Search results for 'Explicit memoryCurrent Directions in Psychological Science' (try it on Scholar)

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  1. John-Jules Ch Meyer, Roel J. Wieringa & International Workshop on Deontic Logic in Computer Science (1993). Deontic Logic in Computer Science Normative System Specification.
     
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  2.  8
    Alvin I. Goldman (1994). Psychological, Social, and Epistemic Factors in the Theory of Science. PSA: Proceedings of the Biennial Meeting of the Philosophy of Science Association 1994:277 - 286.
    This article blends psychological and social factors in the explanation of science, and defends the compatibility of a psychosocial picture with an epistemic picture. It examines three variants of the 'political' approach to interpersonal persuasion advocated by Latour and others. In each case an 'epistemic' or mixed account is more promising and empirically better supported. Psychological research on motivated reasoning shows the epistemic limits of interest-driven belief. Against social constructivism, the paper defends the viability of a truth-based (...)
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  3.  21
    María Caamaño Alegre (2013). Pragmatic Norms in Science: Making Them Explicit. Synthese 190 (15):3227-3246.
    The present work constitutes an attempt to make explicit those pragmatic norms successfully operating in empirical science. I will first comment on the initial presuppositions of the discussion, in particular, on those concerning the instrumental character of scientific practice and the nature of scientific goals. Then I will depict the moderately naturalistic frame in which, from this approach, the pragmatic norms make sense. Third, I will focus on the specificity of the pragmatic norms, making special emphasis on what (...)
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    María Caamaño Alegre (2013). Pragmatic Norms in Science: Making Them Explicit. Synthese 190 (15):3227-3246.
    The present work constitutes an attempt to make explicit those pragmatic norms successfully operating in empirical science. I will first comment on the initial presuppositions of the discussion, in particular, on those concerning the instrumental character of scientific practice and the nature of scientific goals. Then I will depict the moderately naturalistic frame in which, from this approach, the pragmatic norms make sense. Third, I will focus on the specificity of the pragmatic norms, making special emphasis on what (...)
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    Brian R. Vandenberg (2010). Evidence, Ontology, and Psychological Science: The Lesson of Hypnosis. Journal of Theoretical and Philosophical Psychology 30 (1):51-65.
    Data are never free of philosophical encumbrances. Nevertheless, philosophical issues are often considered peripheral to method and evidence. Historical perspectives likewise are not considered integral to most data-driven disputes in contemporary psychological science. This paper examines the history of the investigation of hypnosis over the last 75 years to illuminate how evidence and method are entangled with epistemology and ontology, how new research directions are forged by changes in the cultural and philosophical landscape, and how unacknowledged philosophical (...)
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  6.  6
    Katherine Nelson (2015). Quantitative and Qualitative Research in Psychological Science. Biological Theory 10 (3):263-272.
    The field of psychology has emphasized quantitative laboratory research as a defining character of its role as a science, and has generally de-emphasized qualitative research and theorizing throughout its history. This article reviews some of the effects of this emphasis in two areas, intelligence testing, and learning and memory. On one side, quantitative measurement produced the widely used IQ test but shed little light on the construct of intelligence and its role in human cognition. On the other side, reductive (...)
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  7. Ang Xu (2008). China Looks Abroad: Changing Directions In International Science. [REVIEW] Minerva 46 (1):37-51.
    This essay describes China’s participation in international science organizations during the past two decades. It argues that, whilst progress has been made, serious problems remain. It concludes that increased attention to communication and exchange, and the creation of a favourable international image in science and technology are important priorities for China.
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  8.  1
