Search results for 'Explicit memoryCurrent Directions in Psychological Science' (try it on Scholar)

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  1. Rogier Kievit, Willem Eduard Frankenhuis, Lourens Waldorp & Denny Borsboom (2013). Simpson's Paradox in Psychological Science: A Practical Guide. Frontiers in Psychology 4.score: 759.2
    The direction of an association at the population-level may be reversed within the subgroups comprising that population—a striking observation called Simpson’s paradox. When facing this pattern, psychologists often view it as anomalous. Here, we argue that Simpson’s paradox is more common than conventionally thought, and typically results in incorrect interpretations – potentially with harmful consequences. We support this claim by drawing on empirical results from cognitive neuroscience, behavior genetics, psychopathology, personality psychology, educational psychology, intelligence research, and simulation studies. We show (...)
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  2. Ron Sun, R. Mathews & and S. Lane, Implicit and Explicit Processes in the Development of Cognitive Skills: A Theoretical Interpretation with Some Practical Implications for Science Education.score: 510.0
    In: E. Vargios (ed.), Educational Psychology Research Focus, pp.1-26. Nova Science Publishers, Hauppauge, NY. 2007.
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  3. Alvin I. Goldman (1994). Psychological, Social, and Epistemic Factors in the Theory of Science. PSA: Proceedings of the Biennial Meeting of the Philosophy of Science Association 1994:277 - 286.score: 495.0
    This article blends psychological and social factors in the explanation of science, and defends the compatibility of a psychosocial picture with an epistemic picture. It examines three variants of the 'political' approach to interpersonal persuasion advocated by Latour and others. In each case an 'epistemic' or mixed account is more promising and empirically better supported. Psychological research on motivated reasoning shows the epistemic limits of interest-driven belief. Against social constructivism, the paper defends the viability of a truth-based (...)
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  4. María Caamaño Alegre (2013). Pragmatic Norms in Science: Making Them Explicit. Synthese 190 (15):3227-3246.score: 489.0
    The present work constitutes an attempt to make explicit those pragmatic norms successfully operating in empirical science. I will first comment on the initial presuppositions of the discussion, in particular, on those concerning the instrumental character of scientific practice and the nature of scientific goals. Then I will depict the moderately naturalistic frame in which, from this approach, the pragmatic norms make sense. Third, I will focus on the specificity of the pragmatic norms, making special emphasis on what (...)
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  5. María Caamaño Alegre (2013). Pragmatic Norms in Science: Making Them Explicit. Synthese 190 (15):3227-3246.score: 489.0
    The present work constitutes an attempt to make explicit those pragmatic norms successfully operating in empirical science. I will first comment on the initial presuppositions of the discussion, in particular, on those concerning the instrumental character of scientific practice and the nature of scientific goals. Then I will depict the moderately naturalistic frame in which, from this approach, the pragmatic norms make sense. Third, I will focus on the specificity of the pragmatic norms, making special emphasis on what (...)
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  6. Jay Schulkin (ed.) (2012). New Directions in Philosophy and Cognitive Science: Adaptation and Cephalic Expression. Palgrave Macmillan.score: 474.7
     
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  7. Ang Xu (2008). China Looks Abroad: Changing Directions In International Science. [REVIEW] Minerva 46 (1):37-51.score: 466.5
    This essay describes China’s participation in international science organizations during the past two decades. It argues that, whilst progress has been made, serious problems remain. It concludes that increased attention to communication and exchange, and the creation of a favourable international image in science and technology are important priorities for China.
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  8. C. D. Meyers & Sara Waller (2009). Psychological Investigations: The Private Language Argument and Inferences in Contemporary Cognitive Science. Synthese 171 (1):135-156.score: 459.0
    Some of the methods for data collection in experimental psychology, as well as many of the inferences from observed behavior or image scanning, are based on the implicit premise that language use can be linked, via the meaning of words, to specific subjective states. Wittgenstein’s well known private language argument (PLA), however, calls into question the legitimacy of such inferences. According to a strong interpretation of PLA, all of the elements of a language must be publicly available. Thus the meaning (...)
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  9. Carl Mitcham & Robert Frodeman (2004). New Directions in the Philosophy of Science: Toward a Philosophy of Science Policy. Philosophy Today 48 (5):3-15.score: 456.0
    This is the introduction to a special, guest-edited issue of Philosophy Today. It lays out the extent to which the philosophy of science has ignored science policy and argues that policy issues deserve attention in parallel with epistemological ones. It further reviews the historical development of science policy in the United States since World War II, identifies some recent contributions to critical reflection on basic science policy assumptions, and outlines a set of issues to be addressed (...)
