Search results for 'External' (try it on Scholar)

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  1.  78
    Kevin Morris & Consuelo Preti (2015). How to Read Moore's "Proof of an External World". Journal for the History of Analytical Philosophy 4 (1).
    We develop a reading of Moore’s “Proof of an External World” that emphasizes the connections between this paper and Moore’s earlier concerns and strategies. Our reading has the benefit of explaining why the claims that Moore advances in “Proof of an External World” would have been of interest to him, and avoids attributing to him arguments that are either trivial or wildly unsuccessful. Part of the evidence for our view comes from unpublished drafts which, we believe, contain important (...)
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  2. David Kirsh (2010). Thinking With External Representations. AI and Society 25 (4):441-454.
    Why do people create extra representations to help them make sense of situations, diagrams, illustrations, instructions and problems? The obvious explanation— external representations save internal memory and com- putation—is only part of the story. I discuss seven ways external representations enhance cognitive power: they change the cost structure of the inferential landscape; they provide a structure that can serve as a shareable object of thought; they create persistent referents; they facilitate re- representation; they are often a more natural (...)
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  3. Moti Mizrahi (forthcoming). An Argument for External World Skepticism From the Appearance/Reality Distinction. International Journal for the Study of Skepticism.
    In this paper, I argue that arguments from skeptical hypotheses for external world skepticism derive their support from a skeptical argument from the distinction between appearance and reality. This skeptical argument from the appearance/reality distinction gives the external world skeptic her conclusion without appealing to skeptical hypotheses and without assuming that knowledge is closed under known entailments. If this is correct, then this skeptical argument from the appearance/reality distinction poses a new skeptical challenge that cannot be resolved by (...)
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  4.  24
    Heinrich Wansing & Graham Priest (2015). External Curries. Journal of Philosophical Logic 44 (4):453-471.
    Curry’s paradox is well known. The original version employed a conditional connective, and is not forthcoming if the conditional does not satisfy contraction. A newer version uses a validity predicate, instead of a conditional, and is not forthcoming if validity does not satisfy structural contraction. But there is a variation of the paradox which uses “external validity”. And since external validity contracts, one might expect the appropriate version of the Curry paradox to be inescapable. In this paper we (...)
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  5.  69
    David Kirsh (2010). Thinking With External Representations. AI and Society 25 (4):441-454.
    Why do people create extra representations to help them make sense of situations, diagrams, illustrations, instructions and problems? The obvious explanation— external representations save internal memory and com- putation—is only part of the story. I discuss seven ways external representations enhance cognitive power: they change the cost structure of the inferential landscape; they provide a structure that can serve as a shareable object of thought; they create persistent referents; they facilitate re- representation; they are often a more natural (...)
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  6.  96
    Timothy Williamson (2006). Can Cognition Be Factorized Into Internal and External Components? In Robert J. Stainton (ed.), Contemporary Debates in Cognitive Science. Malden MA: Blackwell Publishing
    0. Platitudinously, cognitive science is the science of cognition. Cognition is usually defined as something like the process of acquiring, retaining and applying knowledge. To a first approximation, therefore, cognitive science is the science of knowing. Knowing is a relation between the knower and the known. Typically, although not always, what is known involves the environment external to the knower. Thus knowing typically involves a relation between the agent and the external environment. It is not internal to the (...)
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  7. Dean Lubin (2009). External Reasons. Metaphilosophy 40 (2):273-291.
    Abstract: In this article I consider Bernard Williams's argument against the possibility of external reasons for action and his claim that the only reasons for action are therefore internal. Williams's argument appeals to David Hume's claim that reason is the slave of the passions, and to the idea that reasons are capable of motivating the agent who has them. I consider two responses to Williams's argument, by John McDowell and by Stephen Finlay. McDowell claims that even if Hume is (...)
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  8.  91
    Ralph Wedgwood (2006). The Internal and External Components of Cognition. In Robert J. Stainton (ed.), Contemporary Debates in Cognitive Science. Malden MA: Blackwell Publishing 307-325.
