Search results for 'External' (try it on Scholar)

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  1. Dean Lubin (2009). External Reasons. Metaphilosophy 40 (2):273-291.score: 24.0
    Abstract: In this article I consider Bernard Williams's argument against the possibility of external reasons for action and his claim that the only reasons for action are therefore internal. Williams's argument appeals to David Hume's claim that reason is the slave of the passions, and to the idea that reasons are capable of motivating the agent who has them. I consider two responses to Williams's argument, by John McDowell and by Stephen Finlay. McDowell claims that even if Hume is (...)
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  2. David Kirsh (2010). Thinking With External Representations. AI and Society 25 (4):441-454.score: 24.0
    Why do people create extra representations to help them make sense of situations, diagrams, illustrations, instructions and problems? The obvious explanation— external representations save internal memory and com- putation—is only part of the story. I discuss seven ways external representations enhance cognitive power: they change the cost structure of the inferential landscape; they provide a structure that can serve as a shareable object of thought; they create persistent referents; they facilitate re- representation; they are often a more natural (...)
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  3. Panayot K. Butchvarov (1998). Skepticism About the External World. New York: Oxford University Press.score: 24.0
    One of the most important and perennially debated philosophical questions is whether we can have knowledge of the external world. Butchvarov here considers whether and how skepticism with regard to such knowledge can be refuted or at least answered. He argues that only a direct realist view of perception has any hope of providing a compelling response to the skeptic and introduces the radical innovation that the direct object of perceptual, and even dreaming and hallucinatory, experience is always a (...)
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  4. Timothy Williamson (2006). Can Cognition Be Factorized Into Internal and External Components? In Robert J. Stainton (ed.), Contemporary Debates in Cognitive Science. Malden MA: Blackwell Publishing.score: 24.0
    0. Platitudinously, cognitive science is the science of cognition. Cognition is usually defined as something like the process of acquiring, retaining and applying knowledge. To a first approximation, therefore, cognitive science is the science of knowing. Knowing is a relation between the knower and the known. Typically, although not always, what is known involves the environment external to the knower. Thus knowing typically involves a relation between the agent and the external environment. It is not internal to the (...)
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  5. Ralph Wedgwood (2006). The Internal and External Components of Cognition. In Robert J. Stainton (ed.), Contemporary Debates in Cognitive Science. Malden MA: Blackwell Publishing. 307--325.score: 24.0
    Timothy Williamson has presented several arguments that seek to cast doubt on the idea that cognition can be factorized into internal and external components. In the first section of this paper, I attempt to evaluate these arguments. My conclusion will be that these arguments establish several highly important points, but in the end these arguments fail to cast any doubt either on the idea that cognitive science should be largely concerned with internal mental processes, or on the idea that (...)
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  6. Elliott Sober (2011). Reichenbach's Cubical Universe and the Problem of the External World. Synthese 181 (1):3 - 21.score: 24.0
    This paper is a sympathetic critique of the argument that Reichenbach develops in Chap. 2 of Experience and Prediction for the thesis that sense experience justifies belief in the existence of an external world. After discussing his attack on the positivist theory of meaning, I describe the probability ideas that Reichenbach presents. I argue that Reichenbach begins with an argument grounded in the Law of Likelihood but that he then endorses a different argument that involves prior probabilities. I try (...)
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  7. Andrea Polonioli (2012). Gigerenzer's 'External Validity Argument' Against the Heuristics and Biases Program: An Assessment. [REVIEW] Mind and Society 11 (2):133-148.score: 24.0
    Gigerenzer’s ‘external validity argument’ plays a pivotal role in his critique of the heuristics and biases research program (HB). The basic idea is that (a) the experimental contexts deployed by HB are not representative of the real environment and that (b) the differences between the setting and the real environment are causally relevant, because they result in different performances by the subjects. However, by considering Gigerenzer’s work on frequencies in probability judgments, this essay attempts to show that there are (...)
