Search results for 'Explanation Evidence Free Association Bayes' Theorm Suggestion' (try it on Scholar)

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  1. Jim Hopkins (2014). Psychoanalysis, Philosophical Issues. In SAGE Reference project Encyclopedia of Philosophy and the Social Sciences. Sage.score: 2184.0
    This paper briefly addresses questions of confirmation and disconfirmation in psychoanalysis. It argues that psychoanalysis enjoys Bayesian support as an interpretive extension of commonsense psychology that provides the best explanation of a large range of empirical data. Suggestion provides no such explanation, and recent work in attachment, developmental psychology, and neuroscience accord with this view.
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  2. Harriet Feldman and Karl J. Friston (2010). Attention, Uncertainty, and Free-Energy. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 4:215-215.score: 160.0
    We suggested recently that attention can be understood as inferring the level of uncertainty or precision during hierarchical perception. In this paper, we try to substantiate this claim using neuronal simulations of directed spatial attention and biased competition. These simulations assume that neuronal activity encodes a probabilistic representation of the world that optimises free-energy in a Bayesian fashion. Because free-energy bounds surprise or the (negative) log evidence for internal models of the world, this optimisation can be regarded (...)
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  3. Joseph J. Williams & Tania Lombrozo (2010). The Role of Explanation in Discovery and Generalization: Evidence From Category Learning. Cognitive Science 34 (5):776-806.score: 152.0
    Research in education and cognitive development suggests that explaining plays a key role in learning and generalization: When learners provide explanations—even to themselves—they learn more effectively and generalize more readily to novel situations. This paper proposes and tests a subsumptive constraints account of this effect. Motivated by philosophical theories of explanation, this account predicts that explaining guides learners to interpret what they are learning in terms of unifying patterns or regularities, which promotes the discovery of broad generalizations. Three experiments (...)
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  4. Jessica Brown (2013). Intuitions, Evidence and Hopefulness. Synthese 190 (12):2021-2046.score: 126.0
    Experimental philosophers have recently conducted surveys of folk judgements about a range of phenomena of interest to philosophy including knowledge, reference, and free will. Some experimental philosophers take these results to undermine the philosophical practice of appealing to intuitions as evidence. I consider several different replies to the suggestion that these results undermine philosophical appeal to intuition, both piecemeal replies which raise concerns about particular surveys, and more general replies. The general replies include the suggestions that the (...)
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  5. Amir Raz & Natasha K. J. Campbell (2011). Can Suggestion Obviate Reading? Supplementing Primary Stroop Evidence with Exploratory Negative Priming Analyses. Consciousness and Cognition 20 (2):312-320.score: 120.0
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  6. Natasha Kj Campbell, Ilia M. Blinderman, Michael Lifshitz & Amir Raz (2012). Converging Evidence for de-Automatization as a Function of Suggestion. Consciousness and Cognition 21 (3):1579-1581.score: 120.0
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  7. Phyllis Granoff (1989). Jain Lives of Haribhadra: An Inquiry Into the Sources and Logic of the Legends. [REVIEW] Journal of Indian Philosophy 17 (2):105-128.score: 118.0
    I have attempted here to trace the development of Haribhadra's biography. My contention throughout has been that there is a basic incongruity between what one can discern from the actual works about the author Haribhadra and the legends that came to be associated with him. I have argued that the legends initially came from elsewhere in part from the legends of the arrogant monk who challenges the schismatic Rohagutta, and in part from the stories told of Akalanka, who probably was (...)
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  8. Richard M. Zaner (2006). The Phenomenon of Vulnerability in Clinical Encounters. Human Studies 29 (3):283 - 294.score: 99.0
    After a brief, personal reflection on Aron Gurwitsch’s life and his many influences on my career, I devote this lecture to some of the central themes of a phenomenology of medicine. Its core is the clinical encounter, which displays a certain structure I term the asymmetry of power (physician) and vulnerability (patient, family)—a complex contextual imbalance characterized by multiple points of view, hence points for reflective entrance. These are then interpreted phenomenologically in terms of epoché and reduction (practical distantiation), (...), reflection, and other related themes. I conclude with a suggestion about “the fundamental method” of phenomenology, free fantasy variation. (shrink)
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  9. Monika Fleischhauer, Sören Enge, Robert Miller, Alexander Strobel & Anja Strobel (2013). Neuroticism Explains Unwanted Variance in Implicit Association Tests of Personality: Possible Evidence for an Affective Valence Confound. Frontiers in Psychology 4.score: 93.0
    Meta-analytic data highlight the value of the Implicit Association Test (IAT) as an indirect measure of personality. Based on evidence suggesting that confounding factors such as cognitive abilities contribute to the IAT effect, this study provides a first investigation of whether basic personality traits explain unwanted variance in the IAT. In a gender-balanced sample of 204 volunteers, the Big-Five dimensions were assessed via self-report, peer-report, and IAT. By means of structural equation modeling, latent Big-Five personality factors (based on (...)