    Timothy Williamson has presented several arguments that seek to cast doubt on the idea that cognition can be factorized into internal and external components. In the first section of this paper, I attempt to evaluate these arguments. My conclusion will be that these arguments establish several highly important points, but in the end these arguments fail to cast any doubt either on the idea that cognitive science should be largely concerned with internal mental processes, or on the idea that (...)
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  9.  48
    Elliott Sober (2011). Reichenbach's Cubical Universe and the Problem of the External World. Synthese 181 (1):3 - 21.
    This paper is a sympathetic critique of the argument that Reichenbach develops in Chap. 2 of Experience and Prediction for the thesis that sense experience justifies belief in the existence of an external world. After discussing his attack on the positivist theory of meaning, I describe the probability ideas that Reichenbach presents. I argue that Reichenbach begins with an argument grounded in the Law of Likelihood but that he then endorses a different argument that involves prior probabilities. I try (...)
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  10.  23
    Andrea Polonioli (2012). Gigerenzer's 'External Validity Argument' Against the Heuristics and Biases Program: An Assessment. [REVIEW] Mind and Society 11 (2):133-148.
    Gigerenzer’s ‘external validity argument’ plays a pivotal role in his critique of the heuristics and biases research program (HB). The basic idea is that (a) the experimental contexts deployed by HB are not representative of the real environment and that (b) the differences between the setting and the real environment are causally relevant, because they result in different performances by the subjects. However, by considering Gigerenzer’s work on frequencies in probability judgments, this essay attempts to show that there are (...)
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  11. Gary Hatfield (2013). Psychology, Epistemology, and the Problem of the External World : Russell and Before. In Erich H. Reck (ed.), The Historical Turn in Analytic Philosophy. Palgrave Macmillan
    This chapter examines Russell’s appreciation of the relevance of psychology for the theory of knowledge, especially in connection with the problem of the external world, and the background for this appreciation in British philosophy of the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. Russell wrote in 1914 that “the epistemological order of deduction includes both logical and psychological considerations.” Indeed, the notion of what is “psychologically derivative” played a crucial role in his epistemological analysis from this time. His epistemological discussions engage psychological (...)
     
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  12.  5
    M. J. Garcia-Encinas (2013). On Necessary but External Relations. Review of Contemporary Philosophy 12:93-101.
    I argue that the fundamental dogma that all necessary relations are internal is ungrounded. To motivate my argument, I analyse Moore’s classic ideas on internal relations and take them as an illustration of the common form of reasoning that can mislead us to conclude that all necessary relations are internal. That reasoning illicitly smuggles the idea that necessary properties and relations reflect on identity—in the sense that the loss of a necessary property/relation is a loss of identity—into the separate idea (...)
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  13. Panayot K. Butchvarov (1998). Skepticism About the External World. New York: Oxford University Press.
    One of the most important and perennially debated philosophical questions is whether we can have knowledge of the external world. Butchvarov here considers whether and how skepticism with regard to such knowledge can be refuted or at least answered. He argues that only a direct realist view of perception has any hope of providing a compelling response to the skeptic and introduces the radical innovation that the direct object of perceptual, and even dreaming and hallucinatory, experience is always a (...)
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  14.  19
    David William Harker (2013). Discussion Note: McCain on Weak Predictivism and External World Scepticism. Philosophia 41 (1):195-202.
    In a recent paper McCain (2012) argues that weak predictivism creates an important challenge for external world scepticism. McCain regards weak predictivism as uncontroversial and assumes the thesis within his argument. There is a sense in which the predictivist literature supports his conviction that weak predictivism is uncontroversial. This absence of controversy, however, is a product of significant plasticity within the thesis, which renders McCain’s argument worryingly vague. For McCain’s argument to work he either needs a stronger version of (...)
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  15.  34
    Gary Jaeger (2009). Repression and External Reasons. Journal of Value Inquiry 43 (4):433--446.
