Search results for 'Exploitation' (try it on Scholar)

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  1. Allen W. Wood (1995). Exploitation. Social Philosophy and Policy 12 (2):136--158.
    It is commonly thought that exploitation is unjust; some think it is part of the very meaning of the word 'exploitation' that it is unjust. Those who think this will suppose that the just society has to be one in which people do not exploit one another, at least on a large scale. I will argue that exploitation is not unjust by definition, and that a society (such as Our own) might be fundamentally just while nevertheless being (...)
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  2.  15
    Segun Gbadegesin & David Wendler (2006). Protecting Communities in Health Research From Exploitation. Bioethics 20 (5):248-253.
    Guidelines for health research focus on protecting individual research subjects. It is also vital to protect the communities involved in health research. In particular, a number of studies have been criticized on the grounds that they exploited host communities. The present paper attempts to address these concerns by providing an analysis of community exploitation and, based on this analysis, determining what safeguards are needed to protect communities in health research against exploitation. (edited).
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  3.  56
    Angela Ballantyne (2008). 'Fair Benefits' Accounts of Exploitation Require a Normative Principle of Fairness: Response to Gbadegesin and Wendler, and Emanuel Et Al. Bioethics 22 (4):239–244.
    In 2004 Emanuel et al. published an influential account of exploitation in international research, which has become known as the 'fair benefits account'. In this paper I argue that the thin definition of fairness presented by Emanuel et al, and subsequently endorsed by Gbadegesin and Wendler, does not provide a notion of fairness that is adequately robust to support a fair benefits account of exploitation. The authors present a procedural notion of fairness – the fair distribution of the (...)
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  4. Hallie Liberto (2014). The Exploitation Solution to the Non-Identity Problem. Philosophical Studies 167 (1):73-88.
    When discussing exploitation, we often say things like this, “sweatshop laborers have terrible working conditions and are paid almost nothing, but they are better off with that labor than with no labor.” Similarly, in describing the Non-Identity Problem, Derek Parfit points out: we cannot say that the individuals born in future generations are worse off because of our destructive environmental policies because the particular people living in those future generations wouldn’t even exist if it were not for these destructive (...)
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  5. Matt Zwolinski (2012). Structural Exploitation. Social Philosophy and Policy 29 (1):154-179.
    It is commonly claimed that workers in sweatshops are wrongfully exploited by their employers. The economist's standard response to this claim is to point out that sweatshops provide their workers with tremendous benefits, more than most workers elsewhere in the economy receive and more than most of those who complain about sweatshop exploitation provide. Perhaps, though, the wrongfulness of sweatshop exploitation is to be found not in the discrete interaction between a sweatshop and its employees, but in the (...)
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  6. Matthew Rendall (2011). Non-Identity, Sufficiency and Exploitation. Journal of Political Philosophy 19 (2):229-247.
    This paper argues that we hold two key duties to future people: to leave them enough in an absolute sense, and to leave them their fair share. Even if we benefit people by bringing them into existence, we can wrongly exploit our position to take more than our share of benefits. As in paradigm cases of exploitation, just because future people might agree to the ‘bargain’, this does not mean that they receive enough.
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  7.  27
    Sheela Saravanan (2013). An Ethnomethodological Approach to Examine Exploitation in the Context of Capacity, Trust and Experience of Commercial Surrogacy in India. Philosophy, Ethics, and Humanities in Medicine 8 (1):10.
    The socio-ethical concerns regarding exploitation in commercial surrogacy are premised on asymmetric vulnerability and the commercialization of women’s reproductive capacity to suit individualistic motives. In examining the exploitation argument, this article reviews the social contract theory that describes an individual as an ‘economic man’ with moral and/or political motivations to satisfy individual desires. This study considers the critique by feminists, who argue that patriarchal and medical control prevails in the surrogacy contracts. It also explores the exploitative dynamics amongst (...)