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  10. Austin L. Porterfield (1941). Creative Factors in Scientific Research; a Social Psychology of Scientific Knowledge, Studying the Interplay of Psychological and Cultural Factors in Science with Emphasis Upon Imagination. Durham, N.C.,Duke University Press.score: 441.0
     
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  11. P. Pyllkkänen & P. Pyllkkö (eds.) (1995). New Directions in Cognitive Science. Finnish Society for Artificial Intelligence.score: 427.5
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  12. P. J. J. Phillips (2011). Book Review: Phil Hutchinson, Rupert Read, and Wes Sharrock: There is No Such Thing as a Social Science: In Defence of Peter Winch. Directions in Ethnomethodology and Conversation Analysis Farnham, UK: Ashgate Press, 2008. 156 Pp. {Pound}50.00 (Hardcover). [REVIEW] Philosophy of the Social Sciences 41 (2):295-297.score: 423.0
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  13. Terry Dartnall (1997). What's Psychological and What's Not? The Act/Content Confusion in Cognitive Science, Artificial Intelligence and Linguistic Theory. In S. O'Nuillain, Paul McKevitt & E. MacAogain (eds.), Two Sciences of Mind. John Benjamins. 9--77.score: 423.0
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  14. M. Denis (2000). Psychological Science in Cross-Disciplinary Contexts. In Kurt Pawlik & Mark R. Rosenzweig (eds.), International Handbook of Psychology. Sage Publications Ltd. 585--597.score: 423.0
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  15. Helge Lundholm (1949). Commentary on the Physicalistic Trend in Contemporary Psychological Science with Special Reference to the United States. Theoria 15 (1-3):164-179.score: 420.0
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  16. Bradford McCall (2011). Contemporary Debates in Cognitive Science (Contemporary Debates in Philosophy). Edited by Robert J. Stainton and Cognitive Integration: Mind and Cognition Unbounded (New Directions in Philosophy and Cognitive Science). By Richard Menary. [REVIEW] Heythrop Journal 52 (2):337-338.score: 420.0
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  17. Paul Abrecht (1977). Impact of Science and Technology on Society: New Directions in Ecumenical Social Ethics. Zygon 12 (3):185-198.score: 420.0
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  18. Alexander Brown (2004). Science and Systems: New Directions in Space History. [REVIEW] Metascience 13 (1):53-58.score: 420.0
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  19. Robert Frodeman & Carl Mitcham (2013). New Directions in the Philosophy of Science. Philosophy Today 48 (Supplement):3-15.score: 420.0
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  20. Arto Siitonen (1982). New Directions in the Philosophy of Science. Philosophy and History 15 (2):130-131.score: 420.0
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  21. Thomas Uebel (ed.) (forthcoming). New Directions in Philosophy of Science. Springer.score: 420.0
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  22. Paul Grossman & Nicholas T. Van Dam (2011). Mindfulness, by Any Other Name…: Trials and Tribulations of Sati in Western Psychology and Science. Contemporary Buddhism 12 (1):219-239.score: 418.0
    The Buddhist construct of mindfulness is a central element of mindfulness-based interventions and derives from a systematic phenomenological programme developed over several millennia to investigate subjective experience. Enthusiasm for ?mindfulness? in Western psychological and other science has resulted in proliferation of definitions, operationalizations and self-report inventories that purport to measure mindful awareness as a trait. This paper addresses a number of seemingly intractable issues regarding current attempts to characterize mindfulness and also highlights a number of vulnerabilities in this (...)