    Isabella Sarto-Jackson & Richard R. Nelson (2015). Quantitative and Qualitative Research in Psychological Science. Biological Theory 10 (3):263-272.
    The field of psychology has emphasized quantitative laboratory research as a defining character of its role as a science, and has generally de-emphasized qualitative research and theorizing throughout its history. This article reviews some of the effects of this emphasis in two areas, intelligence testing, and learning and memory. On one side, quantitative measurement produced the widely used IQ test but shed little light on the construct of intelligence and its role in human cognition. On the other side, reductive (...)
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  9.  31
    Paul Horwich (1989). Asymmetries in Time: Problems in the Philosophy of Science. Bradford Books.
    Time is generally thought to be one of the more mysterious ingredients of the universe. In this intriguing book, Paul Horwich makes precise and explicit the interrelationships between time and a large number of philosophically important notions.Ideas of temporal order and priority interact in subtle and convoluted ways with the deepest elements in our network of basic concepts. Confronting this conceptual jigsaw puzzle, Horwich notes that there are glaring differences in how we regard the past and future directions (...)
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  10.  59
    C. D. Meyers & Sara Waller (2009). Psychological Investigations: The Private Language Argument and Inferences in Contemporary Cognitive Science. Synthese 171 (1):135-156.
    Some of the methods for data collection in experimental psychology, as well as many of the inferences from observed behavior or image scanning, are based on the implicit premise that language use can be linked, via the meaning of words, to specific subjective states. Wittgenstein’s well known private language argument (PLA), however, calls into question the legitimacy of such inferences. According to a strong interpretation of PLA, all of the elements of a language must be publicly available. Thus the meaning (...)
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  11.  19
    Carl Mitcham & Robert Frodeman (2004). New Directions in the Philosophy of Science: Toward a Philosophy of Science Policy. Philosophy Today 48 (5):3-15.
    This is the introduction to a special, guest-edited issue of Philosophy Today. It lays out the extent to which the philosophy of science has ignored science policy and argues that policy issues deserve attention in parallel with epistemological ones. It further reviews the historical development of science policy in the United States since World War II, identifies some recent contributions to critical reflection on basic science policy assumptions, and outlines a set of issues to be addressed (...)
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  12. Daniel Little (2016). New Directions in the Philosophy of Social Science. Rowman & Littlefield International.
    An accessible introduction to the latest developments and debates in the philosophy of social science.
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  13. Daniel Little (2016). New Directions in the Philosophy of Social Science. Rowman & Littlefield International.
    An accessible introduction to the latest developments and debates in the philosophy of social science.
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  14.  30
    Ron Sun, R. Mathews & and S. Lane, Implicit and Explicit Processes in the Development of Cognitive Skills: A Theoretical Interpretation with Some Practical Implications for Science Education.
    In: E. Vargios (ed.), Educational Psychology Research Focus, pp.1-26. Nova Science Publishers, Hauppauge, NY. 2007.
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  15. William F. Brewer (ed.) (2012). The Theory Ladenness of the Mental Processes Used in the Scientific Enterprise: Evidence From Cognitive Psychology and the History of Science. In R. W. Proctor & E. J. Capaldi (Eds.). Psychology of Science: Implicit and Explicit Processes (289-334). New York: Oxford University Press. Oxford.
    This chapter takes a naturalized approach to the philosophy of science using evidence from cognitive psychology and from the history of science. It first describes the problem of the theory ladenness of perception. Then it provides a general top-down/bottom-up framework from cognitive psychology that is used to organize and evaluate the evidence for theory ladenness throughout the process of carrying out science (perception, attention, thinking, experimenting, memory, and communication). The chapter highlights both the facilitatory and inhibitory role (...)
     