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  8.  33
    Trisha Phillips (2011). Exploitation in Payments to Research Subjects. Bioethics 25 (4):209-219.
    Offering cash payments to research subjects is a common recruiting method but there is significant debate about whether and in what amount such payments are appropriate. This paper is concerned with exploitation and whether there should be a lower limit on the amount researchers can pay their subjects. When subjects participate in research as a way to make money, fairness requires that researchers pay them a fair wage. This call for the establishment of a lower limit meets resistance in (...)
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  9. Jeremy C. Snyder (2008). Needs Exploitation. Ethical Theory and Moral Practice 11 (4):389-405.
    Sweatshop labor is often cited as an example of the worst and most pervasive form of exploitation today, yet understanding what is meant by the charge has proven surprisingly difficult for philosophers. I develop an account of what I call “Needs Exploitation,” grounded in a specification of the duty of beneficence. In the case of sweatshop labor, I argue that employers face a duty to extend to employees a wage sufficient to meet their basic needs. This duty is (...)
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  10.  33
    David B. Resnik (2003). Exploitation in Biomedical Research. Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 24 (3):233--259.
    This essay analyzesexploitation in biomedical research in terms ofthree basic elements: harm, disrespect, orinjustice. There are also degrees ofexploitation, ranging from highly exploitationto minimally exploitation. Althoughexploitation is prima facie wrongful,some exploitative research studies are morallyjustified, all things considered. The reasonan exploitative study can still be ethical isthat other moral considerations, such as theautonomy of the research subject or the socialbenefits of research, may sometimes justifystudies that are minimally exploitative. Calling a research project exploitative doesnot end the debate about the (...)
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  11.  35
    Danielle M. Wenner (2016). Against Permitted Exploitation in Developing World Research Agreements. Developing World Bioethics 16 (1):36-44.
    This paper examines the moral force of exploitation in developing world research agreements. Taking for granted that some clinical research which is conducted in the developing world but funded by developed world sponsors is exploitative, it asks whether a third party would be morally justified in enforcing limits on research agreements in order to ensure more fair and less exploitative outcomes. This question is particularly relevant when such exploitative transactions are entered into voluntarily by all relevant parties, and both (...)
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  12. Jonathan Wolff (1999). Marx and Exploitation. Journal of Ethics 3 (2):105--120.
    The discussion of the adequacy of Karl Marx''s definition of exploitation has paid insufficient attention to a prior question: what is a definition? Once we understand Marx as offering a reference-fixing definition in a model we will realise that it is resistant to certain objections. A more general analysis of exploitation is offered here and it is suggested that Marx''s own definition is a particular instance of the general analysis which makes a number of controversial moral assumptions.
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  13.  85
    Alan Wertheimer & Matt Zwolinski, Exploitation. Mind.
    What is the basis for arguing that a volunteer army exploits citizens who lack civilian career opportunities? How do we determine that a doctor who has sex with his patients is exploiting them? In this book, Alan Wertheimer seeks to identify when a transaction or relationship can be properly regarded as exploitative--and not oppressive, manipulative, or morally deficient in some other way--and explores the moral weight of taking unfair advantage. Among the first political philosophers to examine this important topic from (...)
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  14.  80
    Daniel Attas (2000). The Case of Guest Workers: Exploitation, Citizenship and Economic Rights. Res Publica 6 (1):73--92.
    Working from a ``capitalist'''' theory of exploitation, based on a neo-classical account of economic value, I argue that guest workers are exploited. It may be objected, however, that since they are not citizens, any inequality that stems from their status as non-citizens is morally unobjectionable. Although host countries are under no moral obligation to admit guest workers as citizens, thereare independent reasons that call for the extension of economicrights – the freedom of occupation in particular – to guestworkers. Since (...)
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  15.  30
    Jeremy Snyder (2012). Exploitations and Their Complications: The Necessity of Identifying the Multiple Forms of Exploitation in Pharmaceutical Trials. Bioethics 26 (5):251-258.