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  23. Julie Gess-Newsome (2002). The Use and Impact of Explicit Instruction About the Nature of Science and Science Inquiry in an Elementary Science Methods Course. Science and Education 11 (1):55-67.score: 414.0
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  24. Victor Sampson & Douglas B. Clark (2008). Assessment of the Ways Students Generate Arguments in Science Education: Current Perspectives and Recommendations for Future Directions. Science Education 92 (3):447-472.score: 414.0
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  25. Reneé S. Schwartz, Norman G. Lederman & Barbara A. Crawford (2004). Developing Views of Nature of Science in an Authentic Context: An Explicit Approach to Bridging the Gap Between Nature of Science and Scientific Inquiry. Science Education 88 (4):610-645.score: 414.0
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  26. Eldon H. Franz (2001). Ecology, Values, and Policy Values, Whether Implicit or Explicit, Are Ineluctably Linked to Action; in View of the Human Predicament, the Science of Ecology Brings an Essential Ethic to Policy—Vivantary Responsibility. BioScience 51 (6):469-474.score: 405.0
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  27. T. F. H. Allen, Joseph A. Tainter, J. Chris Pires & Thomas W. Hoekstra (2001). Dragnet Ecology—“Just the Facts, Ma'am”: The Privilege of Science in a Postmodern World Science of Intrinsic Quality Needs Narratives with Explicit Values—Not Just Facts—Particularly as It Faces Multiple-Level Complexity in Advising on Environmental Policy, Such as Planning for Energy Futures. BioScience 51 (6):475-485.score: 405.0
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  28. P. Dee Boersma, Peter Kareiva, William F. Fagan, J. Alan Clark & Jonathan M. Hoekstra (2001). How Good Are Endangered Species Recovery Plans? The Effectiveness of Recovery Plans for Endangered Species Can Be Improved Through Incorporation of Dynamic, Explicit Science in the Recovery Process, Such as Strongly Linking Species' Biology to Recovery Criteria. BioScience 51 (8):643-649.score: 405.0
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  29. J. Wertz lyQ Frederick (1971). Knowing at Each Step of the Way Exactly What Advance is Being Made. One Limitation of Giorgi's Sketch is its Outline Character, its Lack of a Detailed Elaboration of Procedures. Hence We See the Present Work as Following From Giorgi's, in Essence If Not in Minute Detail, and yet Making More Explicit How We Have Carried Out the Particular Phase of Analysis Known as" Psychological Reflection. [REVIEW] Social Research 38:529-562.score: 405.0
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  30. P. D. Uspenskiĭ (1931). A New Model of the Universe: Principles of the Psychological Method in its Application to Problems of Science, Religion, and Art. Kegan Paul, Trench, Trubner & Co..score: 405.0
  31. Max Velmans (ed.) (1996). The Science of Consciousness: Psychological, Neuropsychological, and Clinical Reviews. Routledge.score: 380.0
    Of all the problems facing science none are more challenging yet fascinating than those posed by consciousness. In The Science of Consciousness leading researchers examine how consciousness is being investigated in the key areas of cognitive psychology, neuropsychology and clinical psychology. Within cognitive psychology, special focus is given to the function of consciousness, and to the relation of conscious processing to nonconscious processing in perception, learning, memory and information dissemination. Neuropsychology includes examination of the neural conditions for consciousness (...)
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  32. J. D. Trout (1991). Belief Attribution in Science: Folk Psychology Under Theoretical Stress. Synthese 87 (June):379-400.score: 374.0
    Some eliminativists have predicted that a developed neuroscience will eradicate the principles and theoretical kinds (belief, desire, etc.) implicit in our ordinary practices of mental state attribution. Prevailing defenses of common-sense psychology infer its basic integrity from its familiarity and instrumental success in everyday social commerce. Such common-sense defenses charge that eliminativist arguments are self-defeating in their folk psychological appeal to the belief that eliminativism is true. I argue that eliminativism is untouched by this simple charge of inconsistency, and (...)
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  33. Fernando Martínez & Jesús Ezquerro Martínez (1998). Explicitness with Psychological Ground. Minds and Machines 8 (3):353-374.score: 364.0
    Explicitness has usually been approached from two points of view, labelled by Kirsh the structural and the process view, that hold opposite assumptions to determine when information is explicit. In this paper, we offer an intermediate view that retains intuitions from both of them. We establish three conditions for explicit information that preserve a structural requirement, and a notion of explicitness as a continuous dimension. A problem with the former accounts was their disconnection with psychological work on (...)
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  34. Muhammad Ali Khalidi (2005). Against Functional Reductionism in Cognitive Science. International Studies in the Philosophy of Science 19 (3):319 – 333.score: 348.0
    Functional reductionism concerning mental properties has recently been advocated by Jaegwon Kim in order to solve the problem of the 'causal exclusion' of the mental. Adopting a reductionist strategy first proposed by David Lewis, he regards psychological properties as being 'higher-order' properties functionally defined over 'lower-order' properties, which are causally efficacious. Though functional reductionism is compatible with the multiple realizability of psychological properties, it is blocked if psychological properties are subdivided or crosscut by neurophysiological properties. I argue (...)
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  35. John Michael, Simulation as an Epistemic Tool Between Theory and Practice: A Comparison of the Relationship Between Theory and Simulation in Science and Folk Psychology. EPSA07.score: 342.0
    Simulation as an epistemic tool between theory and practice: A Comparison of the Relationship between Theory and Simulation in Science and in Folk Psychology In this paper I explore the concept of simulation that is employed by proponents of the so-called simulation theory within the debate about the nature and scientific status of folk psychology. According to simulation theory, folk psychology is not a sort of theory that postulates theoretical entities (mental states and processes) and general laws, but a (...)