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  10. Natalia M. Mintchik & Timothy A. Farmer (2009). Associations Between Epistemological Beliefs and Moral Reasoning: Evidence From Accounting. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 84 (2):259 - 275.score: 87.0
    We investigated associations between moral reasoning and epistemological beliefs in an accounting context using the sample of 140 senior accounting students from a public university in Midwestern U.S. We found no significant correlations between accounting students’ principled reasoning about Thorne’s ethical dilemmas and their beliefs about knowledge measured by administering Schommer epistemological questionnaire. We conducted post-hoc power analysis and present the evidence that the lack of associations should not be attributed to the lack of power. Overall, our results suggest (...)
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  11. Colin Allen, Rational Versus Associative Processes.score: 84.0
    It is widely accepted that many species of non-human animals appear to engage in transitive inference, producing appropriate responses to novel pairings of non-adjacent members of an ordered series without previous experience of these pairings. Some researchers have taken this capability as providing direct evidence that these animals reason. Others resist such declarations, favouring instead explanations in terms of associative conditioning. Associative accounts of transitive inference have been refined in application to a simple five-element learning task that is the (...)
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  12. David B. Hausman (1985). The Explanation of Goal-Directed Behavior. Synthese 65 (3):327 - 346.score: 84.0
    If teleological descriptions and explanations are to have a legitimate place in contemporary empirical science, especially as regards biological units in general and even nonbiological ones, then their content must avoid appeal to intentional constituents. Efforts aimed atreducing teleological accounts to nonteleological ones (Braithwaite, Nagel, etc.) have proved unsuccessful (Scheffler). Recently, Larry Wright, building on the work of Charles Taylor, has put together a nonreductive analysis which is free from many of the objections often associated with such a program. (...)
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  13. Erica Lucas & Linden Ball (2005). Think-Aloud Protocols and the Selection Task: Evidence for Relevance Effects and Rationalisation Processes. Thinking and Reasoning 11 (1):35 – 66.score: 84.0
    Two experiments are reported that employed think-aloud methods to test predictions concerning relevance effects and rationalisation processes derivable from Evans' (1996) heuristic-analytic theory of the selection task. Evans' account proposes that card selections are triggered by relevance-determining heuristics, with analytic processing serving merely to rationalise heuristically cued decisions. As such, selected cards should be associated with more references to both their facing and their hidden sides than rejected cards, which are not subjected to analytic rationalisation. Experiment 1 used a standard (...)
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  14. J. F. Cavanagh, A. J. Bismark, M. J. Frank & J. J. Allen (2010). Larger Error Signals in Major Depression Are Associated with Better Avoidance Learning. Frontiers in Psychology 2:331-331.score: 84.0
    The medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) is particularly reactive to signals of error, punishment, and conflict in the service of behavioral adaptation and it is consistently implicated in the etiology of Major Depressive Disorder (MDD). This association makes conceptual sense, given that MDD has been associated with hyper-reactivity in neural systems associated with punishment processing. Yet in practice, depression-related variance in measures of mPFC functioning often fails to relate to performance. For example, neuroelectric reflections of mediofrontal error signals are often (...)
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  15. Frank van Dun, Bayesianism and Austrian Apriorism.score: 81.0
    In the last published round of his debate with Walter Block on economic methodology,1 Bryan Caplan introduces Bayes’ Rule as ‘a cure for methodological schizofrenia’. Block had raised the question ‘Why do economists react so violently to empirical evidence against the conventional view of the minimum wage’s effect?’ and answered it with the suggestion that economists do so because they are covert praxeologists. This means that they base most of their economic arguments on conclusions derived from their a (...)