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  8. Nicholas Bardsley (2010). Sociality and External Validity in Experimental Economics. Mind and Society 9 (2):119-138.score: 24.0
    It is sometimes argued that experimental economists do not have to worry about external validity so long as the design sticks closely to a theoretical model. This position mistakes the model for the theory. As a result, applied economics designs often study phenomena distinct from their stated objects of inquiry. Because the implemented models are abstract, they may provide improbable analogues to their stated subject matter. This problem is exacerbated by the relational character of the social world, which also (...)
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  9. David William Harker (2013). Discussion Note: McCain on Weak Predictivism and External World Scepticism. Philosophia 41 (1):195-202.score: 24.0
    In a recent paper McCain (2012) argues that weak predictivism creates an important challenge for external world scepticism. McCain regards weak predictivism as uncontroversial and assumes the thesis within his argument. There is a sense in which the predictivist literature supports his conviction that weak predictivism is uncontroversial. This absence of controversy, however, is a product of significant plasticity within the thesis, which renders McCain’s argument worryingly vague. For McCain’s argument to work he either needs a stronger version of (...)
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  10. Tony Myers & Nigel Balmer (2012). The Impact of Crowd Noise on Officiating in Muay Thai: Achieving External Validity in an Experimental Setting. Frontiers in Psychology 3.score: 24.0
    Numerous factors have been proposed to explain the home advantage in sport. Several authors have suggested that a partisan home crowd enhances home advantage and that this is at least in part a consequence of their influence on officiating. However, while experimental studies examining this phenomenon have high levels of internal validity (since only the ‘crowd noise’ intervention is allowed to vary), they suffer from a lack of external validity, with decision-making in a laboratory setting typically bearing little resemblance (...)
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  11. Martine Lejeune (2014). A Project on Public Philosophy: Mapping the External Mind. Essays in Philosophy 15 (1).score: 24.0
    A comprehensive excursion, into anthropology, ethnography, linguistics, social and political science lead me to the conclusion that human societies are ruled by systems of shared concepts, and that these systems of thought function as a kind of public or external mind, which produces and maintain the social forms of life. Taking into account the fact that philosophy originally - in ancient Greece - was a ‘public affair’, I came up with the idea that philosophy should try to map the (...)
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  12. Nigel Balmer Tony Myers (2012). The Impact of Crowd Noise on Officiating in Muay Thai: Achieving External Validity in an Experimental Setting. Frontiers in Psychology 3.score: 24.0
    Numerous factors have been proposed to explain the home advantage in sport. Several authors have suggested that a partisan home crowd enhances home advantage and that this is at least in part a consequence of their influence on officiating. However, while experimental studies examining this phenomenon have high levels of internal validity (since only the ‘crowd noise’ intervention is allowed to vary), they suffer from a lack of external validity, with decision-making in a laboratory setting typically bearing little resemblance (...)
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  13. David Houghton (1997). Mental Content and External Representations: Internalism, Anti-Internalism. Philosophical Quarterly 47 (187):159-77.score: 22.0
    According to ‘internalism’, what mental states people are in depends wholly on what obtains inside their heads. This paper challenges that view without relying on arguments about the identity‐conditions of concepts that make up the content of mental states. Instead, it questions the internalist’s underlying assumption that, in Searle’s words, “the brain is all we have for the purpose of representing the world to ourselves”, which neglects the fact that human beings have used their brains to devise methods for extending (...)
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  14. Catharine Abell & Gregory Currie (1999). Internal and External Pictures. Philosophical Psychology 12 (4):429-445.score: 21.0
    What do pictures and mental images have in common? The contemporary tendency to reject mental picture theories of imagery suggests that the answer is: not much. We show that pictures and visual imagery have something important in common. They both contribute to mental simulations: pictures as inputs and mental images as outputs. But we reject the idea that mental images involve mental pictures, and we use simulation theory to strengthen the anti-pictorialist's case. Along the way we try to account for (...)
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  15. Harold Langsam (2006). Why I Believe in an External World. Metaphilosophy 37 (5):652-672.score: 21.0
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  16. Don Locke (1967). Perception And Our Knowledge Of The External World. Ny: Humanities Press.score: 21.0
    Reissue from the classic Muirhead Library of Philosophy series (originally published between 1890s - 1970s).