    Even though it is relative to his motivational set, a reason to overcome repression is external in the sense that an agent cannot correctly deliberate about it. If he could correctly deliberate about it, he would already have overcome his repression and therefore would lose his reason to do so. Such cases stand as counterexamples to arguments about the existence of external reasons. For example, in their now famous debate, John McDowell concludes there are while Bernard Williams concludes (...)
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  16.  20
    Nicholas Bardsley (2010). Sociality and External Validity in Experimental Economics. Mind and Society 9 (2):119-138.
    It is sometimes argued that experimental economists do not have to worry about external validity so long as the design sticks closely to a theoretical model. This position mistakes the model for the theory. As a result, applied economics designs often study phenomena distinct from their stated objects of inquiry. Because the implemented models are abstract, they may provide improbable analogues to their stated subject matter. This problem is exacerbated by the relational character of the social world, which also (...)
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  17.  1
    Jennifer Tatebe (2015). The Ethics of Difference: Ethical Dilemmas of External Researchers. Journal of Academic Ethics 13 (3):229-237.
    This paper examines the ethics review process for external researchers. Analysis of some ethical concerns and dilemmas experienced while conducting a multi-site study illustrates the complexities of researching in different contexts. Reflections on identity politics, and ethics review policies and practices expose the tensions between research ethics as a process, and development of ethical thinking and practice. The article concludes by articulating a new vision of ethics reviews for external researchers, which emphasise the need to develop long-term ethical (...)
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  18. Martine Lejeune (2014). A Project on Public Philosophy: Mapping the External Mind. Essays in Philosophy 15 (1).
    A comprehensive excursion, into anthropology, ethnography, linguistics, social and political science lead me to the conclusion that human societies are ruled by systems of shared concepts, and that these systems of thought function as a kind of public or external mind, which produces and maintain the social forms of life. Taking into account the fact that philosophy originally - in ancient Greece - was a ‘public affair’, I came up with the idea that philosophy should try to map the (...)
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  19. Stefanie Rocknak (forthcoming). Hume and the External World. In Angela Coventry & Alex Sager (eds.), The Humean Mind.
    Hume’s understanding of the external world, particularly, his conception of objects, or what he occasionally refers to as “bodies,” is the subject of much dispute. For instance, some scholars think that Hume had a “phenomenonalist” reading of the external world, where objects are impressions, i.e. they are literally what we see, touch, taste or hear (see, for example, (Grene 1994), (Bennett 1971), (Steinberg 1981) and (Dicker 2007)). Others think that according to Hume, objects are “intentional,” i.e. they are (...)
     
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  20.  81
    John Danaher (forthcoming). Why Internal Moral Enhancement Might Be Politically Better Than External Moral Enhancement. Neuroethics:1-16.
    Technology could be used to improve morality but it could do so in different ways. Some technologies could augment and enhance moral behaviour externally by using external cues and signals to push and pull us towards morally appropriate behaviours. Other technologies could enhance moral behaviour internally by directly altering the way in which the brain captures and processes morally salient information or initiates moral action. The question is whether there is any reason to prefer one method over the other? (...)
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  21.  5
    Lawrence E. Melamed, Michael Halay & Joseph W. Gildow (1973). Effect of External Target Presence on Visual Adaptation with Active and Passive Movement. Journal of Experimental Psychology 98 (1):125.
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  22.  85
    Harold Langsam (2006). Why I Believe in an External World. Metaphilosophy 37 (5):652-672.
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  23. Catharine Abell & Gregory Currie (1999). Internal and External Pictures. Philosophical Psychology 12 (4):429-445.
    What do pictures and mental images have in common? The contemporary tendency to reject mental picture theories of imagery suggests that the answer is: not much. We show that pictures and visual imagery have something important in common. They both contribute to mental simulations: pictures as inputs and mental images as outputs. But we reject the idea that mental images involve mental pictures, and we use simulation theory to strengthen the anti-pictorialist's case. Along the way we try to account for (...)