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  16. U. T. Place (2000). Behaviorism as an Ethnomethodological Experiment: Flouting the Convention of Rational Agency. Behavior and Philosophy 28 (1/2):57 - 62.score: 81.0
    As interpreted here, Garfinkel's "ethnomethodological experiment" (1967) demonstrates the existence of a social convention by flouting it and observing the consternation and aversive consequences for the perpetrator which that provokes. I suggest that the hostility which behaviorism has provoked throughout its history is evidence that it flouts an important social convention, the convention that, whenever possible, human beings are treated as and must always give the appearance of being rational agents. For these purposes, a rational agent is someone whose (...)
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  17. Nino Luraghi (2002). Becoming Messenian. Journal of Hellenic Studies 122:45-69.score: 81.0
    The article is an enquiry into the identity of two groups who called themselves Messenians: the Helots and perioikoi who revolted against Sparta after the earthquake in the 460s; and the citizens of the independent polity founded by Epameinondas in 370/69 bc in the Spartan territory west of the Taygetos. Based on the history of the Messenians in Pausanias Book 4, some scholars have thought that those two groups were simply the descendants of the free inhabitants of the region, (...)
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  18. K. G. White (2009). Jane Austen and Addison's Disease: An Unconvincing Diagnosis. Medical Humanities 35 (2):98-100.score: 81.0
    Jane Austen’s letters describe a two-year deterioration into bed-ridden exhaustion, with unusual colouring, bilious attacks and rheumatic pains. In 1964, Zachary Cope postulated tubercular Addison’s to explain her symptoms and her relatively pain-free illness. Literary scholars later countered this posthumous diagnosis on grounds that are not well substantiated, while medical authors supported his conclusion. Important symptoms reported by contemporary Addison’s patients—mental confusion, generalised pain and suffering, weight loss and anorexia—are absent from Jane Austen’s letters. Thus, by listening to the (...)
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  19. Jeroen Mettes (2012). Political Poetry: A Few Notes. Poetics for N30. Continent 2 (1):29-35.score: 81.0
    continent. 2.1 (2012): 29–35. Translated by Vincent W.J. van Gerven Oei from Jeroen Mettes. "Politieke Poëzie: Enige aantekeningen, Poëtica bij N30 (versie 2006)." In Weerstandbeleid: Nieuwe kritiek . Amsterdam: De wereldbibliotheek, 2011. Published with permission of Uitgeverij Wereldbibliotheek, Amsterdam. L’égalité veut d’autres lois . —Eugène Pottier The modern poem does not have form but consistency (that is sensed), no content but a problem (that is developed). Consistency + problem = composition. The problem of modern poetry is capitalism. Capitalism—which has no (...)
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  20. Jason S. Miller, Free Will in Context: A Defense of Descriptive Variantism.score: 78.0
    Are free will and determinism compatible? Philosophical focus on this deceptively simple `compatibility question' has historically been so pervasive that the entire free will debate is now standardly framed in its terms - that is, as a dispute between compatibilists, who answer the question affirmatively, and incompatibilists, who respond in the negative. This dissertation, in contrast, adopts a position that I call `descriptive variantism,' according to which prevailing notions of free will exhibit significant aspects of both compatibilism (...)
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  21. Brown Grier (1975). Prediction, Explanation, and Testability as Criteria for Judging Statistical Theories. Philosophy of Science 42 (4):373-383.score: 78.0
    For the case of statistical theories, the criteria of explanation, prediction, and testability can all be viewed as particular instances of a more general evaluation scheme. Using the ideas of a gain matrix and expected gain from statistical decision theory, these three criteria can be compared in terms of the elements in their associated gain matrices. This analysis leads to (1) further understanding of the interrelationship between the current criteria, (2) the proposal of an ordering for the criteria, and (...)
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  22. Miklós Erdélyi-Szabó, László Kálmán & Agi Kurucz (2008). Towards a Natural Language Semantics Without Functors and Operands. Journal of Logic, Language and Information 17 (1):1-17.score: 72.0
    The paper sets out to offer an alternative to the function/argument approach to the most essential aspects of natural language meanings. That is, we question the assumption that semantic completeness (of, e.g., propositions) or incompleteness (of, e.g., predicates) exactly replicate the corresponding grammatical concepts (of, e.g., sentences and verbs, respectively). We argue that even if one gives up this assumption, it is still possible to keep the compositionality of the semantic interpretation of simple predicate/argument structures. In our opinion, compositionality presupposes (...)