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  17. Lorne Falkenstein (2004). Nativism and the Nature of Thought in Reid's Account of Our Knowledge of the External World. In Terence Cuneo & René van Woudenberg (eds.), The Cambridge Companion to Thomas Reid. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 156--179.score: 21.0
  18. William Dement & Edward A. Wolpert (1958). The Relation of Eye Movements, Body Motility, and External Stimuli to Dream Content. Journal of Experimental Psychology 55 (6):543.score: 21.0
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  19. J. E. Tiles (1988). Our Perception of the External World. Philosophy 24:15-19.score: 21.0
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  20. William C. Howell (1971). Uncertainty From Internal and External Sources: A Clear Case of Overconfidence. Journal of Experimental Psychology 89 (2):240.score: 21.0
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  21. M. J. M. H. Lombarts, N. S. Klazinga & K. Redekop (2005). Measuring the Perceived Impact of Facilitation on Implementing Recommendations From External Assessment: Lessons From the Dutch Visitatie Programme for Medical Specialists. Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 11 (6):587-597.score: 21.0
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  22. Albert Marston (1967). Self-Reinforcement and External Reinforcement in Visual-Motor Learning. Journal of Experimental Psychology 74 (1):93-98.score: 21.0
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  23. Lawrence E. Melamed, Michael Halay & Joseph W. Gildow (1973). Effect of External Target Presence on Visual Adaptation with Active and Passive Movement. Journal of Experimental Psychology 98 (1):125.score: 21.0
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  24. H. S. Pennypacker (1964). External Inhibition of the Conditioned Eyelid Reflex. Journal of Experimental Psychology 67 (1):33.score: 21.0
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  25. Athanasios P. Fotinis (1974). Perception and the External World: A Historical and Critical Account. Philosophia 4:433-448.score: 21.0
  26. R. M. Gagné (1941). External Inhibition and Disinhibition in a Conditioned Operant Response. Journal of Experimental Psychology 29 (2):104.score: 21.0
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  27. Christoph Graf, Rudolf Vetschera & Yingchao Zhang (2013). Parameters of Social Preference Functions: Measurement and External Validity. Theory and Decision 74 (3):357-382.score: 21.0
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  28. Ernst-Joachim Hossner & Felix Ehrlenspiel (2010). Time-Referenced Effects of an Internal Vs. External Focus of Attention on Muscular Activity and Compensatory Variability. Frontiers in Psychology 1:230-230.score: 21.0
    The paralysis-by-analysis phenomenon, i.e., attending to the execution of one’s movement impairs performance, has gathered a lot of attention over recent years (see Wulf, 2007, for a review). Explanations of this phenomenon, e.g., the hypotheses of constrained action (Wulf and colleagues, e.g., McNevin et al., 2003) or of step-by-step execution (Beilock et al., 2002; Masters, 1992), however, do not refer to the level of underlying mechanisms on the level of sensorimotor control. For this purpose, a “nodal-point hypothesis” is presented here (...)
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  29. N. H. Kelley & S. N. Reger (1937). The Effect of Binaural Occlusion of the External Auditory Meati on the Sensitivity of the Normal Ear for Bone Conducted Sound. Journal of Experimental Psychology 21 (2):211.score: 21.0
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  30. Albert R. Marston (1969). Effect of External Feedback on the Rate of Positive Self-Reinforcement. Journal of Experimental Psychology 80 (1):175.score: 21.0
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  31. A. H. Maslow (1934). The Effect of Varying External Conditions on Learning, Retention, and Reproduction. Journal of Experimental Psychology 17 (1):36.score: 21.0
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  32. Susanne M. Bondesson, Ulf Jakobsson, Lars Edvinsson & Ingalill Rahm Hallberg (2013). Hospital Utilization and Costs for Spinal Cord Stimulation Compared with Enhanced External Counterpulsation for Refractory Angina Pectoris. Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 19 (1):139-147.score: 21.0
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  33. Naomi M. Eilan (1993). Molyneux's Question and the Idea of an External World. In Spatial Representation. Cambridge: Blackwell.score: 21.0
     
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  34. Robert Kirk (1998). Consciousness, Information, and External Relations. Communication and Cognition 30 (3-4):249-71.score: 21.0
  35. Martin Smith (2011). God and the External World. Ratio 24 (1):65-77.score: 18.0
    There are a number of apparent parallels between belief in God and belief in the existence of an external world beyond our experiences. Both beliefs would seem to condition one's overall view of reality and one's place within it – and yet it is difficult to see how either can be defended. Neither belief is likely to receive a purely a priori defence and any empirical evidence that one cites either in favour of the existence of God or the (...)
