Search results for 'Exploitation' (try it on Scholar)

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  1. Allen W. Wood (1995). Exploitation. Social Philosophy and Policy 12 (2):136--158.score: 18.0
    It is commonly thought that exploitation is unjust; some think it is part of the very meaning of the word 'exploitation' that it is unjust. Those who think this will suppose that the just society has to be one in which people do not exploit one another, at least on a large scale. I will argue that exploitation is not unjust by definition, and that a society (such as Our own) might be fundamentally just while nevertheless being (...)
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  2. Jonathan Wolff (1999). Marx and Exploitation. Journal of Ethics 3 (2):105--120.score: 18.0
    The discussion of the adequacy of Karl Marx''s definition of exploitation has paid insufficient attention to a prior question: what is a definition? Once we understand Marx as offering a reference-fixing definition in a model we will realise that it is resistant to certain objections. A more general analysis of exploitation is offered here and it is suggested that Marx''s own definition is a particular instance of the general analysis which makes a number of controversial moral assumptions.
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  3. Matt Zwolinski (2012). Structural Exploitation. Social Philosophy and Policy 29 (1):154-179.score: 18.0
    It is commonly claimed that workers in sweatshops are wrongfully exploited by their employers. The economist's standard response to this claim is to point out that sweatshops provide their workers with tremendous benefits, more than most workers elsewhere in the economy receive and more than most of those who complain about sweatshop exploitation provide. Perhaps, though, the wrongfulness of sweatshop exploitation is to be found not in the discrete interaction between a sweatshop and its employees, but in the (...)
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  4. Jeremy C. Snyder (2008). Needs Exploitation. Ethical Theory and Moral Practice 11 (4):389-405.score: 18.0
    Sweatshop labor is often cited as an example of the worst and most pervasive form of exploitation today, yet understanding what is meant by the charge has proven surprisingly difficult for philosophers. I develop an account of what I call “Needs Exploitation,” grounded in a specification of the duty of beneficence. In the case of sweatshop labor, I argue that employers face a duty to extend to employees a wage sufficient to meet their basic needs. This duty is (...)
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  5. Tea Logar (2010). Exploitation as Wrongful Use: Beyond Taking Advantage of Vulnerabilities. [REVIEW] Acta Analytica 25 (3):329-346.score: 18.0
    The notion that exploitation consists in taking wrongful advantage of another’s vulnerability is widespread in the philosophical literature. Considering the popularity of this view, it is disappointing to find that very few authors attempt to provide substantive accounts of characteristics they consider relevant vulnerabilities (i.e., those pertinent to exploitation), as well as of relevant features which make taking advantage of those vulnerabilities wrongful. In this paper, I analyze the few approaches (notably those presented by Ruth Sample and Robert (...)
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  6. Henry Laycock (1999). Exploitation Via Labour Power in Marx. Journal of Ethics 3 (2):121--131.score: 18.0
    Marx''s account of capitalist exploitation is undermined by inter-related confusions surrounding the notion of labour power. These confusions relate to [i] what labour power is, [ii] what happens to labour power in the labour market, and [iii] what the epistemic status of labour power is (the issue of appearance and reality). The central theses of the paper are [a] that property ownership is the wrong model for understanding the exploitation of labour, and [b] that the concept of (...) is linked more fruitfully to a conception of distributive injustice than to Marx''s theory of surplus value. (shrink)
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  7. Daniel Attas (2000). The Case of Guest Workers: Exploitation, Citizenship and Economic Rights. Res Publica 6 (1):73--92.score: 18.0
    Working from a ``capitalist'''' theory of exploitation, based on a neo-classical account of economic value, I argue that guest workers are exploited. It may be objected, however, that since they are not citizens, any inequality that stems from their status as non-citizens is morally unobjectionable. Although host countries are under no moral obligation to admit guest workers as citizens, thereare independent reasons that call for the extension of economicrights – the freedom of occupation in particular – to guestworkers. Since (...)