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  16.  6
    Alexander Brown (2004). Science and Systems: New Directions in Space History. [REVIEW] Metascience 13 (1):53-58.
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  17. Carole J. Lee (forthcoming). Revisiting Current Causes of Women's Underrepresentation in Science. In Jennifer Saul Michael Brownstein (ed.), Implicit Bias and Philosophy Volume 1: Metaphysics and Epistemology. Oxford University Press
    On the surface, developing a social psychology of science seems compelling as a way to understand how individual social cognition – in aggregate – contributes towards individual and group behavior within scientific communities (Kitcher, 2002). However, in cases where the functional input-output profile of psychological processes cannot be mapped directly onto the observed behavior of working scientists, it becomes clear that the relationship between psychological claims and normative philosophy of science should be refined. For example, a (...)
     
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  18.  4
    Gordon W. Allport (1943). The Use of Personal Documents in Psychological Science. Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 3 (3):367-369.
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  19. Jones Jones (1942). Allport's The Use of Personal Documents in Psychological Science. [REVIEW] Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 3:367.
     
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  20. P. Pyllkkänen & P. Pyllkkö (eds.) (1995). New Directions in Cognitive Science. Finnish Society for Artificial Intelligence.
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  21.  1
    C. D. Meyers & Sara Waller (2009). Psychological Investigations: The Private Language Argument and Inferences in Contemporary Cognitive Science. Synthese 171 (1):135-156.
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  22. Austin L. Porterfield (1941). Creative Factors in Scientific Research; a Social Psychology of Scientific Knowledge, Studying the Interplay of Psychological and Cultural Factors in Science with Emphasis Upon Imagination. Durham, N.C.,Duke University Press.
     
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  23. Joseph Rychlak (1980). Concepts of Free Will in Modern Psychological Science. Journal of Mind and Behavior 1 (1).
     
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  24.  30
    P. J. J. Phillips (2011). Book Review: Phil Hutchinson, Rupert Read, and Wes Sharrock: There is No Such Thing as a Social Science: In Defence of Peter Winch. Directions in Ethnomethodology and Conversation Analysis Farnham, UK: Ashgate Press, 2008. 156 Pp. {Pound}50.00 (Hardcover). [REVIEW] Philosophy of the Social Sciences 41 (2):295-297.
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  25.  6
    Arto Siitonen (1982). New Directions in the Philosophy of Science. Philosophy and History 15 (2):130-131.
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  26.  8
    Paul Abrecht (1977). Impact of Science and Technology on Society: New Directions in Ecumenical Social Ethics. Zygon 12 (3):185-198.
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  27.  13
    Helge Lundholm (1949). Commentary on the Physicalistic Trend in Contemporary Psychological Science with Special Reference to the United States. Theoria 15 (1-3):164-179.
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  28.  10
    Bradford McCall (2011). Contemporary Debates in Cognitive Science (Contemporary Debates in Philosophy). Edited by Robert J. Stainton and Cognitive Integration: Mind and Cognition Unbounded (New Directions in Philosophy and Cognitive Science). By Richard Menary. [REVIEW] Heythrop Journal 52 (2):337-338.
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  29.  3
    Terry Dartnall (1997). What's Psychological and What's Not? The Act/Content Confusion in Cognitive Science, Artificial Intelligence and Linguistic Theory. In S. O'Nuillain, Paul McKevitt & E. MacAogain (eds.), Two Sciences of Mind. John Benjamins 9--77.
  30.  2
    Robert Frodeman & Carl Mitcham (2013). New Directions in the Philosophy of Science. Philosophy Today 48 (Supplement):3-15.
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  31. M. Denis (2000). Psychological Science in Cross-Disciplinary Contexts. In Kurt Pawlik & Mark R. Rosenzweig (eds.), International Handbook of Psychology. Sage Publications Ltd 585--597.
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  32. Jay Schulkin (ed.) (2012). New Directions in Philosophy and Cognitive Science: Adaptation and Cephalic Expression. Palgrave Macmillan.
     
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  33. Doris Teichler-Zallen, Colleen D. Clements & Nazareth College of Rochester (1982). Science and Morality New Directions in Bioethics. Monograph Collection (Matt - Pseudo).
     