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  24.  52
    David Houghton (1997). Mental Content and External Representations: Internalism, Anti-Internalism. Philosophical Quarterly 47 (187):159-77.
    According to ‘internalism’, what mental states people are in depends wholly on what obtains inside their heads. This paper challenges that view without relying on arguments about the identity‐conditions of concepts that make up the content of mental states. Instead, it questions the internalist’s underlying assumption that, in Searle’s words, “the brain is all we have for the purpose of representing the world to ourselves”, which neglects the fact that human beings have used their brains to devise methods for extending (...)
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  25.  21
    William Dement & Edward A. Wolpert (1958). The Relation of Eye Movements, Body Motility, and External Stimuli to Dream Content. Journal of Experimental Psychology 55 (6):543.
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  26.  73
    Don Locke (1967). Perception And Our Knowledge Of The External World. Ny: Humanities Press.
    Reissue from the classic Muirhead Library of Philosophy series (originally published between 1890s - 1970s).
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  27.  10
    Susanne M. Bondesson, Ulf Jakobsson, Lars Edvinsson & Ingalill Rahm Hallberg (2013). Hospital Utilization and Costs for Spinal Cord Stimulation Compared with Enhanced External Counterpulsation for Refractory Angina Pectoris. Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 19 (1):139-147.
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  28.  9
    William C. Howell (1971). Uncertainty From Internal and External Sources: A Clear Case of Overconfidence. Journal of Experimental Psychology 89 (2):240.
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  29.  22
    Lorne Falkenstein (2004). Nativism and the Nature of Thought in Reid's Account of Our Knowledge of the External World. In Terence Cuneo & René van Woudenberg (eds.), The Cambridge Companion to Thomas Reid. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press 156--179.
  30.  13
    Christoph Graf, Rudolf Vetschera & Yingchao Zhang (2013). Parameters of Social Preference Functions: Measurement and External Validity. Theory and Decision 74 (3):357-382.
  31.  9
    J. E. Tiles (1988). Our Perception of the External World. Philosophy 24:15-19.
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  32.  6
    Albert Marston (1967). Self-Reinforcement and External Reinforcement in Visual-Motor Learning. Journal of Experimental Psychology 74 (1):93-98.
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  33.  1
    Ivan Ferreira da Cunha (2014). Carnap and Lewis on the External World. Principia: An International Journal of Epistemology 18 (2):243-268.
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  34. Naomi M. Eilan (1993). Molyneux's Question and the Idea of an External World. In Spatial Representation. Cambridge: Blackwell
     
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  35.  4
    M. J. M. H. Lombarts, N. S. Klazinga & K. Redekop (2005). Measuring the Perceived Impact of Facilitation on Implementing Recommendations From External Assessment: Lessons From the Dutch Visitatie Programme for Medical Specialists. Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 11 (6):587-597.
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  36.  4
    A. H. Maslow (1934). The Effect of Varying External Conditions on Learning, Retention, and Reproduction. Journal of Experimental Psychology 17 (1):36.
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  37.  3
    Albert R. Marston (1969). Effect of External Feedback on the Rate of Positive Self-Reinforcement. Journal of Experimental Psychology 80 (1):175.
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  38.  3
    H. S. Pennypacker (1964). External Inhibition of the Conditioned Eyelid Reflex. Journal of Experimental Psychology 67 (1):33.
  39.  2
    R. M. Gagné (1941). External Inhibition and Disinhibition in a Conditioned Operant Response. Journal of Experimental Psychology 29 (2):104.
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  40.  2
    N. H. Kelley & S. N. Reger (1937). The Effect of Binaural Occlusion of the External Auditory Meati on the Sensitivity of the Normal Ear for Bone Conducted Sound. Journal of Experimental Psychology 21 (2):211.
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  41. Athanasios P. Fotinis (1974). Perception and the External World: A Historical and Critical Account. Philosophia 4:433-448.