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  8. Paul McLaughlin (2008). The Ethics of Exploitation. Studia Philosophica Estonica 1 (3):5-16.score: 18.0
    Philosophical inquiry into exploitation has two major deficiencies to date: it assumes that exploitation is wrong by definition; and it pays too much attention to the Marxian account of exploitation. Two senses of exploitation should be distinguished: the 'moral' or pejorative sense and the 'non-moral' or 'non-prejudicial' sense. By demonstrating the conceptual inadequacy of exploitation as defined in the first sense, and by defining exploitation adequately in the latter sense, we seek to demonstrate the (...)
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  9. Angela Ballantyne (2008). 'Fair Benefits' Accounts of Exploitation Require a Normative Principle of Fairness: Response to Gbadegesin and Wendler, and Emanuel Et Al. Bioethics 22 (4):239–244.score: 18.0
    In 2004 Emanuel et al. published an influential account of exploitation in international research, which has become known as the 'fair benefits account'. In this paper I argue that the thin definition of fairness presented by Emanuel et al, and subsequently endorsed by Gbadegesin and Wendler, does not provide a notion of fairness that is adequately robust to support a fair benefits account of exploitation. The authors present a procedural notion of fairness – the fair distribution of the (...)
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  10. Matthew Rendall (2011). Non-Identity, Sufficiency and Exploitation. Journal of Political Philosophy 19 (2):229-247.score: 18.0
    This paper argues that we hold two key duties to future people: to leave them enough in an absolute sense, and to leave them their fair share. Even if we benefit people by bringing them into existence, we can wrongly exploit our position to take more than our share of benefits. As in paradigm cases of exploitation, just because future people might agree to the ‘bargain’, this does not mean that they receive enough.
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  11. Trisha Phillips (2011). Exploitation in Payments to Research Subjects. Bioethics 25 (4):209-219.score: 18.0
    Offering cash payments to research subjects is a common recruiting method but there is significant debate about whether and in what amount such payments are appropriate. This paper is concerned with exploitation and whether there should be a lower limit on the amount researchers can pay their subjects. When subjects participate in research as a way to make money, fairness requires that researchers pay them a fair wage. This call for the establishment of a lower limit meets resistance in (...)
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  12. J. R. Kuntz (2009). A Litmus Test for Exploitation: James Stacey Taylor's Stakes and Kidneys. Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 34 (6):552-572.score: 18.0
    James Stacy Taylor advances a thorough argument for the legalization of markets in current (live) human kidneys. The market is seemly the most abhorrent type of market, a market where the least well-off sell part of their body to the most well off. Though rigorously defended overall, his arguments concerning exploitation are thin. I examine a number of prominent bioethicists’ account of exploitation: most importantly, Ruth Sample’s exploitation as degradation. I do so in the context of Taylor’s (...)
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  13. Jeremy Snyder (2010). Exploitations and Their Complications: The Necessity of Identifying the Multiple Forms of Exploitation in Pharmaceutical Trials. Bioethics 26 (5):251-258.score: 18.0
    Human subject trials of pharmaceuticals in low and middle income countries (LMICs) have been associated with the moral wrong of exploitation on two grounds. First, these trials may include a placebo control arm even when proven treatments for a condition are in use in other (usually wealthier) parts of the world. Second, the trial researchers or sponsors may fail to make a successful treatment developed through the trial available to either the trial participants or the host community following the (...)
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  14. David B. Resnik (2003). Exploitation in Biomedical Research. Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 24 (3):233--259.score: 18.0
    This essay analyzesexploitation in biomedical research in terms ofthree basic elements: harm, disrespect, orinjustice. There are also degrees ofexploitation, ranging from highly exploitationto minimally exploitation. Althoughexploitation is prima facie wrongful,some exploitative research studies are morallyjustified, all things considered. The reasonan exploitative study can still be ethical isthat other moral considerations, such as theautonomy of the research subject or the socialbenefits of research, may sometimes justifystudies that are minimally exploitative. Calling a research project exploitative doesnot end the debate about the (...)