    Human subject trials of pharmaceuticals in low and middle income countries have been associated with the moral wrong of exploitation on two grounds. First, these trials may include a placebo control arm even when proven treatments for a condition are in use in other parts of the world. Second, the trial researchers or sponsors may fail to make a successful treatment developed through the trial available to either the trial participants or the host community following the trial.Many commentators have (...)
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  16.  3
    Luis Portales & Castañeda (2016). Incohérences et limites de l’acceptabilité sociale : le cas de l’exploitation minière mexicaine. Éthique Publique 18 (1).
    L’acceptabilité sociale fait référence aux échelons d’acceptation sociale accordée par les communautés et les autres parties prenantes à une entreprise, un projet ou une activité. La SLO est importante pour maintenir le développement économique local ; par conséquent, les entreprises doivent favoriser le développement communautaire et maintenir de bonnes relations avec les communautés pour atteindre leurs objectifs. Certaines études montrent comment des communautés ont obligé des entreprises à arrêter leurs opérations en raison de leurs impacts négatifs, mais dans des pays (...)
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  17.  51
    Hallie Liberto (2014). Exploitation and the Vulnerability Clause. Ethical Theory and Moral Practice 17 (4):619-629.
    What conditions of vulnerability must an individual face in order that we might ever correctly say that she or he has been wrongfully exploited? Mikhail Valdman has recently argued that wrongful exploitation is the extraction of excessive benefits from someone who cannot reasonably refuse one’s offer. So, ‘being unable to reasonably refuse an offer’ is Valdman’s answer to this question. I will argue that this answer is too narrow, but that other competing answers, like Alan Wertheimer’s, are too broad. (...)
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  18.  26
    Gina L. S. Pines & David G. Meyer (2005). Stopping the Exploitation of Workers: An Analysis of the Effective Application of Consumer or Socio-Political Pressure. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 59 (1-2):155--162.
    Commodity chain analysis (Bair and Ramsay, 2003 Multinational Companies and Global Human Resource Strategies) is used to explore where economic pressure (from consumers) or socio-political pressure (from governments and NGOs) can be applied to reduce worker exploitation. Six paths are illustrated with examples of successful and unsuccessful application of pressure. Three conclusions are reached :Economic pressure on companies and brand owners is more likely to lead to improved workplace conditions than socio-political pressure; Brand owners are more likely to implement (...)
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  19. Tea Logar (2010). Exploitation as Wrongful Use: Beyond Taking Advantage of Vulnerabilities. [REVIEW] Acta Analytica 25 (3):329-346.
    The notion that exploitation consists in taking wrongful advantage of another’s vulnerability is widespread in the philosophical literature. Considering the popularity of this view, it is disappointing to find that very few authors attempt to provide substantive accounts of characteristics they consider relevant vulnerabilities (i.e., those pertinent to exploitation), as well as of relevant features which make taking advantage of those vulnerabilities wrongful. In this paper, I analyze the few approaches (notably those presented by Ruth Sample and Robert (...)
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  20.  35
    J. R. Kuntz (2009). A Litmus Test for Exploitation: James Stacey Taylor's Stakes and Kidneys. Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 34 (6):552-572.
    James Stacy Taylor advances a thorough argument for the legalization of markets in current (live) human kidneys. The market is seemly the most abhorrent type of market, a market where the least well-off sell part of their body to the most well off. Though rigorously defended overall, his arguments concerning exploitation are thin. I examine a number of prominent bioethicists’ account of exploitation: most importantly, Ruth Sample’s exploitation as degradation. I do so in the context of Taylor’s (...)
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  21.  3
    Merten Reglitz (2016). Medical Brain Drain: Free-Riding, Exploitation, and Global Justice. Moral Philosophy and Politics 3 (1): 67-81.
