Search results for 'Extension' (try it on Scholar)

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  1. Victor Loughlin (2013). Sketch This: Extended Mind and Consciousness Extension. [REVIEW] Phenomenology and the Cognitive Sciences 12 (1):41-50.score: 24.0
    This paper will defend the claim that, under certain circumstances, the material vehicles responsible for an agent’s conscious experience can be partly constituted by processes outside the agent’s body. In other words, the consciousness of the agent can extend. This claim will be supported by the Extended Mind Thesis (EMT) example of the artist and their sketchpad (Clark 2001, 2003). It will be argued that if this example is one of EMT, then this example also supports an argument for consciousness (...)
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  2. Seth Miller (2011). A Review of “Supersizing the Mind: Embodiment, Action, and Cognitive Extension”. [REVIEW] World Futures 66 (7):525-529.score: 24.0
    This essay critically reviews Andy Clark’s new book Supersizing the Mind: Embodiment, Action, and Cognitive Extension, in which he argues that there are circumstances in which the mind, properly considered, is found to supervene on not only the brain, but the body and the external environment as well. This review summarizes Clark’s major contributions to this viewpoint for the general reader, then raises a few critical points that help to contextualize Clark’s claims, aims, and methods, while highlighting the book’s (...)
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  3. Robert Trueman (2011). Propositional Functions in Extension. Theoria 77 (4):292-311.score: 24.0
    In his “The Foundations of Mathematics”, Ramsey attempted to marry the Tractarian idea that all logical truths are tautologies and vice versa, and the logicism of the Principia. In order to complete his project, Ramsey was forced to introduce propositional functions in extension (PFEs): given Ramsey's definitions of 1 and 2, without PFEs even the quantifier-free arithmetical truth that 1 ≠ 2 is not a tautology. However, a number of commentators have argued that the notion of PFEs is incoherent. (...)
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  4. Leigh Turner (2004). Life Extension Research: Health, Illness, and Death. Health Care Analysis 12 (2):117-129.score: 24.0
    Scientists, bioethicists, and policy makers are currently engaged in a contentious debate about the scientific prospects and morality of efforts to increase human longevity. Some demographers and geneticists suggest that there is little reason to think that it will be possible to significantly extend the human lifespan. Other biodemographers and geneticists argue that there might well be increases in both life expectancy and lifespan. Bioethicists and policy makers are currently addressing many of the ethical, social, and economic issues raised by (...)
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  5. Guy Claessens (2012). Francesco Piccolomini on Prime Matter and Extension. Vivarium 50 (2):225-244.score: 24.0
    This paper examines the view held by Francesco Piccolomini (1523-1607) on the relation between prime matter and extension. In his discussion of prime matter in the Libri ad scientiam de natura attinentes Piccolomini develops a theory of prime matter that incorporates crucial elements of the viewpoint adhered to by the Neoplatonist Simplicius. The originality of Piccolomini’s undertaking is highlighted by contrasting it with the ideas found in Jacopo Zabarella’s De rebus naturalibus . The case of Piccolomini shows that, in (...)
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  6. Ann-Sophie Barwich (2013). A Pluralist Approach to Extension: The Role of Materiality in Scientific Practice for the Reference of Natural Kind Terms. Biological Theory 7 (2):100-108.score: 24.0
    This article argues for a different outlook on the concept of extension, especially for the reference of general terms in scientific practice. Scientific realist interpretations of the two predominant theories of meaning, namely Descriptivism and Causal Theory, contend that a stable cluster of descriptions or an initial baptism fixes the extension of a general term such as a natural kind term. This view in which the meaning of general terms is presented as monosemantic and the referents as stable, (...)