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  15. Hallie Liberto (2014). The Exploitation Solution to the Non-Identity Problem. Philosophical Studies 167 (1):73-88.score: 18.0
    When discussing exploitation, we often say things like this, “sweatshop laborers have terrible working conditions and are paid almost nothing, but they are better off with that labor than with no labor.” Similarly, in describing the Non-Identity Problem, Derek Parfit points out: we cannot say that the individuals born in future generations are worse off because of our destructive environmental policies because the particular people living in those future generations wouldn’t even exist if it were not for these destructive (...)
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  16. Gina L. S. Pines & David G. Meyer (2005). Stopping the Exploitation of Workers: An Analysis of the Effective Application of Consumer or Socio-Political Pressure. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 59 (1-2):155--162.score: 18.0
    Commodity chain analysis (Bair and Ramsay, 2003 Multinational Companies and Global Human Resource Strategies) is used to explore where economic pressure (from consumers) or socio-political pressure (from governments and NGOs) can be applied to reduce worker exploitation. Six paths are illustrated with examples of successful and unsuccessful application of pressure. Three conclusions are reached :Economic pressure on companies and brand owners is more likely to lead to improved workplace conditions than socio-political pressure; Brand owners are more likely to implement (...)
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  17. Hallie Liberto (2014). Exploitation and the Vulnerability Clause. Ethical Theory and Moral Practice 17 (4):619-629.score: 18.0
    What conditions of vulnerability must an individual face in order that we might ever correctly say that she or he has been wrongfully exploited? Mikhail Valdman has recently argued that wrongful exploitation is the extraction of excessive benefits from someone who cannot reasonably refuse one’s offer. So, ‘being unable to reasonably refuse an offer’ is Valdman’s answer to this question. I will argue that this answer is too narrow, but that other competing answers, like Alan Wertheimer’s, are too broad. (...)
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  18. Segun Gbadegesin & David Wendler (2006). Protecting Communities in Health Research From Exploitation. Bioethics 20 (5):248-253.score: 18.0
    Guidelines for health research focus on protecting individual research subjects. It is also vital to protect the communities involved in health research. In particular, a number of studies have been criticized on the grounds that they exploited host communities. The present paper attempts to address these concerns by providing an analysis of community exploitation and, based on this analysis, determining what safeguards are needed to protect communities in health research against exploitation. (edited).
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  19. Bridget Pratt, Khin Maung Lwin, Deborah Zion, Francois Nosten, Bebe Loff & Phaik Yeong Cheah (2013). Exploitation and Community Engagement: Can Community Advisory Boards Successfully Assume a Role Minimising Exploitation in International Research? Developing World Bioethics 14 (1).score: 18.0
    It has been suggested that community advisory boards (CABs) can play a role in minimising exploitation in international research. To get a better idea of what this requires and whether it might be achievable, the paper first describes core elements that we suggest must be in place for a CAB to reduce the potential for exploitation. The paper then examines a CAB established by the Shoklo Malaria Research Unit under conditions common in resource-poor settings – namely, where individuals (...)
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  20. Sheela Saravanan (2013). An Ethnomethodological Approach to Examine Exploitation in the Context of Capacity, Trust and Experience of Commercial Surrogacy in India. Philosophy, Ethics, and Humanities in Medicine 8 (1):10.score: 18.0
    The socio-ethical concerns regarding exploitation in commercial surrogacy are premised on asymmetric vulnerability and the commercialization of women’s reproductive capacity to suit individualistic motives. In examining the exploitation argument, this article reviews the social contract theory that describes an individual as an ‘economic man’ with moral and/or political motivations to satisfy individual desires. This study considers the critique by feminists, who argue that patriarchal and medical control prevails in the surrogacy contracts. It also explores the exploitative dynamics amongst (...)
