the conceptualization and measurement of consumers' perceptions regarding the ethics of online retailers (CPEOR). Also, this research represents a first step into the analysis of the relationship between CPEOR, consumers' general Internet expertise and reported positive word of mouth (WOM). Results, from a convenience sample of 357 online shoppers, suggest that CPEOR can be operationalized as (...)
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  27. Michael D. Lee, Mark Steyvers, Mindy de Young & Brent Miller (2012). Inferring Expertise in Knowledge and Prediction Ranking Tasks. Topics in Cognitive Science 4 (1):151-163.score: 24.0
    We apply a cognitive modeling approach to the problem of measuring expertise on rank ordering problems. In these problems, people must order a set of items in terms of a given criterion (e.g., ordering American holidays through the calendar year). Using a cognitive model of behavior on this problem that allows for individual differences in knowledge, we are able to infer people's expertise directly from the rankings they provide. We show that our model-based measure of expertise outperforms (...)
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  28. Silke Schicktanz, Mark Schweda & Brian Wynne (2012). Erratum To: The Ethics of 'Public Understanding of Ethics'—Why and How Bioethics Expertise Should Include Public and Patients' Voices. Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 15 (2):251-251.score: 24.0
    “Ethics” is used as a label for a new kind of expertise in the field of science and technology. At the same time, it is not clear what ethical expertise consists in and what its political status in modern democracies can be. Starting from the “participatory turn” in recent social research and policy, we will argue that bioethical reasoning has to include public views of and attitudes towards biomedicine. We will sketch the outlines of a bioethical conception of (...)
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  29. Antonis C. Stylianou, Susan Winter, Yuan Niu, Robert A. Giacalone & Matt Campbell (2013). Understanding the Behavioral Intention to Report Unethical Information Technology Practices: The Role of Machiavellianism, Gender, and Computer Expertise. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 117 (2):333-343.score: 24.0
    Although organizations can derive competitive advantage from developing and implementing information systems, they are confronted with a rising number of unethical information practices. Because end-users and computer experts are the conduit to an ethical organizational environment, their intention to report unethical IT-related practices plays a critical role in protecting intellectual property and privacy rights. Using the survey methodology, this article investigates the relationship between willingness to report intellectual property and privacy violations and Machiavellianism, gender and computer literacy in the form (...)
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  30. Jukka Varelius (2008). Is Ethical Expertise Possible? Medicine Health Care and Philosophy 11 (2):127-132.score: 24.0
    Services of ethics committees are nowadays commonly used in such various spheres of life as health care, public administration, business, law, engineering, and scientific research. It is taken that as their members have expertise in ethics, these committees can have valuable contributions to make in solving practical moral problems. It has, however, also been maintained that it is simply absurd to claim that one has some special knowledge and skills in moral matters; in connection with moral questions there is (...)
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  31. Christopher Hitchcock (2012). Thought Experiments, Real Experiments, and the Expertise Objection. European Journal for Philosophy of Science 2 (2):205-218.score: 24.0
    It is a commonplace that in philosophy, intuitions supply evidence for and against philosophical theories. Recent work in experimental philosophy has brought to bear the intuitions of philosophically naïve subjects in a number of different ways. One line of response to this work has been to claim that philosophers have expertise that privileges their intuitive judgments, and allows them to disregard the judgments of non-experts. This expertise is supposed to be analogous to the expertise of the mathematician (...)
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  32. Taylor Martin, Karen Rayne, Nate J. Kemp, Jack Hart & Kenneth R. Diller (2005). Teaching for Adaptive Expertise in Biomedical Engineering Ethics. Science and Engineering Ethics 11 (2):257-276.score: 24.0
    This paper considers an approach to teaching ethics in bioengineering based on the How People Learn (HPL) framework. Curricula based on this framework have been effective in mathematics and science instruction from the kindergarten to the college levels. This framework is well suited to teaching bioengineering ethics because it helps learners develop “adaptive expertise”. Adaptive expertise refers to the ability to use knowledge and experience in a domain to learn in unanticipated situations. It differs from routine expertise, (...)
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  33. Elena Abrudan (2011). Ethical Expertise and Bioethics. Journal for the Study of Religions and Ideologies 10 (30):397-402.score: 24.0
    800x600 Normal 0 21 false false false RO X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 Review of Mihaela Frunză, Expertiza etică și bioetica. Studii de caz (Ethical Expertise and Bioethics. Case Studies). Cluj-Napoca, Limes Publishing House, 2010.