    In her debate with Michael Blake, Gillian Brock sets out to justify emigration restrictions on medical workers from poor states on the basis of their free-riding on the public investment that their states have made in them in form of a publicly funded education. For this purpose, Brock aims to isolate the question of emigration restrictions from the larger question of responsibilities for remedying global inequalities. I argue that this approach is misguided because it is blind to decisive factors at (...)
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  22.  85
    Henry Laycock (1999). Exploitation Via Labour Power in Marx. Journal of Ethics 3 (2):121--131.
    Marx''s account of capitalist exploitation is undermined by inter-related confusions surrounding the notion of labour power. These confusions relate to [i] what labour power is, [ii] what happens to labour power in the labour market, and [iii] what the epistemic status of labour power is (the issue of appearance and reality). The central theses of the paper are [a] that property ownership is the wrong model for understanding the exploitation of labour, and [b] that the concept of (...) is linked more fruitfully to a conception of distributive injustice than to Marx''s theory of surplus value. (shrink)
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  23.  73
    Paul McLaughlin (2008). The Ethics of Exploitation. Studia Philosophica Estonica 1 (3):5-16.
    Philosophical inquiry into exploitation has two major deficiencies to date: it assumes that exploitation is wrong by definition; and it pays too much attention to the Marxian account of exploitation. Two senses of exploitation should be distinguished: the 'moral' or pejorative sense and the 'non-moral' or 'non-prejudicial' sense. By demonstrating the conceptual inadequacy of exploitation as defined in the first sense, and by defining exploitation adequately in the latter sense, we seek to demonstrate the (...)
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  24.  24
    Bridget Pratt, Khin Maung Lwin, Deborah Zion, Francois Nosten, Bebe Loff & Phaik Yeong Cheah (2015). Exploitation and Community Engagement: Can Community Advisory Boards Successfully Assume a Role Minimising Exploitation in International Research? Developing World Bioethics 15 (1):18-26.
    It has been suggested that community advisory boards can play a role in minimising exploitation in international research. To get a better idea of what this requires and whether it might be achievable, the paper first describes core elements that we suggest must be in place for a CAB to reduce the potential for exploitation. The paper then examines a CAB established by the Shoklo Malaria Research Unit under conditions common in resource-poor settings – namely, where individuals join (...)
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  25. Lucinda Vandervort (2012). 'Too Young to Sell Me Sex!?' Mens Rea, Mistake of Fact, Reckless Exploitation, and the Underage Sex Worker. Criminal Law Quarterly 58 (3/4):355-378.
    In 1987, apprehension that “unreasonable mistakes of fact” might negative mens rea in sexual assault cases led the Canadian Parliament to enact “reasonable steps” requirements for mistakes of fact with respect to the age of complainants. The role and operation of the “reasonable steps” provisions in ss. 150.1(4) and (5) and, to a lesser extent, s. 273.2 of the Criminal Code, must be reassessed. Mistakes of fact are now largely addressed at common law by jurisprudence that has re-invigorated judicial awareness (...)
     
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  26. Matt Zwolinski (2007). Sweatshops, Choice, and Exploitation. Business Ethics Quarterly 17 (4):689-727.
    This paper argues that a sweatshop worker's choice to accept the conditions of his or her employment is morally significant, both as an exercise of autonomy and as an expression of preference. This fact establishes a moral claim against interference in the conditions of sweatshop labor by third parties such as governments or consumer boycott groups. It should also lead us to doubt those who call for MNEs to voluntarily improve working conditions, at least when their arguments are based on (...)
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  27.  88
    Denis G. Arnold (2003). Exploitation and the Sweatshop Quandary. Business Ethics Quarterly 13 (2):243-256.
  28.  7
    Patti T. Lenard & Christine Straehle (2010). Temporary Labour Migration: Exploitation, Tool of Development, or Both? Journal of International Political Theory 29 (4):283-294.
  29.  42
    Friedel Bolle (2001). Why to Buy Your Darling Flowers: On Cooperation and Exploitation. Theory and Decision 50 (1):1--28.