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  7. Aveek Bhattacharya & Robert Mark Simpson (2014). Life in Overabundance: Agar on Life-Extension and the Fear of Death. [REVIEW] Ethical Theory and Moral Practice 17 (2):223-236.score: 24.0
    In Humanity’s End: Why We Should Reject Radical Enhancement, Nicholas Agar presents a novel argument against the prospect of radical life-extension. Agar’s argument hinges on the claim that extended lifespans will result in people’s lives being dominated by the fear of death. Here we examine this claim and the surrounding issues in Agar’s discussion. We argue, firstly, that Agar’s view rests on empirically dubious assumptions about human rationality and attitudes to risk, and secondly, that even if those assumptions are (...)
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  8. Massimo Pauri (2011). Epistemic Primacy Vs. Ontological Elusiveness of Spatial Extension: Is There an Evolutionary Role for the Quantum? Foundations of Physics 41 (11):1677-1702.score: 24.0
    A critical re-examination of the history of the concepts of space (including spacetime of general relativity and relativistic quantum field theory) reveals a basic ontological elusiveness of spatial extension, while, at the same time, highlighting the fact that its epistemic primacy seems to be unavoidably imposed on us (as stated by A.Einstein “giving up the extensional continuum … is like to breathe in airless space”). On the other hand, Planck’s discovery of the atomization of action leads to the fundamental (...)
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  9. Claudio Calosi & Vincenzo Fano (forthcoming). Divisibility and Extension: A Note on Zeno's Argument Against Plurality and Modern Mereology. Acta Analytica:1-16.score: 24.0
    In this paper, we address an infamous argument against divisibility that dates back to Zeno. There has been an incredible amount of discussion on how to understand the critical notions of divisibility, extension, and infinite divisibility that are crucial for the very formulation of the argument. The paper provides new and rigorous definitions of those notions using the formal theories of parthood and location. Also, it provides a new solution to the paradox of divisibility which does not face some (...)
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  10. Evelyne Kiptot & Steven Franzel (2013). Voluntarism as an Investment in Human, Social and Financial Capital: Evidence From a Farmer-to-Farmer Extension Program in Kenya. [REVIEW] Agriculture and Human Values 31 (2):1-13.score: 24.0
    A decline in public sector extension services in developing countries has led to an increasing emphasis on alternative extension approaches that are participatory, demand-driven, client-oriented, and farmer centered. One such approach is the volunteer farmer-trainer (VFT) approach, a form of farmer-to-farmer extension where VFTs host demonstration plots and share information on improved agricultural practices within their community. VFTs are trained by extension staff and they in turn train other farmers. A study was conducted to understand the (...)
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  11. E. K. Maranga (1998). A Review of Range Production and Management Extension Activities in Kenya. [REVIEW] Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 11 (2):131-144.score: 24.0
    The paper presents an overview of the development of range management extension activities in Kenya. The status quo of range management activities is discussed with particular reference to extension infrastructure, scope of extension interventions and mechanisms of dissemination of these innovations. On the basis of the nature of available innovations and efficiency of dissemination mechanisms, the paper emphasizes the need for future institutional reforms to facilitate successful application of technological interventions, validation of the Kenyan innovation Diffusion Model (...)
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  12. Jennifer Marshall (2006). Life Extension Research: An Analysis of Contemporary Biological Theories and Ethical Issues. [REVIEW] Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 9 (1):87-96.score: 24.0
    Many opinions and ideas about aging exist. Biological theories have taken hold of the popular and scientific imagination as potential answers to a “cure” for aging. However, it is not clear what exactly is being cured or whether aging could be classified as a disease. Some scientists are convinced that aging will be biologically alterable and that the human lifespan will be vastly extendable. Other investigators believe that aging is an elusive target that may only be “statistically” manipulatable through a (...)
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  13. Alberto Marcone & Richard A. Shore (2011). The Maximal Linear Extension Theorem in Second Order Arithmetic. Archive for Mathematical Logic 50 (5-6):543-564.score: 24.0
    We show that the maximal linear extension theorem for well partial orders is equivalent over RCA 0 to ATR 0. Analogously, the maximal chain theorem for well partial orders is equivalent to ATR 0 over RCA 0.