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  34. Lisa D. Sanders Ahren B. Fitzroy (2012). Musical Expertise Modulates Early Processing of Syntactic Violations in Language. Frontiers in Psychology 3.score: 24.0
    Syntactic violations in speech and music have been shown to elicit an anterior negativity (AN) as early as 100 ms after violation onset and a posterior positivity that peaks at roughly 600 ms (P600/LPC). The language AN is typically reported as left-lateralized (LAN), whereas the music AN is typically reported as right-lateralized (RAN). However, several lines of evidence suggest syntactic processing of language and music rely on overlapping neural systems. The current study tested the hypothesis that syntactic processing of speech (...)
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  35. James Bartlett, Amy L. Boggan & Daniel C. Krawczyk (2013). Expertise and Processing Distorted Structure in Chess. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 7:825.score: 24.0
    A classic finding in research on human expertise and knowledge is that of enhanced memory for stimuli in a domain of expertise as compared to either stimuli outside that domain, or within-domain stimuli that have been or degraded or distorted in some way. However, we do not understand how the expert brain processes within-domain stimuli that have been distorted enough to be perceived as impossible or wrong, and yet still are perceived as within the domain (e.g., a face (...)
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  36. Kevin C. Elliott (2006). An Ethics of Expertise Based on Informed Consent. Science and Engineering Ethics 12 (4):637-661.score: 24.0
    Ethicists widely accept the notion that scientists have moral responsibilities to benefit society at large. The dissemination of scientific information to the public and its political representatives is central to many of the ways in which scientists serve society. Unfortunately, the task of providing information can often give rise to moral quandaries when scientific experts participate in politically charged debates over issues that are fraught with uncertainty. This paper develops a theoretical framework for an “ethics of expertise” (EOE) based (...)
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  37. Clément Francois & Daniele Schön (2011). Musical Expertise and Statistical Learning of Musical and Linguistic Structures. Frontiers in Psychology 2:167-167.score: 24.0
    Adults and infants can use the statistical properties of syllable sequences to extract words from continuous speech. Here we present a review of a series of electrophysiological studies investigating 1) Speech segmentation resulting from exposure to spoken and sung sequences 2) The extraction of linguistic versus musical information from a sung sequence3) Differences between musicians and nonmusicians in both linguistic and musical dimensions. The results show that segmentation is better after exposure to sung compared to spoken material and moreover, that (...)
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  38. Michael Harre (2013). The Neural Circuitry of Expertise: Perceptual Learning and Social Cognition. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 7:852.score: 24.0
    Amongst the most significant questions we are confronted with today include the integration of the brain's micro-circuitry, our ability to build the complex social networks that underpin society and how our society impacts on our ecological environment. In trying to unravel these issues one place to begin is at the level of the individual: to consider how we accumulate information about our environment, how this information leads to decisions and how our individual decisions in turn create our social environment. While (...)
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  39. Pauline Huet (2013). Pour un climat de clarté ? Usages et mésusages de la transparence sur l'expertise scientifique en situation de controverse. Éthique Publique.score: 24.0
    Dans de nombreux domaines, la transparence s’est imposée comme un élément incontournable. Qu’en est-il de son application à la science, et plus particulièrement à l’expertise scientifique en tant que contexte paradigmatique des relations entre science et société ? En analysant le cas des controverses publiques sur le réchauffement climatique d’origine anthropique, cet article veut souligner les difficultés de mise en œuvre de la transparence pour formuler une éthique de l’expertise et proposer des pistes pour y remédier.
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  40. Andrew James Latham, Lucy L. M. Patston & Lynette J. Tippett (2013). Just How Expert Are 'Expert' Video-Game Players? Assessing the Experience and Expertise of Video-Game Players Across 'Action' Video-Game Genres. Frontiers in Psychology 4:941.score: 24.0
    Just how expert are ‘expert’ video-game players? Assessing the experience and expertise of video-game players across ‘action’ video-game genres.
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  41. M. S. Oechslin, A. Imfeld, T. Loenneker, M. Meyer & L. Jäncke (2008). The Plasticity of the Superior Longitudinal Fasciculus as a Function of Musical Expertise: A Diffusion Tensor Imaging Study. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 3:76-76.score: 24.0
    Previous neuroimaging studies have demonstrated that musical expertise leads to functional alterations in language processing. We utilized diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) to investigate white matter plasticity in musicians with absolute pitch (AP), relative pitch (RP) and non-musicians (NM). Using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), we analyzed the fractional anisotropy of the superior longitudinal fasciculus (SLF), which is considered the most primary pathway for processing and production of speech and music. In association with different levels of musical expertise, we found (...)
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  42. Svitlana V. Pustovit (2006). Some Methodological Aspects of Ethics Committees' Expertise: The Ukrainian Example. Science and Engineering Ethics 12 (1):85-94.score: 24.0
    Today local, national and international ethics committees have become an effective means of social regulation in many European countries. Science itself is an important precondition for the development of bioethical knowledge and ethics expertise. Cultural, social, historical and religious preconditions can facilitate different forms and methods of ethics expertise in each country. Ukrainian ethics expertise has some methodological problems connected with its socio-cultural, historical, science and philosophy development particularities. In this context, clarification of some common legitimacies or (...)