    Trusting in someone's cooperation is often connected with the danger of being exploited. So it is important that signals are exchanged which make it probable enough that the potential partner is reliable. Such signals must be too expensive for partners who are planning to abuse the trust they are given but cheap enough for those who wish to initiate a long-term cooperation. In a game theoretical model, it is shown that such signals could consist of presents given before the partnership (...)
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  30.  10
    Douglas E. Schlichting (2010). Destabilizing the 'Equipoise' Framework in Clinical Trials: Prioritizing Non-Exploitation as an Ethical Framework in Clinical Research. Nursing Philosophy 11 (4):271-279.
  31. Jeremy Snyder (2010). Exploitation and Sweatshop Labor: Perspectives and Issues. Business Ethics Quarterly 20 (2):187-213.
    In this review, I survey theoretical accounts of exploitation in business, chiefly through the example of low wage or sweatshop labor. This labor is associated with wages that fall below a living wage standard and include long working hours. Labor of this kind is often described as self-evidently exploitative and immoral (Van Natta 1995). But for those who defend sweatshop labor as the first rung on a ladder toward greater economic development, the charge that sweatshop labor is self-evidently exploitative (...)
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  32.  37
    Jennifer S. Hawkins & Ezekiel J. Emanuel (2008). Exploitation and Developing Countries: The Ethics of Clinical Research. Princeton Univ Pr.
    "--Daniel Wikler, Harvard School of Public Health "This book contributes significantly to the literature on exploitation in clinical research conducted in the developing world."--Patricia Marshall, Case Western Reserve University.
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  33.  56
    Ruth J. Sample (2003). Exploitation: What It Is and Why It's Wrong. Rowman & Littlefield.
    Exploitation locates what it is we recognize as bad when we judge a situation to be exploitative.
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  34.  86
    Robert Mayer (2007). What's Wrong with Exploitation? Journal of Applied Philosophy 24 (2):137–150.
    This paper offers a new answer to an old question. Others have argued that exploitation is wrong because it is coercive, or degrading, or fails to protect the vulnerable. But these answers only work for certain cases; counterexamples are easily found. In this paper I identify a different answer to the question by placing exploitation within the larger family of wrongs to which it belongs. Exploitation is one species of wrongful gain, and exploiters always gain at the (...)
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  35.  47
    Erik Persson (2014). What Does It Take to Establish That a World is Uninhabited Prior to Exploitation? – A Question of Ethics as Well as Science. Challenges 5:224-238.
    If we find life on another world, it will be an extremely important discovery and we will have to take great care not to do anything that might endanger that life. If the life we find is sentient we will have moral obligations to that life. Whether it is sentient or not, we have a duty to ourselves to preserve it as a study object, and also because it would be commonly seen as valuable in its own right. In addition (...)
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  36. Mikhail Valdman (2009). A Theory of Wrongful Exploitation. Philosophers' Imprint 9 (6):1-14.
    My primary aims in this paper are to explain what exploitation is, when it’s wrong, and what makes it wrong. I argue that exploitation is not always wrong, but that it can be, and that its wrongness cannot be fully explained with familiar moral constraints such as those against harming people, coercing them, or using them as a means, or with familiar moral obligations such as an obligation to rescue those in distress or not to take advantage of (...)
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  37. Stephen Wilkinson (2003). The Exploitation Argument Against Commercial Surrogacy. Bioethics 17 (2):169–187.
    It is argued that there are good reasons for believing that commercial surrogacy is often exploitative. However, even if we accept this, the exploitation argument for prohibiting (or otherwise legislatively discouraging) commercial surrogacy remains quite weak. One reason for this is that prohibition may well 'backfire' and lead to potential surrogates having to do other things that are more exploitative and/or more harmful than paid surrogacy. It is concluded, therefore, that those who oppose exploitation should concentrate on: (a) (...)