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  14. E. Algaba, J. M. Bilbao, J. R. Fernández & A. Jiménez (2004). The Lovász Extension of Market Games. Theory and Decision 56 (1-2):229-238.score: 24.0
    The multilinear extension of a cooperative game was introduced by Owen in 1972. In this contribution we study the Lovász extension for cooperative games by using the marginal worth vectors and the dividends. First, we prove a formula for the marginal worth vectors with respect to compatible orderings. Next, we consider the direct market generated by a game. This model of utility function, proposed by Shapley and Shubik in 1969, is the concave biconjugate extension of the game. (...)
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  15. Rupert Friederichsen, Thai Thi Minh, Andreas Neef & Volker Hoffmann (2013). Adapting the Innovation Systems Approach to Agricultural Development in Vietnam: Challenges to the Public Extension Service. [REVIEW] Agriculture and Human Values 30 (4):555-568.score: 24.0
    Competing models of innovation informing agricultural extension, such as transfer of technology, participatory extension and technology development, and innovation systems have been proposed over the last decades. These approaches are often presented as antagonistic or even mutually exclusive. This article shows how practitioners in a rural innovation system draw on different aspects of all three models, while creating a distinct local practice and discourse. We revisit and deepen the critique of Vietnam’s “model” approach to upland rural development, voiced (...)
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  16. J. M. Alonso-Meijide, F. Carreras & M. G. Fiestras-Janeiro (2005). The Multilinear Extension and the Symmetric Coalition Banzhaf Value. Theory and Decision 59 (2):111-126.score: 24.0
    Alonso-Meijide and Fiestras-Janeiro (2002, Annals of Operations Research 109, 213–227) proposed a modification of the Banzhaf value for games where a coalition structure is given. In this paper we present a method to compute this value by means of the multilinear extension of the game. A real-world numerical example illustrates the application procedure.
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  17. Lan Anh Hoang, Jean-Christophe Castella & Paul Novosad (2006). Social Networks and Information Access: Implications for Agricultural Extension in a Rice Farming Community in Northern Vietnam. [REVIEW] Agriculture and Human Values 23 (4):513-527.score: 24.0
    Village communities are not homogeneous entities but a combination of complex networks of social relationships. Many factors such as ethnicity, gender, socio-economic status, and power relations determine one’s access to information and resources. Development workers’ inadequate understanding of local social networks, norms, and power relations may further the interests of better-off farmers and marginalize the poor. This paper explores how social networks function as assets for individuals and households in the rural areas of developing countries and influence access to information (...)
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  18. Laurens Klerkx, Karin de Grip & Cees Leeuwis (2006). Hands Off but Strings Attached: The Contradictions of Policy-Induced Demand-Driven Agricultural Extension. [REVIEW] Agriculture and Human Values 23 (2):189-204.score: 24.0
    Although many governments have privatized their agricultural extension services, there is widespread agreement that the public sector still needs to play a role in the “agricultural knowledge market” in order to prevent market failure and other undesirable phenomena. However, appropriate mechanisms for intervention in the agricultural knowledge market are still in their infancy. This article discusses the case of the Nutrient Management Support Service (NMSS), a government-funded support service in The Netherlands designed to optimize the fit between the demand (...)
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  19. Oscar Ortiz (2006). Evolution of Agricultural Extension and Information Dissemination in Peru: An Historical Perspective Focusing on Potato-Related Pest Control. Agriculture and Human Values 23 (4):477-489.score: 24.0
    Multiplicity and continual change characterize the Peruvian agricultural knowledge and information system (AKIS), reflecting changes in the agricultural sector as a whole. The evolution of these changes can be traced back to the pre-Columbian era when a relatively stable and well-organized system based on indigenous knowledge prevailed. During colonial (1532–1821) and early Republican times (beginning 1821) several changes affecting the agricultural sector contributed to a weakening of indigenous knowledge systems. During the 20th century extension services provided by the government (...)