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  23. Joseph A. King, Christopher Donkin, Franziska M. Korb & Tobias Egner (2012). Model-Based Analysis of Context-Specific Cognitive Control. Frontiers in Psychology 3.score: 72.0
    Interference resolution is improved for stimuli presented in contexts (e.g. locations) associated with frequent conflict. This phenomenon, the “context-specific proportion congruent” (CSPC) effect, has challenged the traditional juxtaposition of “automatic” and “controlled” processing because it suggests that contextual cues can prime top-down control settings in a bottom-up manner. We recently obtained support for this “priming of control” hypothesis with fMRI by showing that CSPC effects are mediated by contextually-cued adjustments in processing selectivity. However, an equally plausible explanation is that (...)
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  24. Feiyan Chen Yongxin Li, Yunqi Wang, Yuzheng Hu, Yurong Liang (2013). Structural Changes in Left Fusiform Areas and Associated Fiber Connections in Children with Abacus Training: Evidence From Morphometry and Tractography. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 7.score: 72.0
    Evidence supports the notion that the fusiform gyrus (FG), as an integral part of the ventral occipitotemporal junction, is involved widely in cognitive processes as perceiving faces, objects, places or words, and this region also might represent the visual form of an abacus in the abacus-based mental calculation process. The current study uses a combined voxel-based morphometry (VBM) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) analysis to test whether long-term abacus training could induce structural changes in the left FG and in (...)
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  25. Florian Cova & Yasuko Kitano (2013). Experimental Philosophy and the Compatibility of Free Will and Determinism: A Survey. Annals of the Japan Association for Philosophy of Science:17-37.score: 68.0
    The debate over whether free will and determinism are compatible is controversial, and produces wide scholarly discussion. This paper argues that recent studies in experimental philosophy suggest that people are in fact “natural compatibilists”. To support this claim, it surveys the experimental literature bearing directly (section 1) or indirectly (section 2) upon this issue, before pointing to three possible limitations of this claim (section 3). However, notwithstanding these limitations, the investigation concludes that the existing empirical evidence seems to (...)
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  26. Angela Potochnik (2011). Explanation and Understanding. European Journal for Philosophy of Science 1 (1):29-38.score: 66.0
    Michael Strevens offers an account of causal explanation according to which explanatory practice is shaped by counterbalanced commitments to representing causal influence and abstracting away from overly specific details. In this paper, I challenge a key feature of that account. I argue that what Strevens calls explanatory frameworks figure prominently in explanatory practice because they actually improve explanations. This suggestion is simple but has far-reaching implications. It affects the status of explanations that cite multiply realizable properties; changes the (...)
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  27. Nicole Hassoun (2011). Free Trade, Poverty, and Inequality. Journal of Moral Philosophy 8 (1):5-44.score: 66.0
    Anyone familiar with The Economist knows the mantra: Free trade will ameliorate poverty by increasing growth and reducing inequality. This paper suggests that problems underlying measurement of poverty, inequality, and free trade provide reason to worry about this argument. Furthermore, the paper suggests that better evidence is necessary to establish that free trade is causing inequality and poverty to fall. Experimental studies usually provide the best evidence of causation. So, the paper concludes with a call (...)
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  28. Neil Levy (2005). Contrastive Explanations: A Dilemma for Libertarians. Dialectica 59 (1):51-61.score: 66.0
    To the extent that indeterminacy intervenes between our reasons for action and our decisions, intentions and actions, our freedom seems to be reduced, not enhanced. Free will becomes nothing more than the power to choose irrationally. In recognition of this problem, some recent libertarians have suggested that free will is paradigmatically manifested only in actions for which we have reasons for both or all the alternatives. In these circumstances, however we choose, we choose rationally. Against this kind of (...)
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  29. Karl J. Friston & Klaas E. Stephan (2007). Free-Energy and the Brain. Synthese 159 (3):417 - 458.score: 66.0
    If one formulates Helmholtz's ideas about perception in terms of modern-day theories one arrives at a model of perceptual inference and learning that can explain a remarkable range of neurobiological facts. Using constructs from statistical physics it can be shown that the problems of inferring what cause our sensory inputs and learning causal regularities in the sensorium can be resolved using exactly the same principles. Furthermore, inference and learning can proceed in a biologically plausible fashion. The ensuing scheme rests on (...)