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  38.  54
    Angela Ballantyne (2008). Benefits to Research Subjects in International Trials: Do They Reduce Exploitation or Increase Undue Inducement? Developing World Bioethics 8 (3):178-191.
    There is an alleged tension between undue inducement and exploitation in research trials. This paper considers claims that increasing the benefits to research subjects enrolled in international, externally-sponsored clinical trials should be avoided on the grounds that it may result in the undue inducement of research subjects. This article contributes to the debate about exploitation versus undue inducement by introducing an analysis of the available empirical research into research participants' motivations and the influence of payments on research subjects' (...)
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  39.  47
    Heather Widdows (2009). Border Disputes Across Bodies: Exploitation in Trafficking for Prostitution and Egg Sale for Stem Cell Research. Ijfab 2 (1):5--24.
    In recent decades, debates about exploitation have tended to be subsumed by debates about choice and autonomy. This phenomenon has affected international feminism adversely, creating polarized debates over such issues as prostitution. Equally grave is the more recent tendency, even among some feminists, to assume that a woman's free choice to accept payment for egg ``donation'' in somatic cell nuclear transfer stem cell research absolves researchers of any charge of exploitation or abuse of research subjects. This paper suggests (...)
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  40.  19
    J. Angelo Corlett (2013). Economic Exploitation in Intercollegiate Athletics. Sport, Ethics and Philosophy 7 (3):295 - 312.
    This paper investigates philosophically the question of whether or not college and university athletes in the USA are doing something morally wrong should they terminate their college or university experience prior to graduation and enter the professional athletic ranks. Various moral arguments are brought to bear in order to attempt to shed light on this issue. One reason why such athletes ?turn professional? before they graduate is the perceived economic exploitation they experience as essentially underpaid workers earning much revenue (...)
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  41.  10
    Angela Ballantyne (2014). Exploitation in Cross-Border Reproductive Care. International Journal of Feminist Approaches to Bioethics 7 (2):75-99.
    This paper will focus on a subcategory of cross-border reproductive care—commercial contracts for the sale of reproductive goods and services. In these cases, the women are paid a fee for their reproductive goods and services . Such contracts have generated widespread concern about exploitation. Yet the term exploitation is used variably in the literature and conflated with concerns about harm, commodification, lack of autonomy of sellers, unjust conditions of poverty, and invalid consent. It is also often assumed that (...)
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  42.  4
    Neila Zerguini (2016). Cartographie de la controverse d’exploration et d’exploitation du gaz de schiste en Algérie. Éthique Publique 18 (1).
    En Algérie, la nouvelle loi sur les hydrocarbures autorise l’exploitation des hydrocarbures non conventionnels, incluant le gaz de schiste, dont les réserves ont récemment été réévaluées à la hausse. Ces rebondissements ont suscité autant l’intérêt que l’inquiétude de l’opinion publique. Très sommairement, le débat est perçu comme opposant les « pour » l’exploitation qui mettent en avant des gains économiques aux « contre », écologistes s’opposant à la fracturation hydraulique. Cette dualité ne rend pas justice à la complexité (...)
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  43.  67
    Gabriel Eweje (2006). Environmental Costs and Responsibilities Resulting From Oil Exploitation in Developing Countries: The Case of the Niger Delta of Nigeria. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 69 (1):27 - 56.
    Interest shown on the environmental impact of operations of multinational enterprises in developing countries has grown significantly recently, and has fuelled a heated public policy debate. In particular, there has been interest in the environmental degradation of host communities and nations resulting from the operations of multinational oil companies in developing countries. This article examines the issue of environmental costs and responsibilities resulting from oil exploitation and production in the Niger Delta region of Nigeria. The case study is based, (...)
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  44.  17
    Benjamin Ferguson (forthcoming). The Paradox of Exploitation. Erkenntnis:1-22.