  42. Robert Kirk (1998). Consciousness, Information, and External Relations. Communication and Cognition: An Interdisciplinary Quarterly Journal 30 (3-4):249-71.
  43.  67
    Jack Lyons (2009). Perception and Basic Beliefs: Zombies, Modules, and the Problem of the External World. Oxford University Press.
    Perception and Basic Beliefs brings together an important treatment of these major epistemological topics and provides a positive solution to the traditional problem of the external world.
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  44. Bertrand Russell (2015). Our Knowledge of the External World. Routledge.
    _Our Knowledge of the External World _is_ _a compilation of lectures Bertrand Russell delivered in the US in which he questions the very relevance and legitimacy of philosophy. In it he investigates the relationship between ‘individual’ and ‘scientific’ knowledge and questions the means in which we have come to understand our physical world. This is an explosive and controversial work that illustrates instances where the claims of philosophers have been excessive, and examines why their achievements have not been greater.
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  45.  23
    James W. Moore, Daniel M. Wegner & Patrick Haggard (2009). Modulating the Sense of Agency with External Cues. Consciousness and Cognition 18 (4):1056-1064.
    We investigate the processes underlying the feeling of control over one’s actions . Sense of agency may depend on internal motoric signals, and general inferences about external events. We used priming to modulate the sense of agency for voluntary and involuntary movements, by modifying the content of conscious thought prior to moving. Trials began with the presentation of one of two supraliminal primes, which corresponded to the effect of a voluntary action participants subsequently made. The perceived interval between movement (...)
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  46.  36
    Muel Kaptein (2011). From Inaction to External Whistleblowing: The Influence of the Ethical Culture of Organizations on Employee Responses to Observed Wrongdoing. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 98 (3):513 - 530.
    Putting measures in place to prevent wrongdoing in organizations is important, but detecting and correcting wrongdoing are also vital. Employees who detect wrongdoing should, therefore, be encouraged to respond in a manner that supports corrective action. This article examines the influence of the ethical culture of organizations on employee responses to observed wrongdoing. Different dimensions of ethical culture are related to different types of intended responses. The findings show that several dimensions of ethical culture were negatively related to intended inaction (...)
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  47. Declan Smithies (2016). Perception and the External World. Philosophical Studies 173 (4):1119-1145.
    In this paper, I argue that perception justifies belief about the external world in virtue of its phenomenal character together with its relations to the external world. But I argue that perceptual relations to the external world impact on the justifying role of perception only by virtue of their impact on its representational content. Epistemic level-bridging principles provide a principled rationale for avoiding more radically externalist theories of perceptual justification.
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  48. Bruce Aune (2014). Knowledge of the External World. Routledge.
    Many philosophers believe that the traditional problem of our knowledge of the external world was dissolved by Wittgestein and others. They argue that it was not really a problem - just a linguistic `confusion' that did not actually require a solution. Bruce Aune argues that they are wrong. He casts doubt on the generally accepted reasons for putting the problem aside and proposes an entirely new approach. By considering the history of the problem from Descartes to Kant, Aune shows (...)
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  49. Kourken Michaelian (2012). Is External Memory Memory? Biological Memory and Extended Mind. Consciousness and Cognition 21 (3):1154-1165.
    Clark and Chalmers claim that an external resource satisfying the following criteria counts as a memory: the agent has constant access to the resource; the information in the resource is directly available; retrieved information is automatically endorsed; information is stored as a consequence of past endorsement. Research on forgetting and metamemory shows that most of these criteria are not satisfied by biological memory, so they are inadequate. More psychologically realistic criteria generate a similar classification of standard putative external (...)
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  50.  57
    Paul Forster (2008). Neither Dogma nor Common Sense: Moore's Confidence in His 'Proof of an External World'. British Journal for the History of Philosophy 16 (1):163 – 195.
    (2008). Neither Dogma nor Common sense: Moore's confidence in his ‘proof of an external world’1. British Journal for the History of Philosophy: Vol. 16, No. 1, pp. 163-195.
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