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  34. Thomas Uebel (ed.) (forthcoming). New Directions in Philosophy of Science. Springer.
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  35.  8
    Victor Sampson & Douglas B. Clark (2008). Assessment of the Ways Students Generate Arguments in Science Education: Current Perspectives and Recommendations for Future Directions. Science Education 92 (3):447-472.
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  36.  25
    Julie Gess-Newsome (2002). The Use and Impact of Explicit Instruction About the Nature of Science and Science Inquiry in an Elementary Science Methods Course. Science and Education 11 (1):55-67.
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  37.  8
    Reneé S. Schwartz, Norman G. Lederman & Barbara A. Crawford (2004). Developing Views of Nature of Science in an Authentic Context: An Explicit Approach to Bridging the Gap Between Nature of Science and Scientific Inquiry. Science Education 88 (4):610-645.
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  38. J. Wertz lyQ Frederick (1971). Knowing at Each Step of the Way Exactly What Advance is Being Made. One Limitation of Giorgi's Sketch is its Outline Character, its Lack of a Detailed Elaboration of Procedures. Hence We See the Present Work as Following From Giorgi's, in Essence If Not in Minute Detail, and yet Making More Explicit How We Have Carried Out the Particular Phase of Analysis Known as" Psychological Reflection. [REVIEW] Social Research 38:529-562.
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  39. P. D. Uspenskiĭ (1931). A New Model of the Universe: Principles of the Psychological Method in its Application to Problems of Science, Religion, and Art. Kegan Paul, Trench, Trubner & Co..
  40. Stan Klein (forthcoming). The Unplanned Obsolescence of Psychological Science and an Argument for its Revival. Pyshcology of Consciousness: Theory, Research, and Practice.
    I examine some of the key scientific pre-commitments of modern psychology, and argue that their adoption has the unintended consequence of rendering a purely psychological analysis of mind indistinguishable from a purely biological treatment. And, since these pre-commitments sanction an “authority of the biological”, explanation of phenomena traditionally considered the purview of psychological analysis is fully subsumed under the biological. I next evaluate the epistemic warrant of these pre-commitments and suggest there are good reasons to question (...)
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  41.  19
    Max Velmans (ed.) (1996). The Science of Consciousness: Psychological, Neuropsychological, and Clinical Reviews. Routledge.
    Of all the problems facing science none are more challenging yet fascinating than those posed by consciousness. In The Science of Consciousness leading researchers examine how consciousness is being investigated in the key areas of cognitive psychology, neuropsychology and clinical psychology. Within cognitive psychology, special focus is given to the function of consciousness, and to the relation of conscious processing to nonconscious processing in perception, learning, memory and information dissemination. Neuropsychology includes examination of the neural conditions for consciousness (...)
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  42.  7
    Jack Martin & Jeff Sugarman (2009). Does Interpretation in Psychology Differ From Interpretation in Natural Science? Journal for the Theory of Social Behaviour 39 (1):19-37.
    Following an initial discussion of the general nature of interpretation in contemporary psychology, and social and natural science, relevant views of Charles Taylor and Thomas Kuhn are considered in some detail. Although both Taylor and Kuhn agree that interpretation in the social or human sciences differs in some ways from interpretation in the natural sciences, they disagree about the nature and origins of such difference. Our own analysis follows, in which we consider differences in interpretation between the natural and (...)
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  43. Jeff Sugarman (1995). Transcendental Interpretation: An Alternative Approach to Psychological Inquiry. Journal of Theoretical and Philosophical Psychology 15 (1):16-40.
    Presents the transcendental interpretation approach to psychological inquiry based on the use of the Kantian transcendental argument, which relies on the criterion of consistency. Kant's purpose in employing this argument was as a means for justifying particular knowledge claims. Use of this approach is illustrated by examining the intersubjective and moral conditions necessary for the practice of selfhood. It is argued that phenomena of interest to psychological study differ fundamentally from those of natural (...), rendering some of the methods applied in the latter inappropriate to the study of the former. The transcendental argument can provide a direction for psychological research in 2 ways: By helping it to lend intelligibility to its subject matter, and extending ordinary practices by making explicit the goods and norms that motivate them. 2012 APA, all rights reserved). (shrink)
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  44. Stephen G. Post, Lynn G. Underwood, Jeffrey P. Schloss & William B. Hurlbut (2002). Altruism and Altruistic Love: Science, Philosophy, and Religion in Dialogue. Oxford University Press Usa.