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  21. Lucinda Vandervort (2012). 'Too Young to Sell Me Sex!?' Mens Rea, Mistake of Fact, Reckless Exploitation, and the Underage Sex Worker. Criminal Law Quarterly 58 (3/4):355-378.score: 18.0
    In 1987, apprehension that “unreasonable mistakes of fact” might negative mens rea in sexual assault cases led the Canadian Parliament to enact “reasonable steps” requirements for mistakes of fact with respect to the age of complainants. The role and operation of the “reasonable steps” provisions in ss. 150.1(4) and (5) and, to a lesser extent, s. 273.2 of the Criminal Code, must be reassessed. Mistakes of fact are now largely addressed at common law by jurisprudence that has re-invigorated judicial awareness (...)
     
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  22. Matt Zwolinski (2007). Sweatshops, Choice, and Exploitation. Business Ethics Quarterly 17 (4):689-727.score: 16.0
    This paper argues that a sweatshop worker's choice to accept the conditions of his or her employment is morally significant, both as an exercise of autonomy and as an expression of preference. This fact establishes a moral claim against interference in the conditions of sweatshop labor by third parties such as governments or consumer boycott groups. It should also lead us to doubt those who call for MNEs to voluntarily improve working conditions, at least when their arguments are based on (...)
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  23. Friedel Bolle (2001). Why to Buy Your Darling Flowers: On Cooperation and Exploitation. Theory and Decision 50 (1):1--28.score: 16.0
    Trusting in someone's cooperation is often connected with the danger of being exploited. So it is important that signals are exchanged which make it probable enough that the potential partner is reliable. Such signals must be too expensive for partners who are planning to abuse the trust they are given but cheap enough for those who wish to initiate a long-term cooperation. In a game theoretical model, it is shown that such signals could consist of presents given before the partnership (...)
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  24. Denis G. Arnold (2003). Exploitation and the Sweatshop Quandary. Business Ethics Quarterly 13 (2):243-256.score: 15.0
  25. Alan Wertheimer & Matt Zwolinski, Exploitation. Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.score: 15.0
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  26. Douglas E. Schlichting (2010). Destabilizing the 'Equipoise' Framework in Clinical Trials: Prioritizing Non-Exploitation as an Ethical Framework in Clinical Research. Nursing Philosophy 11 (4):271-279.score: 15.0
  27. Jeremy Snyder (2010). Exploitation and Sweatshop Labor: Perspectives and Issues. Business Ethics Quarterly 20 (2):187-213.score: 12.0
    In this review, I survey theoretical accounts of exploitation in business, chiefly through the example of low wage or sweatshop labor. This labor is associated with wages that fall below a living wage standard and include long working hours. Labor of this kind is often described as self-evidently exploitative and immoral (Van Natta 1995). But for those who defend sweatshop labor as the first rung on a ladder toward greater economic development, the charge that sweatshop labor is self-evidently exploitative (...)
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  28. Stephen Wilkinson (2003). The Exploitation Argument Against Commercial Surrogacy. Bioethics 17 (2):169–187.score: 12.0
    It is argued that there are good reasons for believing that commercial surrogacy is often exploitative. However, even if we accept this, the exploitation argument for prohibiting (or otherwise legislatively discouraging) commercial surrogacy remains quite weak. One reason for this is that prohibition may well 'backfire' and lead to potential surrogates having to do other things that are more exploitative and/or more harmful than paid surrogacy. It is concluded, therefore, that those who oppose exploitation should concentrate on: (a) (...)
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  29. Mikhail Valdman (2009). A Theory of Wrongful Exploitation. Philosophers' Imprint 9 (6):1-14.score: 12.0
    My primary aims in this paper are to explain what exploitation is, when it’s wrong, and what makes it wrong. I argue that exploitation is not always wrong, but that it can be, and that its wrongness cannot be fully explained with familiar moral constraints such as those against harming people, coercing them, or using them as a means, or with familiar moral obligations such as an obligation to rescue those in distress or not to take advantage of (...)