    The concept of exploitation brings many of our ordinary moral intuitions into conflict. Exploitation—or to use the commonly accepted ordinary language definition, taking unfair advantage—is often thought to be morally impermissible. In order to be permissible, transactions must not be unfair. The claim that engaging in mutually beneficial transactions is morally better than not transacting is also quite compelling. However, when combined with the claim that morally permissible transactions are better than impermissible transactions, these three imply the counterintuitive (...)
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  45. Paul M. Hughes (1998). Exploitation, Autonomy, and the Case for Organ Sales. International Journal of Applied Philosophy 12 (1):89--95.
    A recent argument in favor of a free market in human organs claims that such a market enhances personal autonomy. I argue here that such a market would, on the contrary, actually compromise the autonomy of those most likely to sell their organs, namely, the least well off members of society. A Marxian-inspired notion of exploitation is deployed to show how, and in what sense, this is the case.
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  46.  14
    Louise Anna Helena Ramskold & Marcus Paul Posner (2013). Commercial Surrogacy: How Provisions of Monetary Remuneration and Powers of International Law Can Prevent Exploitation of Gestational Surrogates. Journal of Medical Ethics 39 (6):397-402.
    Increasing globalisation and advances in artificial reproductive techniques have opened up a whole new range of possibilities for infertile couples across the globe. Inter-country gestational surrogacy with monetary remuneration is one of the products of medical tourism meeting in vitro fertilisation embryo transfer. Filled with potential, it has also been a hot topic of discussion in legal and bioethics spheres. Fears of exploitation and breach of autonomy have sprung from the current situation, where there is no international regulation of (...)
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  47.  19
    Gerhard Øverland (2013). Pogge on Poverty: Contribution or Exploitation? Journal of Applied Philosophy 30 (4):319-333.
    Thomas Pogge argues that affluent people in the developing world have contribution-based duties to help protect the poor. And it follows from Pogge's most general thesis that affluent people are contributing to most, if not all, instances of global poverty. In this article I explore two problems with Pogge's general thesis. First, I investigate a typical way in which affluent people would be contributing to global poverty according to Pogge: that affluent countries use their superior bargaining power to get poor (...)
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  48.  2
    Elizabeth Scarbrough (2016). Visiting the Ruins of Detroit: Exploitation or Cultural Tourism? Journal of Applied Philosophy 33 (3):n/a-n/a.
    Are Detroit ruin tours a form of morally permissible cultural tourism, or do these tours amount to a form of exploitation? To answer this question I compare Detroit ruin tours with ‘slum tours’ – guided tours of slums in the world's major cities. I argue that exploitation of the sort we find in slum tourism also exists, to a lesser extent, in Detroit ruin tours. To show this I detail two different accounts of exploitation and argue that (...)
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  49.  17
    Vida Panitch (2013). Exploitation, Justice, and Parity in International Clinical Research. Journal of Applied Philosophy 30 (4):304-318.
    Consensus is lacking among research ethicists on the question of how broadly to understand the requirements of non-exploitation in international clinical research. Two types of principles have been proposed, minimalist and non-minimalist, grounded in two opposing conceptions of exploitation, transactional and systemic. Transactionalists have offered principles, which, it has been argued, are satisfied by minimal gains to vulnerable subjects measured against an unjust status quo. Systemicists have advanced principles with decidedly non-minimal mandates but only by conflating the obligations (...)
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    Robert Mayer (2005). Guestworkers and Exploitation. Review of Politics 67 (2):311--334.
    Are guest-worker programs exploitative? Egalitarian and neoclassical theories of exploitation agree that they always are. But these judgments are too indiscriminate. Privileged guests are the exception, and the exception points toward a more sensitive standard for identifying exploitation. This more sensitive standard, the sufficiency theory of exploitation, is used to analyze several guest-worker programs. Even when guest-worker programs are exploitative, it is argued that the unfairness should be tolerated if the exploitation is modest, not severe, and (...)
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