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  20. Robert A. Pence & James I. Grieshop (2001). Mapping the Road for Voluntary Change: Partnerships in Agricultural Extension. [REVIEW] Agriculture and Human Values 18 (2):209-217.score: 24.0
    BIOS and BIFS are two California-based, small-scale alternative agricultural demonstration programs that define an applied Agriculture Partnership Model of extension. This model operates through a structure of local project leadership, a process of responsive farmer outreach and a primary goal of voluntary pesticide reduction. It reaches back to a Land Grant approach to extension of personal relationship, equal partnership, and collaborative learning. Overall findings from a systematic assessment of BIOS and BIFS imply that the operation and impacts of (...)
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  21. Benno Pokorny, Guilhermina Cayres & Westphalen Nunes (2005). Participatory Extension as Basis for the Work of Rural Extension Services in the Amazon. Agriculture and Human Values 22 (4):435-450.score: 24.0
    Public extension services play a key role in the implementation of strategies for rural development based on the sustainable management of natural resources. However, the sector suffers from restricted financial and human resources. Using experiences from participatory action research, a strategy for rural extension in the Amazon was defined to increase the efficiency and the relevance of external support for local resource users. This strategy considered activities initiated and coordinated by local people. Short-term facilitation visits provided continuous external (...)
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  22. Steven Horrobin (2006). Immortality, Human Nature, the Value of Life and the Value of Life Extension. Bioethics 20 (6):279–292.score: 21.0
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  23. Catherine Legg (1999). Extension, Intension and Dormitive Virtue. Transactions of the Charles S. Peirce Society 35 (4):654 - 677.score: 21.0
    Would be fairer to call Peirce’s philosophy of language “extensionalist” or “intensionalist”? The extensionalisms of Carnap and Quine are examined, and Peirce’s view is found to be prima facie similar, except for his commitment to the importance of “hypostatic abstraction”. Rather than dismissing this form of abstraction (famously derided by Molière) as useless scholasticism, Peirce argues that it represents a crucial (though largely unnoticed) step in much working inference. This, it is argued, allows Peirce to transcend the extensionalist-intensionalist dichotomy itself, (...)
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  24. John Schloendorn (2006). Making the Case for Human Life Extension: Personal Arguments. Bioethics 20 (4):191–202.score: 21.0
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  25. John Campbell (1982). Extension and Psychic State: Twin Earth Revisited. Philosophical Studies 42 (June):67-90.score: 21.0
    Argues that natural kind terms are token-reflexive, with reference ultimately fixed to the underlying explanatory properties of the surface qualities of local matter.
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  26. Takashi Hayashi (2012). Expanding State Space and Extension of Beliefs. Theory and Decision 73 (4):591-604.score: 21.0
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  27. Stephen H. Ellis (1972). Interaction of Encoding and Retrieval in Relative Age Judgments: An Extension of the "Crossover" Effect. Journal of Experimental Psychology 94 (3):291-294.score: 21.0
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  28. Thaddeus S. Robinson (2013). Identifying Spinoza's Immediate Infinite Mode of Extension. Dialogue:1-26.score: 21.0
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  29. Giangiacomo Gerla (1994). An Extension Principle for Fuzzy Logics. Mathematical Logic Quarterly 40 (3):357-380.score: 21.0
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  30. Karla Hemming, Jane L. Hutton, Melissa J. Maguire & Anthony G. Marson (2008). Open Label Extension Studies and Patient Selection Biases. Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 14 (1):141-144.score: 21.0
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  31. Bowers Megan, Ruth M. Pickering & Mark Weatherall (2012). Design, Objectives, Execution and Reporting of Published Open‐Label Extension Studies. Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 18 (2):209-215.score: 21.0
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  32. Rachel Percy (2005). The Contribution of Transformative Learning Theory to the Practice of Participatory Research and Extension: Theoretical Reflections. Agriculture and Human Values 22 (2):127-136.score: 21.0
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  33. Y. Yang & R. A. Shore (2002). A Nonlow~2 R.E. Degree with the Extension of Embeddings Properties of a Low~2 Degree. Mathematical Logic Quarterly 48 (1):131-146.score: 21.0
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  34. Walter Bossert (1995). Preference Extension Rules for Ranking Sets of Alternatives with a Fixed Cardinality. Theory and Decision 39 (3):301-317.score: 21.0
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  35. Joseph C. Frisch (1969). Extension and Comprehension in Logic. New York, Philosophical Library.score: 21.0
     
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  36. Tarald O. Kvalseth (1974). A Preview-Constraint Model of Rotary Arm Control as an Extension of Fitts's Law. Journal of Experimental Psychology 102 (4):696-699.score: 21.0
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  37. Robert S. Lubarsky & Michael Rathjen (2003). On the Regular Extension Axiom and its Variants. Mathematical Logic Quarterly 49 (5):511.score: 21.0
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  38. Erik C. Banks (2013). Extension and Measurement: A Constructivist Program From Leibniz to Grassmann. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 44 (1):20-31.score: 18.0
    Extension is probably the most general natural property. Is it a fundamental property? Leibniz claimed the answer was no, and that the structureless intuition of extension concealed more fundamental properties and relations. This paper follows Leibniz's program through Herbart and Riemann to Grassmann and uses Grassmann's algebra of points to build up levels of extensions algebraically. Finally, the connection between extension and measurement is considered.