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  43. Serge Nicolas Alessandro Guida, Fernand Gobet (2013). Functional Cerebral Reorganization: A Signature of Expertise? Reexamining Guida, Gobet, Tardieu, and Nicolas' (2012) Two-Stage Framework. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 7.score: 24.0
    Functional cerebral reorganization: a signature of expertise? Reexamining Guida, Gobet, Tardieu, and Nicolas' (2012) two-stage framework.
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  44. Guillermo Campitelli & Craig Speelman (2013). Expertise Paradigms for Investigating the Neural Substrates of Stable Memories. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 7.score: 24.0
    Expertise paradigms for investigating the neural substrates of stable memories.
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  45. Assaf Harel, Dwight Kravitz & Chris I. Baker (2013). Beyond Perceptual Expertise: Revisiting the Neural Substrates of Expert Object Recognition. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 7:885.score: 24.0
    Real-world expertise provides a valuable opportunity to understand how experience shapes human behavior and neural function. In the visual domain, the study of expert object recognition, such as in car enthusiasts or bird watchers, has produced a large, growing, and often-controversial literature. Here, we synthesize this literature, focusing primarily on results from functional brain imaging, and propose an interactive framework that incorporates the impact of high-level factors, such as attention and conceptual knowledge, in supporting expertise. This framework contrasts (...)
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  46. Nicky Priaulx, Martin Weinel & Anthony Wrigley (forthcoming). Rethinking Moral Expertise. Health Care Analysis:1-14.score: 24.0
    We argue that the way in which the concept of expertise is understood and invoked has prevented progress in the debate as to whether moral philosophers can be said to be ‘moral experts’. We offer an account of expertise that draws on the role of tacit knowledge in order to provide a basis upon which the debate can progress. Our analysis consists of three parts. In the first part we highlight two specific problems in the way that the (...)
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  47. Joydeep Bhattacharya Susanne Reiterer, Ernesto Pereda (2011). On a Possible Relationship Between Linguistic Expertise and EEG Gamma Band Phase Synchrony. Frontiers in Psychology 2.score: 24.0
    Recent research has shown that extensive training in and exposure to a second language can modify the language organization in the brain by causing both structural and functional changes. However it is not yet known how these changes are manifested by the dynamic brain oscillations and synchronization patterns subserving the language networks. In search for synchronization correlates of proficiency and expertise in second language acquisition, multivariate EEG signals were recorded from 44 high and low proficiency bilinguals during processing of (...)
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  48. Heloisa Alves, Michelle Voss, Walter R. Boot, Andrea Deslandes, Victor Cossich, Jose Inacio Salles & Arthur F. Kramer (2013). Perceptual-Cognitive Expertise in Elite Volleyball Players. Frontiers in Psychology 4.score: 24.0
    The goal of the current study was to investigate the relationship between sport expertise and perceptual and cognitive skills, as measured by the component skills approach. We hypothesized that athletes would outperform non-athlete controls in a number of perceptual and cognitive domains and that sport expertise would minimize gender differences. A total of 154 individuals (87 professional volleyball players and 67 non-athlete controls) participated in the study. Participants performed a cognitive battery, which included tests of executive control, memory, (...)
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  49. Hervé Platel Baptiste Fauvel, Mathilde Groussard, Francis Eustache, Béatrice Desgranges (2013). Neural Implementation of Musical Expertise and Cognitive Transfers: Could They Be Promising in the Framework of Normal Cognitive Aging? Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 7.score: 24.0
    Brain plasticity allows the central nervous system of a given organism to cope with environmental demands. Therefore, the quality of mental processes relies partly on the interaction between the brain’s physiological maturation and individual daily experiences. In this review, we focus on the neural implementation of musical expertise at both an anatomical and a functional level. We then discuss how this neural implementation can explain transfers from musical learning to a broad range of nonmusical cognitive functions, including language, especially (...)
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  50. Daniel D. Hutto & Raúl Sánchez-García (forthcoming). Choking RECtified: Embodied Expertise Beyond Dreyfus. Phenomenology and the Cognitive Sciences:1-23.score: 24.0
    On a Dreyfusian account performers choke when they reflect upon and interfere with established routines of purely embodied expertise. This basic explanation of choking remains popular even today and apparently enjoys empirical support. Its driving insight can be understood through the lens of diverse philosophical visions of the embodied basis of expertise. These range from accounts of embodied cognition that are ultra conservative with respect to representational theories of cognition to those that are more radically embodied. This paper (...)
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