    The concept of altruism, or disinterested concern for another's welfare, has been discussed by everyone from theologians to psychologists to biologists. In this book, evolutionary, neurological, developmental, psychological, social, cultural, and religious aspects of altruistic behavior are examined. It is a collaborative examination of one of humanity's essential and defining characteristics by renowned researchers from various disciplines. Their integrative dialogue illustrates that altruistic behavior is a significant mode of expression that can be studied by various scholarly methods and understood (...)
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  45.  68
    Muhammad Ali Khalidi (2005). Against Functional Reductionism in Cognitive Science. International Studies in the Philosophy of Science 19 (3):319 – 333.
    Functional reductionism concerning mental properties has recently been advocated by Jaegwon Kim in order to solve the problem of the 'causal exclusion' of the mental. Adopting a reductionist strategy first proposed by David Lewis, he regards psychological properties as being 'higher-order' properties functionally defined over 'lower-order' properties, which are causally efficacious. Though functional reductionism is compatible with the multiple realizability of psychological properties, it is blocked if psychological properties are subdivided or crosscut by neurophysiological properties. I argue (...)
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  46.  81
    Justin Biddle (2013). State of the Field: Transient Underdetermination and Values in Science. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 44 (1):124-133.
    This paper examines the state of the field of “science and values”—particularly regarding the implications of the thesis of transient underdetermination for the ideal of value-free science, or what I call the “ideal of epistemic purity.” I do this by discussing some of the main arguments in the literature, both for and against the ideal. I examine a preliminary argument from transient underdetermination against the ideal of epistemic purity, and I discuss two different formulations of an objection to (...)
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  47.  98
    Gregor Schiemann (2011). An Epoch-Making Change in the Development of Science? A Critique of the “Epochal-Break-Thesis”. In M. Carrier & A. Nordmann (eds.), Science in the Context of Application. Springer 431--453.
    In recent decades, several authors have claimed that an epoch-making change in the development of science is taking place. A closer examination of this claim shows that these authors take different – and problematic – concepts of an epochal break as their points of departure. In order to facilitate an evaluation of the current development of science, I would like to propose a concept of an epochal change according to which it is not necessarily a discontinuous process that (...)
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  48.  7
    Peter Slezak (2014). Appraising Constructivism in Science Education. In Michael R. Matthews (ed.), International Handbook of Research in History, Philosophy and Science Teaching. Springer 1023-1055.
    Two varieties of constructivism are distinguished. In part 1, the psychological or “radical” constructivism of von Glasersfeld is discussed. Despite its dominant influence in science education, radical constructivism has been controversial, with challenges to its principles and practices. In part 2, social constructivism is discussed in the sociology of scientific knowledge. Social constructivism has not been primarily concerned with education but has the most direct consequences in view of its challenge to the most fundamental, traditional assumptions in the (...)
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  49. Alan Baker (2009). Mathematical Explanation in Science. British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 60 (3):611-633.
    Does mathematics ever play an explanatory role in science? If so then this opens the way for scientific realists to argue for the existence of mathematical entities using inference to the best explanation. Elsewhere I have argued, using a case study involving the prime-numbered life cycles of periodical cicadas, that there are examples of indispensable mathematical explanations of purely physical phenomena. In this paper I respond to objections to this claim that have been made by various philosophers, and I (...)
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  50.  6
    Dingmar van Eck (2015). Mechanistic Explanation in Engineering Science. European Journal for Philosophy of Science 5 (3):349-375.
    In this paper I apply the mechanistic account of explanation to engineering science. I discuss two ways in which this extension offers further development of the mechanistic view. First, functional individuation of mechanisms in engineering science proceeds by means of two distinct sub types of role function, behavior function and effect function, rather than role function simpliciter. Second, it offers refined assessment of the explanatory power of mechanistic explanations. It is argued that in the context of malfunction (...)
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