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  36. Kenneth Aizawa & Carl Gillett (2009). The (Multiple) Realization of Psychological and Other Properties in the Sciences. Mind and Language 24 (2):181-208.score: 341.0
    Abstract: There has recently been controversy over the existence of 'multiple realization' in addition to some confusion between different conceptions of its nature. To resolve these problems, we focus on concrete examples from the sciences to provide precise accounts of the scientific concepts of 'realization' and 'multiple realization' that have played key roles in recent debates in the philosophy of science and philosophy of psychology. We illustrate the advantages of our view over a prominent rival account ( Shapiro, 2000 (...)
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  37. Bill Faw (2005). Consciousness Science is Alive and Well in Global Psychology: Report From ICP-2004 in Beijing, Aug 8-13, 2004 International Psychology. [REVIEW] Journal of Consciousness Studies 12 (2):71-77.score: 339.0
    The International Union of Psychological Science ('Union') co-hosted, with the Chinese Psychological Society its 28th International Congress of Psychology ('Congress'). The first Congress was held with the World's Fair in Paris in 1889. In recent decades, they have been held every four years in different parts of the world. The Union has member organizations from 67 nations, representing one half million psychologists. Pretty scary stuff!
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  38. Louise Sundararajan (2014). Indigenous Psychology: Grounding Science in Culture, Why and How? Journal for the Theory of Social Behaviour 44 (3):n/a-n/a.score: 339.0
    My agenda is to ground psychological science in culture by using complex rather than overly simple models of culture and using indigenous categories as criteria of a translation test to determine the adequacy of scientific models of culture. I first explore the compatibility between Chinese indigenous categories and complex models of culture, by casting in the theoretical framework of symmetry and symmetry breaking (Bolender, 2010) a series of translations performed on Fiske's (1991) relational models theory. Next, I show (...)
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  39. Robert Henley Woody (2011). Science in Mental Health Training and Practice, With Special Reference to School Psychology. Ethics and Behavior 21 (1):69-77.score: 336.0
    The first words in the inaugural version of the American Psychological Association Ethical Standards of Psychologists (1953) declared, ?Psychology is a science? (p. v). Professional ethics for all of the mental health disciplines support science (and objectivity) for knowledge and practice. Using school psychology as an example, consideration is given to the presence of science and research in the scientist-practitioner, professional practitioner, and psychoeducational training and practice models. Although none of the three models truly ignores a (...)
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  40. Dedre Gentner (2010). Psychology in Cognitive Science: 1978–2038. Topics in Cognitive Science 2 (3):328-344.score: 332.0
    This paper considers the past and future of Psychology within Cognitive Science. In the history section, I focus on three questions: (a) how has the position of Psychology evolved within Cognitive Science, relative to the other disciplines that make up Cognitive Science; (b) how have particular Cognitive Science areas within Psychology waxed or waned; and (c) what have we gained and lost. After discussing what’s happened since the late 1970s, when the Society and the journal began, (...)
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  41. Steven Horst (2013). Notions of Intuition in the Cognitive Science of Religion. The Monist 96 (3):377-398.score: 321.3
    This article examines the notions of “intuitive” and “counterintuitive” beliefs and concepts in cognitive science of religion. “Intuitive” states are contrasted with those that are products of explicit, conscious reasoning. In many cases the intuitions are grounded in the implicit rules of mental models, frames, or schemas. I argue that the pathway from intuitive to high theological concepts and beliefs may be distinct from that from intuitions to “folk religion,” and discuss how Christian theology might best interpret the (...)
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  42. Christine Clavien (2012). Altruistic Emotional Motivation: An Argument in Favour of Psychological Altruism. In Katie Plaisance & Thomas Reydon (eds.), Boston Studies in Philosophy of Science. Springer Press.score: 320.0
    In this paper, I reframe the long-standing controversy between ‘psychological egoism’, which argues that human beings never perform altruistic actions, and the opposing thesis of ‘psychological altruism’, which claims that human beings are, at least sometimes, capable of acting in an altruistic fashion. After a brief sketch of the controversy, I begin by presenting some representative arguments in favour of psychological altruism before showing that they can all be called into question by appealing to the idea of (...)