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  30. John Symons (2001). Explanation, Representation and the Dynamical Hypothesis. Minds and Machines 11 (4):521-541.score: 66.0
    This paper challenges arguments that systematic patterns of intelligent behavior license the claim that representations must play a role in the cognitive system analogous to that played by syntactical structures in a computer program. In place of traditional computational models, I argue that research inspired by Dynamical Systems theory can support an alternative view of representations. My suggestion is that we treat linguistic and representational structures as providing complex multi-dimensional targets for the development of individual brains. This approach acknowledges (...)
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  31. Anna-Sofia Maurin (2013). Exemplification as Explanation. Axiomathes 23 (2):401-417.score: 66.0
    In this paper I critically investigate an unorthodox attempt to metaphysically explain in virtue of what there are states of affairs. This is a suggestion according to which states of affairs exist thanks to, rather than, as is the common view, in spite of, the infinite regress their metaphysical explanation seems to engender. I argue that, no matter in which form it is defended, or in which theoretical framework it is set, this suggestion cannot provide us with (...)
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  32. Klaas E. Stephan Karl J. Friston (2007). Free-Energy and the Brain. Synthese 159 (3):417.score: 66.0
    If one formulates Helmholtz’s ideas about perception in terms of modern-day theories one arrives at a model of perceptual inference and learning that can explain a remarkable range of neurobiological facts. Using constructs from statistical physics it can be shown that the problems of inferring what cause our sensory inputs and learning causal regularities in the sensorium can be resolved using exactly the same principles. Furthermore, inference and learning can proceed in a biologically plausible fashion. The ensuing scheme rests on (...)
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  33. Timothy L. Hodgson Benjamin A. Parris, Zoltan Dienes (2013). Application of the Ex-Gaussian Function to the Effect of the Word Blindness Suggestion on Stroop Task Performance Suggests No Word Blindness. Frontiers in Psychology 4.score: 66.0
    The aim of the present paper was to apply the ex-Gaussian function to data reported by Parris et al. (2012) given its utility in studies involving the Stroop task. Parris et al. showed an effect of the word blindness suggestion when Response-Stimulus Interval (RSI) was 500ms but not when it was 3500ms. Analysis revealed that: 1) The effect of the suggestion on interference is observed in µ, supporting converging evidence indicating the suggestion operates over response competition (...)
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  34. David Rose & Shaun Nichols (2013). The Lesson of Bypassing. Review of Philosophy and Psychology 4 (4):599-619.score: 64.0
    The idea that incompatibilism is intuitive is one of the key motivators for incompatibilism. Not surprisingly, then philosophers who defend incompatibilism often claim that incompatibilism is the natural, commonsense view about free will and moral responsibility (e.g., Pereboom 2001, Kane Journal of Philosophy 96:217–240 1999, Strawson 1986). And a number of recent studies find that people give apparently incompatibilist responses in vignette studies. When participants are presented with a description of a causal deterministic universe, they tend to deny that (...)
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  35. Jonathan Y. Tsou (2008). The Reality and Classification of Mental Disorders. Dissertation, University of Chicagoscore: 64.0
    This dissertation examines psychiatry from a philosophy of science perspective, focusing on issues of realism and classification. Questions addressed in the dissertation include: What evidence is there for the reality of mental disorders? Are any mental disorders natural kinds? When are disease explanations of abnormality warranted? How should mental disorders be classified? -/- In addressing issues concerning the reality of mental disorders, I draw on the accounts of realism defended by Ian Hacking and William Wimsatt, arguing that biological research (...)
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  36. Eddy A. Nahmias (2006). Folk Fears About Freedom and Responsibility: Determinism Vs. Reductionism. Journal of Cognition and Culture 6 (1-2):215-237.score: 64.0
    My initial work, with collaborators Stephen Morris, Thomas Nadelhoffer, and Jason Turner (2005, 2006), on surveying folk intuitions about free will and moral responsibility was designed primarily to test a common claim in the philosophical debates: that ordinary people see an obvious conflict between determinism and both free will and moral responsibility, and hence, the burden is on compatibilists to motivate their theory in a way that explains away or overcomes this intuitive support for incompatibilism. The evidence, (...)