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  30. Hugh V. McLachlan & J. K. Swales (2001). Exploitation and Commercial Surrogate Motherhood. Human Reproduction and Genetic Ethics 7 (1):8--14.score: 12.0
    Various authors, for instance Elizabeth Anderson, Rosemary Tong, Mary Warnock and Margaret Brazier have argued that commercial surrogate motherhood is exploitative and that it should be prohibited. Their arguments are unconvincing. Exploitation is a more complex notion than it is usually presented as being. Unequal bargaining power can be a cause of exploitation but the exercise of unequal bargaining power is not inevitably or inherently exploitative. Exploitation concerns unfair and/or unjust strategies - rather than the exercise of (...)
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  31. Paul M. Hughes (1998). Exploitation, Autonomy, and the Case for Organ Sales. International Journal of Applied Philosophy 12 (1):89--95.score: 12.0
    A recent argument in favor of a free market in human organs claims that such a market enhances personal autonomy. I argue here that such a market would, on the contrary, actually compromise the autonomy of those most likely to sell their organs, namely, the least well off members of society. A Marxian-inspired notion of exploitation is deployed to show how, and in what sense, this is the case.
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  32. G. A. Cohen (1983). More on Exploitation and the Labour Theory of Value. Inquiry 26 (3):309 – 331.score: 12.0
    In ?The Labour Theory of Value and the Concept of Exploitation? I distinguished between two ways in which the labour theory of value is formulated, both of which are common. In the popular formulation, the amount of value a commodity has depends on how much labour was spent producing it. In the strict formulation, which is so called because it formulates the labour theory of value proper, the amount of value a commodity has depends on nothing about its history (...)
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  33. Rob Lawlor (2011). Organ Sales Needn't Be Exploitative (but It Matters If They Are). Bioethics 25 (5):250-259.score: 12.0
    This paper considers two arguments that are common in the literature on organ sales. First, organ sales are exploitative and therefore should not be permitted. Second, it doesn't matter whether organ sales are exploitative or not; the only thing that matters is that we do what is in the interests of those who need to be protected.In this paper, I argue that both of these arguments are too simplistic. My intention, however, is not to argue for or against organ sales. (...)
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  34. Nancy Holmstrom (1983). Marx and Cohen on Exploitation and the Labor Theory of Value. Inquiry 26 (3):287 – 307.score: 12.0
    Gerald A. Cohen, in ?The Labor Theory of Value and the Concept of Exploitation?, argues that, contrary to the traditional assumption, Marx's charge of exploitation against capitalism does not require the labor theory of value. However, there is a related but simpler basis for the charge. Hence Marx's criticism can stand even if the labor theory of value falls. Furthermore, he argues that the labor theory of value is false. It is argued here that Cohen is mistaken; the (...)
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  35. Gabriel Eweje (2006). Environmental Costs and Responsibilities Resulting From Oil Exploitation in Developing Countries: The Case of the Niger Delta of Nigeria. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 69 (1):27 - 56.score: 12.0
    Interest shown on the environmental impact of operations of multinational enterprises in developing countries has grown significantly recently, and has fuelled a heated public policy debate. In particular, there has been interest in the environmental degradation of host communities and nations resulting from the operations of multinational oil companies in developing countries. This article examines the issue of environmental costs and responsibilities resulting from oil exploitation and production in the Niger Delta region of Nigeria. The case study is based, (...)
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  36. Robert Mayer (2007). What's Wrong with Exploitation? Journal of Applied Philosophy 24 (2):137–150.score: 12.0
    This paper offers a new answer to an old question. Others have argued that exploitation is wrong because it is coercive, or degrading, or fails to protect the vulnerable. But these answers only work for certain cases; counterexamples are easily found. In this paper I identify a different answer to the question by placing exploitation within the larger family of wrongs to which it belongs. Exploitation is one species of wrongful gain, and exploiters always gain at the (...)