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  39. Robert D. Rupert (2013). Memory, Natural Kinds, and Cognitive Extension; or, Martians Don't Remember, and Cognitive Science Is Not About Cognition. Review of Philosophy and Psychology 4 (1):25-47.score: 18.0
    This paper evaluates the Natural-Kinds Argument for cognitive extension, which purports to show that the kinds presupposed by our best cognitive science have instances external to human organism. Various interpretations of the argument are articulated and evaluated, using the overarching categories of memory and cognition as test cases. Particular emphasis is placed on criteria for the scientific legitimacy of generic kinds, that is, kinds characterized in very broad terms rather than in terms of their fine-grained causal roles. Given the (...)
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  40. Erik C. Banks (2008). The Problem of Extension in Natural Philosophy. Philosophia Naturalis 45 (2):211-235.score: 18.0
    An overview of the problem of constructing extension combinatorially from qualities cum dispositional powers. In the model recommended here, Grassmann's algebra provides the combinatorial structure while Machian elements give the content.
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  41. Andy Clark (2008). Supersizing the Mind: Embodiment, Action, and Cognitive Extension. Oxford University Press.score: 18.0
    Introduction : brainbound versus extended -- From embodiment to cognitive extension -- The active body -- The negotiable body -- Material symbols -- World, Incorporated -- Boundary disputes -- Mind re-bound -- The cure for cognitive hiccups (HEMC, HEC, HEMC ...) -- Rediscovering the brain -- The limits of embodiment -- Painting, planning, and perceiving -- Disentangling embodiment -- Conclusions : mind-sized bites.
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  42. Luciano Codato (2008). Judgment, Extension, Logical Form. In Kant-Gesellschaft E. V. Walter de Gruyter (ed.), Law and Peace in Kant’s Philosophy / Recht und Frieden in der Philosophie Kants. Walter de Gruyter. 1--139.score: 18.0
    In Kant’s logical texts the reference of the form of the judgment to an “unknown = x” is well known, but its understanding remains far from consensual. Due to the universality of all concepts, the subject as much as the predicate, in the form S is P, is regarded as predicate of the x, which, in turn, is regarded as the subject of the judgment. In the CPR, particularly in the text on the “logical use of the understanding”, this Kantian (...)
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  43. Helena De Preester & Manos Tsakiris (2009). Body-Extension Versus Body-Incorporation: Is There a Need for a Body-Model? [REVIEW] Phenomenology and the Cognitive Sciences 8 (3):307-319.score: 18.0
    This paper investigates the role of a pre-existing body-model that is an enabling constraint for the incorporation of objects into the body. This body-model is also a basis for the distinction between body extensions (e.g., in the case of tool-use) and incorporation (e.g., in the case of successful prosthesis use). It is argued that, in the case of incorporation, changes in the sense of body-ownership involve a reorganization of the body-model, whereas extension of the body with tools does not (...)