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  37. David A. Leopold & Nikos K. Logothetis (1999). Multistable Phenomena: Changing Views in Perception. Trends in Cognitive Sciences 3 (7):254-264.score: 64.0
    Traditional explanations of multistable visual phenomena (e.g. ambiguous figures, perceptual rivalry) suggest that the basis for spontaneous reversals in perception lies in antagonistic connectivity within the visual system. In this review, we suggest an alternative, albeit speculative, explanation for visual multistability – that spontaneous alternations reflect responses to active, programmed events initiated by brain areas that integrate sensory and non-sensory information to coordinate a diversity of behaviors. Much evidence suggests that perceptual reversals are themselves more closely related to (...)
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  38. Attila Grandpierre & Menas Kafatos (2012). Biological Autonomy. Philosophy Study 2 (9):631-649.score: 64.0
    We argue that genuine biological autonomy, or described at human level as free will, requires taking into account quantum vacuum processes in the context of biological teleology. One faces at least three basic problems of genuine biological autonomy: (1) if biological autonomy is not physical, where does it come from? (2) Is there a room for biological causes? And (3) how to obtain a workable model of biological teleology? It is shown here that the solution of all these three (...)
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  39. Max Velmans (2002). Making Sense of Causal Interactions Between Consciousness and Brain. Journal of Consciousness Studies 9 (11):69-95.score: 64.0
    My target article (henceforth referred to as TA) presents evidence for causal interactions between consciousness and brain and some standard ways of accounting for this evidence in clinical practice and neuropsychological theory. I also point out some of the problems of understanding such causal interactions that are not addressed by standard explanations. Most of the residual problems have to do with how to cross the “explanatory gap” from consciousness to brain. I then list some of the reasons why (...)
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  40. Aviezer Tucker (2001). The Future of the Philosophy of Historiography. History and Theory 40 (1):37–56.score: 64.0
    This article argues that the perception of decline among philosophers of history reflects the diffused weak academic status of the discipline, as distinct from the booming research activity and demand for philosophy of history that keeps pace with the growth rate of publications in the philosophies of science and law. This growth is justified and rational because the basic problems of the philosophy of history, concerning the nature of historiographical knowledge and the metaphysical assumptions of historiography, have maintained their relevance. (...)
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  41. David Faraci (2013). Brown on Mackie: Echoes of the Lottery Paradox. Philosophia 41 (3):751-755.score: 64.0
    In “The possibility of morality,” Phil Brown considers whether moral error theory is best understood as a necessary or contingent thesis. Among other things, Brown contends that the argument from relativity, offered by John Mackie—error theory’s progenitor—supports a stronger modal reading of error theory. His argument is as follows: Mackie’s is an abductive argument that error theory is the best explanation for divergence in moral practices. Since error theory will likewise be the best explanation for similar divergences in (...)
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  42. Alexander Provost, Blake Johnson, Frini Karayanidis, Scott D. Brown & Andrew Heathcote (2013). Two Routes to Expertise in Mental Rotation. Cognitive Science 37 (7):1321-1342.score: 64.0
    The ability to imagine objects undergoing rotation (mental rotation) improves markedly with practice, but an explanation of this plasticity remains controversial. Some researchers propose that practice speeds up the rate of a general-purpose rotation algorithm. Others maintain that performance improvements arise through the adoption of a new cognitive strategy—repeated exposure leads to rapid retrieval from memory of the required response to familiar mental rotation stimuli. In two experiments we provide support for an integrated explanation of practice effects in (...)
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  43. Paul Bello & Selmer Bringsjord (2013). On How to Build a Moral Machine. Topoi 32 (2):251-266.score: 64.0
    Herein we make a plea to machine ethicists for the inclusion of constraints on their theories consistent with empirical data on human moral cognition. As philosophers, we clearly lack widely accepted solutions to issues regarding the existence of free will, the nature of persons and firm conditions on moral agency/patienthood; all of which are indispensable concepts to be deployed by any machine able to make moral judgments. No agreement seems forthcoming on these matters, and we don’t hold out hope (...)
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  44. Brent Mundy (1989). Distant Action in Classical Electromagnetic Theory. British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 40 (1):39-68.score: 64.0
    The standard mathematical apparatus of classical electromagnetic theory in Minkowski space-time allows an interpretation in terms of retarded distant action, as well as the standard field interpretation. This interpretation is here presented and defended as a scientifically significant alternative to the field theory, casting doubt upon the common view that classical electromagnetic theory provides scientific support for the physical existence of fields as fundamental entities. The various types of consideration normally thought to provide evidence for the existence of the (...)