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  43. Paul Thagard (2006). How to Collaborate: Procedural Knowledge in the Cooperative Development of Science. Southern Journal of Philosophy 44 (S1):177-196.score: 319.3
    A philosopher once asked me: “Paul, how do you collaborate?” He was puzzled about how I came to have more than two dozen co-authors over the past 20 years. His puzzlement was natural for a philosopher, because co-authored articles and books are still rare in philosophy and the humanities, in contrast to science where most current research is collaborative. Unlike most philosophers, scientists know how to collaborate; this paper is about the nature of such procedural knowledge. I begin by (...)
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  44. Jack Martin & Jeff Sugarman (2009). Does Interpretation in Psychology Differ From Interpretation in Natural Science? Journal for the Theory of Social Behaviour 39 (1):19-37.score: 317.3
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  45. Warren Schmaus (2003). Kant's Reception in France: Theories of the Categories in Academic Philosophy, Psychology, and Social Science. Perspectives on Science 11 (1):3-34.score: 315.0
    : It has been said that Kant's critical philosophy made it impossible to pursue either the Cartesian rationalist or the Lockean empiricist program of providing a foundation for the sciences (e.g., Guyer 1992). This claim does not hold true for much of nineteenth century French philosophy, especially the eclectic spiritualist tradition that begins with Victor Cousin (1792-1867) and Pierre Maine de Biran (1766-1824) and continues through Paul Janet (1823-99). This tradition assimilated Kant's transcendental apperception of the unity of experience to (...)
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  46. Melanie Boly, Anil K. Seth, Melanie Wilke, Paul Ingmundson, Bernard Baars, Steven Laureys, David Edelman & Naotsugu Tsuchiya (2013). Consciousness in Humans and Non-Human Animals: Recent Advances and Future Directions. Frontiers in Psychology 4.score: 313.3
    This joint article reflects the authors’ personal views regarding noteworthy advances in the neuroscience of consciousness in the last ten years, and suggests what we feel may be promising future directions. It is based on a small conference at the Samoset Resort in Rockport, Maine, USA, in July of 2012, organized by the Mind Science Foundation of San Antonio, Texas. Here, we summarize recent advances in our understanding of subjectivity in humans and other animals, including empirical, applied, technical (...)
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  47. Daniel A. Helminiak (2011). Spirituality as an Explanatory and Normative Science: Applying Lonergan's Analysis of Intentional Consciousness to Relate Psychology and Theology. Heythrop Journal 52 (4):596-627.score: 312.0
    In a pluralistic society, consensus in spirituality must rest on a common human basis. The relevant social sciences as currently conceived cannot provide one. Bernard Lonergan's analysis of the human spirit – or intentional consciousness – elaborates the overlooked element in a psychological account of the human mind and, thus, grounds a psychology of spirituality as the natural expression of ongoing human integration, an account that is fully open to and, indeed, begs for theological elaboration. Initially unpacking the complexities (...)
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  48. Jeremy Athy, Jeff Friedrich & Eileen Delany (2008). Replication and Pedagogy in the History of Psychology VI: Egon Brunswik on Perception and Explicit Reasoning. Science and Education 17 (5):537-546.score: 310.0
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  49. Loryana L. Vie, Kevin N. Griffith, Lawrence M. Scheier, Paul B. Lester & Martin E. P. Seligman (2013). The Person-Event Data Environment (PDE): Leveraging Big Data for Studies of Psychological Strengths in Soldiers. Frontiers in Psychology 4:934.score: 301.0
    The Department of Defense (DoD) strives to efficiently manage the large volumes of administrative data collected and repurpose this information for research and analyses with policy implications. This need is especially present in the United States Army, which maintains numerous electronic databases with information on more than one million Active-Duty, Reserve, and National Guard soldiers, their family members, and Army civilian employees. The accumulation of vast amounts of digitized health, military service, and demographic data thus approaches, and may even exceed, (...)
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  50. Sean Crawford (2014). On the Logical Positivists' Philosophy of Psychology: Laying a Legend to Rest. In Maria Carla Galavotti, Dennis Dieks, Wenceslao J. Gonzalez, Stephan Hartmann, Thomas Uebel & Marcel Weber (eds.), New Directions in Philosophy of Science. The Philosophy of Science in a European Perspective Vol. 5. Springer. 711-726.score: 300.0
    The received view in the history of the philosophy of psychology is that the logical positivists—Carnap and Hempel in particular—endorsed the position commonly known as “logical” or “analytical” behaviourism, according to which the relations between psychological statements and the physical-behavioural statements intended to give their meaning are analytic and knowable a priori. This chapter argues that this is sheer legend: most, if not all, such relations were viewed by the logical positivists as synthetic and knowable only a posteriori. It (...)
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