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  37. Michael Pendlebury, Peter Hudson & Darrel Moellendorf (2001). Capitalist Exploitation, Self-Ownership, and Equality. Philosophical Forum 32 (3):207–220.score: 12.0
    Traditional Marxists hold that capitalist modes of production are unjustly exploitative. In 'Self-Ownership, Freedom and Equality' G. A. Cohen argues that this ``exploitation charge'' commits traditional Marxists to the thesis that people own themselves (``self-ownership''). If so, then traditional Marxism is vulnerable to a libertarian challenge to its commitment to equality. Cohen, therefore, recommends that Marxists abandon the exploitation charge. This paper undermines Cohen's case for the alleged link between the exploitation charge and self-ownership primarily by defending (...)
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  38. Angela Ballantyne (2008). Benefits to Research Subjects in International Trials: Do They Reduce Exploitation or Increase Undue Inducement? Developing World Bioethics 8 (3):178-191.score: 12.0
    There is an alleged tension between undue inducement and exploitation in research trials. This paper considers claims that increasing the benefits to research subjects enrolled in international, externally-sponsored clinical trials should be avoided on the grounds that it may result in the undue inducement of research subjects. This article contributes to the debate about exploitation versus undue inducement by introducing an analysis of the available empirical research into research participants' motivations and the influence of payments on research subjects' (...)
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  39. Heather Widdows (2009). Border Disputes Across Bodies: Exploitation in Trafficking for Prostitution and Egg Sale for Stem Cell Research. Ijfab 2 (1):5--24.score: 12.0
    In recent decades, debates about exploitation have tended to be subsumed by debates about choice and autonomy. This phenomenon has affected international feminism adversely, creating polarized debates over such issues as prostitution. Equally grave is the more recent tendency, even among some feminists, to assume that a woman's free choice to accept payment for egg ``donation'' in somatic cell nuclear transfer stem cell research absolves researchers of any charge of exploitation or abuse of research subjects. This paper suggests (...)
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  40. Ruth J. Sample (2003). Exploitation: What It Is and Why It's Wrong. Rowman & Littlefield.score: 12.0
    Exploitation locates what it is we recognize as bad when we judge a situation to be exploitative.
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  41. Justin K. Schwartz (1995). In Defence of Exploitation. Economics and Philosophy 11 (2):275--307.score: 12.0
    Roemer's attempt to undermine the normative reasons that Marxists have thought exploitation important (domination, alienation, and inequality) is vitiated by several crucial errors. First, Roemer ignores the dimension of freedom which is Marx's main concern and replaces it with an interest in justice, which Marx rejected. This leads him to misconstrue the nature of exploitation as Marx understands it. Second, his procedure for disconnecting these evils from exploitation, or denying their importance, involves the methodological assumption that (...) must strictly imply these evils. He thus fails to see that exploitation may 'cause' domination, alienation, and inequality; this assumption and the focus on justice also lead him to overlook the sort of alienation that is most important to Marx and the way exploitation, as Marx understands it, does imply coercion. Roemer's alternative conception of exploitation thus fails to capture basic Marxist normative and explanatory concerns. But Roemer's insistence on the importance of justice and the need for an articulated alternative to capitalism are a necessary supplement to a Marxist account. (shrink)
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  42. David Gilboa (2002). Premarital Sex and Exploitation in a Liberal Society. International Journal of Applied Philosophy 16 (1):55--67.score: 12.0
    Unimpressed by the exhortations of previous generations, our modern society accepts premarital sex. Advisably? In an attempt to answer this question, I shall make three related points, drawing on findings from evolutionary psychology and bargaining theory. First, premarital sex is potentially exploitative. Second, to allow premarital sex is not merely to extend a certain freedom, but indirectly to compel women to practice premarital sex, hence, effectively to foster their exploitation. Third, some of the measures taken to combat the sexual (...)