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  45. Celia E. Schultz (2008). Wildfang (R.L.) Rome's Vestal Virgins. A Study of Rome's Vestal Priestesses in the Late Republic and Early Empire. Pp. Xiv + 158, Ills. London and New York: Routledge, 2006. Paper, £19.99, US$35.95 (Cased, £60, US$110). ISBN: 0-415-39796-0 (0-415-39795-2 Hbk). Martini (M.C.) Le Vestali. Un Sacerdozio Funzionale Al 'Cosmo' Romano. (Collection Latomus 282.) Pp. 264. Brussels: Éditions Latomus, 2004. Paper, €38. ISBN: 2-87031-223-. [REVIEW] The Classical Review 58 (01).score: 64.0
    The Vestal Virgins are one of the most famous elements of Roman religion, yet despite their perennial appeal and the importance of some smaller scale studies of the priesthood, the priestesses have not received a monograph-length study since F. Giuzzi, Aspetti giuridici del sacerdozio romano. II sacerdozio di Vesta (Naples, 1968). Now we have books by R.L. Wildfang and M.C. Martini that could not be more different. The former offers a thorough survey of what the sources can tell us about (...)
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  46. Samuel Joseph Gershman & Yael Niv (2013). Perceptual Estimation Obeys Occam's Razor. Frontiers in Psychology 4.score: 64.0
    Theoretical models of unsupervised category learning postulate that humans "invent" categories to accommodate new patterns, but tend to group stimuli into a small number of categories. This "Occam's razor" principle is motivated by normative rules of statistical inference. If categories influence perception, then one should find effects of category invention on simple perceptual estimation. In a series of experiments, we tested this prediction by asking participants to estimate the number of colored circles on a computer screen, with the number of (...)
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  47. N. K. Logothetis D. A. Leopold (1999). Multistable Phenomena: Changing Views in Perception. Trends in Cognitive Sciences 3:254-264.score: 64.0
    Traditional explanations of multistable visual phenomena (e.g. ambiguous figures, perceptual rivalry) suggest that the basis for spontaneous reversals in perception lies in antagonistic connectivity within the visual system. In this review, we suggest an alternative, albeit speculative. explanation for visual multistability - that spontaneous alternations reflect responses to active, programmed events initiated by brain areas that integrate sensory and non-sensory information to coordinate a diversity of behaviors. Much evidence suggests that perceptual reversals are themselves more closely related to (...)
     
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  48. Daniel W. Sellen & Diana B. Smay (2001). Relationship Between Subsistence and Age at Weaning in “Preindustrial” Societies. Human Nature 12 (1):47-87.score: 64.0
    Cross-cultural studies have revealed broad quantitative associations between subsistence practice and demographic parameters for preindustrial populations. One explanation is that variationin the availability of suitable weaning foods influenced the frequency and duration of breastfeeding and thus the length of interbirth intervals and the probability of child survival (the “weaning food availability” hypothesis). We examine the available data on weaning age variation in preindustrial populations and report results of a cross-cultural test of the predictions that weaning occurred earlier in agricultural (...)
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  49. Iain Brassington (2007). On Heidegger, Medicine, and the Modernity of Modern Medical Technology. Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 10 (2):185-195.score: 64.0
    This paper examines medicine’s use of technology in a manner from a standpoint inspired by Heidegger’s thinking on technology. In the first part of the paper, I shall suggest an interpretation of Heidegger’s thinking on the topic, and attempt to show why he associates modern technology with danger. However, I shall also claim that there is little evidence that medicine’s appropriation of modern technology is dangerous in Heidegger’s sense, although there is no prima facie reason why it mightn’t be. (...)
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  50. H. P. Graf & D. Cole (1995). Ethics-Committee Authorization in Germany. Journal of Medical Ethics 21 (4):229-233.score: 64.0
    On 9 August 1994 the German legislature revised the German Drug Law (AMG). Included in the revision is a passage requiring, for the first time, that the sponsors and investigators of clinical studies involving human subjects first obtain the approval of an ethics committee before carrying out such studies. According to the legislation, which takes effect on 17 August 1995, approval is to come from 'an independent ethics committee, set up and administered according to state law [emphasis added]' (1). Although (...)
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