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  44. Andy Clark (2011). Précis of Supersizing the Mind: Embodiment, Action, and Cognitive Extension (Oxford University Press, NY, 2008). [REVIEW] Philosophical Studies 152 (3):413 - 416.score: 18.0
    Précis of Supersizing the mind: embodiment, action, and cognitive extension (Oxford University Press, NY, 2008) Content Type Journal Article DOI 10.1007/s11098-010-9597-x Authors Andy Clark, Philosophy, University of Edinburgh, Dugald Stewart Building, 3 Charles Street, Edinburgh, EH8 9AD Scotland (UK) Journal Philosophical Studies Online ISSN 1573-0883 Print ISSN 0031-8116.
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  45. Richard Heersmink (2011). Defending Extension Theory: A Response to Kiran and Verbeek. [REVIEW] Philosophy and Technology 25 (1):121-128.score: 18.0
    In a recent publication in this journal, Asle Kiran and Peter-Paul Verbeek (hereafter K&V) argue that extension theory and the notion of trust it implies are flawed. In this commentary, I defend extension theory against their critique. I first briefly introduce extension theory, then reconstruct K&V’s five arguments against extension theory and demonstrate that four of their five arguments are misplaced.
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  46. Jiri Benovsky (2012). Photographic Representation and Depiction of Temporal Extension. Inquiry 55 (2):194-213.score: 18.0
    The main task of this paper is to understand if and how static images like photographs can represent and/or depict temporal extension (duration). In order to do this, a detour will be necessary to understand some features of the nature of photographic representation and depiction in general. This important detour will enable us to see that photographs (can) have a narrative content, and that the skilled photographer can 'tell a story' in a very clear sense, as well as control (...)
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  47. Daniel Garber (2004). Leibniz on Body, Matter and Extension. Aristotelian Society Supplementary Volume 78 (1):23–40.score: 18.0
    This paper explores Leibniz's conception of body and extension in the 1680s and 1690s. It is argued that one of Leibniz's central aims is to undermine the Cartesian conception of extended substance, and replace it with a conception on which what is basic to body is force. In this way, Leibniz intends to reduce extension to something metaphysically more basic in just the way that the mechanists reduce sensible qualities to size, shape and motion. It is also argued (...)
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  48. Sven Walter (2010). Cognitive Extension: The Parity Argument, Functionalism, and the Mark of the Cognitive. Synthese 177 (2):285-300.score: 18.0
    During the past decade, the so-called “hypothesis of cognitive extension,” according to which the material vehicles of some cognitive processes are spatially distributed over the brain and the extracranial parts of the body and the world, has received lots of attention, both favourable and unfavourable. The debate has largely focussed on three related issues: (1) the role of parity considerations, (2) the role of functionalism, and (3) the importance of a mark of the cognitive. This paper critically assesses these (...)
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  49. John K. Davis (2005). Life-Extension and the Malthusian Objection. Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 30 (1):27 – 44.score: 18.0
    The worst possible way to resolve this issue is to leave it up to individual choice. There is no known social good coming from the conquest of death (Bailey, 1999). - Daniel Callahan Dramatically extending the human lifespan seems increasingly possible. Many bioethicists object that life-extension will have Malthusian consequences as new Methuselahs accumulate, generation by generation. I argue for a Life-Years Response to the Malthusian Objection. If even a minority of each generation chooses life-extension, denying it to (...)
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  50. Valerie Gray Hardcastle (1992). Reduction, Explanatory Extension, and the Mind/Brain Sciences. Philosophy of Science 59 (3):408-28.score: 18.0
    In trying to characterize the relationship between psychology and neuroscience, the trend has been to argue that reductionism does not work without suggesting a suitable substitute. I offer explanatory extension as a good model for elucidating the complex relationship among disciplines which are obviously connected but which do not share pragmatic explanatory features. Explanatory extension rests on the idea that one field can "illuminate" issues that were incompletely treated in another. In this paper, I explain how this "illumination" (...)
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