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  43. John Pearson (2011). National Responsibility, Global Justice and Exploitation: A Preliminary Analysis. Journal of Global Ethics 7 (3):321-335.score: 12.0
    This article addresses the problem of filling in a missing component of David Miller's non-cosmopolitan theory of global justice, as elaborated in his recent National responsibility and global justice (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2007). Miller originally included non-exploitation as one of the norms of global justice, but he does not provide a theory of exploitation in his recent book. This article is a preliminary attempt to suggest how Miller might fill in this gap. This article identifies the problems (...)
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  44. David Schweickart, A Democratic Theory of Economic Exploitation Dialectically Developed.score: 12.0
    I T I S S T A R T L I N G T O realize that the concept of economic exploitation, which has been the focus of intense philosophical debate for what seems like decades now, was barely touched on in John Rawls's 1971 masterwork, A Theory o f Justice, the book that ushered in the present era of Anglo - American social and political philosophy. The subject was broached just once by Rawls, and only to be dismissed (...)
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  45. Robert Mayer (2003). Payday Loans and Exploitation. Public Affairs Quarterly 17 (3):197--217.score: 12.0
    This paper uses the example of payday loans to identify two standards of exploitation that better accord with intuitions about taking unfair advantage than neoclassical or neo-Marxian exploitation theory. These two standards are derived from ongoing policy debates about the regulation of payday loans. The sufficiency standard is more restrictive than relative-advantage theory, but the latter indicates when exceptions to the prohibition on exploitation should be made for the sake of the disadvantaged party.
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  46. Horace L. Fairlamb (1996). Adam Smith's Other Hand: A Capitalist Theory of Exploitation. Social Theory and Practice 22 (2):193--223.score: 12.0
    Though Adam Smith believed that the spontaneous forces of the market set prices at the most productive level, he doubted that market forces price wages as fairly as the prices of other commodities. In fact, various observations by Smith suggest that the market tends to undervalue wages almost as naturally as it naturalizes the prices of most commodities under nonmonopolistic conditions. Those observations imply the germ of a capitalist theory of exploitation.
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  47. Arianna Ferrari (2012). Animal Disenhancement for Animal Welfare: The Apparent Philosophical Conundrums and the Real Exploitation of Animals. A Response to Thompson and Palmer. [REVIEW] Nanoethics 6 (1):65-76.score: 12.0
    Abstract In his paper “The Opposite of Human Enhancement: Nanotechnology and the Blind Chicken problem” ( Nanoethics 2: 305-36, 2008) Thompson argued that technological attempts to reduce or eliminate selected non-human animals’ capabilities (animal disenhancements) in order to solve or mitigate animal welfare problems in animals’ use pose a philosophical conundrum, because there is a contradiction between rational arguments in favor of these technological interventions and intuitions against them. In her response “Animal Disenhancement and the Non-Identity Problem: A Response to (...)
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  48. Jeremy Snyder (2010). Multiple Forms of Exploitation in International Research: The Need for Multiple Standards of Fairness. American Journal of Bioethics 10 (6):40-41.score: 12.0
    Ballantyne correctly notes the need for clarification as to the standard of fairness that should guide nonexploitative international research on human subjects. When accounts of exploitation are applied to pharmaceutical development (as well as other areas), there is too often an uncritical acceptance that exploitation involves a form of unfairness. Moreover, these authors typically fail to produce an account of fairness by which exploitation should be identified. Ballantyne should be applauded for her attempt to inject greater clarity (...)
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  49. Patrick Gilkes (2000). Caring at a Distance: (Im)Partiality, Moral Motivation and the Ethics of Representation - Manipulation and Exploitation? Western Media and the Third World. Ethics, Place and Environment 3 (3):317 – 319.score: 12.0
    (2000). Caring at a Distance: (Im)partiality, Moral Motivation and the Ethics of Representation - Manipulation and Exploitation? Western Media and the Third World. Ethics, Place & Environment: Vol. 3, No. 3, pp. 317-319. doi: 10.1080/713665895.
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