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  36. Tim Barnett (1992). A Preliminary Investigation of the Relationship Between Selected Organizational Characteristics and External Whistleblowing by Employees. Journal of Business Ethics 11 (12):949 - 959.score: 18.0
    Whistleblowing by employees to regulatory agencies and other parties external to the organization can have serious consequences both for the whistleblower and the company involved. Research has largely focused on individual and group variables that affect individuals'' decision to blow the whistle on perceived wrongdoing.This study examined the relationship between selected organizational characteristics and the perceived level of external whistleblowing by employees in 240 organizations. Data collected in a nationwide survey of human resource executives were analyzed using analysis (...)
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  37. Annalisa Coliva (2008). The Paradox of Moore's Proof of an External World. Philosophical Quarterly 58 (231):234–243.score: 18.0
    Moore's proof of an external world is a piece of reasoning whose premises, in context, are true and warranted and whose conclusion is perfectly acceptable, and yet immediately seems flawed. I argue that neither Wright's nor Pryor's readings of the proof can explain this paradox. Rather, one must take the proof as responding to a sceptical challenge to our right to claim to have warrant for our ordinary empirical beliefs, either for any particular empirical belief we might have, or (...)
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  38. Matthew S. Bedke (2010). Rationalist Restrictions and External Reasons. Philosophical Studies 151 (1):39 - 57.score: 18.0
    Historically, the most persuasive argument against external reasons proceeds through a rationalist restriction: For all agents A, and all actions Φ, there is a reason for A to Φ only if Φing is rationally accessible from A's actual motivational states. Here I distinguish conceptions of rationality, show which one the internalist must rely on to argue against external reasons, and argue that a rationalist restriction that features that conception of rationality is extremely implausible. Other conceptions of rationality can (...)
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  39. Eric Schliesser (2011). Philosophical Relations, Natural Relations, and Philosophic Decisionism in Belief in the External World. Hume Studies 36 (1):67-76.score: 18.0
    My critical comments on Part I of P. J. E. Kail's Projection and Realism in Hume's Philosophy are divided into two parts. First, I challenge the exegetical details of Kail's take on Hume's important distinction between natural and philosophical relations. I show that Kail misreads Hume in a subtle fashion. If I am right, then much of the machinery that Kail puts into place for his main argument does different work in Hume than Kail thinks. Second, I offer a brief (...)
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  40. TerryMorehead Dworkin & Melissa S. Baucus (1998). Internal Vs. External Whistleblowers: A Comparison of Whistleblowering Processes. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 17 (12):1281-1298.score: 18.0
    We conduct quantitative and qualitative analysis of 33 cases of internal and external whistleblowers wrongfully fired for reporting wrongdoing. Our results show external whistleblowers have less tenure with the organization, greater evidence of wrongdoing, and they tend to be more effective in changing organizational practices. External whistleblowers also experience more extensive retaliation than internal whistleblowers, and patterns of retaliation by management against the whistleblower vary depending on whether the whistleblower reports internally or externally. We discuss implications for (...)
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  41. Peter Goldie (2003). One's Remembered Past: Narrative Thinking, Emotion, and the External Perspective. Philosophical Papers 32 (3):301-319.score: 18.0
    Abstract Narrative thinking has a very important role in our ordinary everyday lives?in our thinking about fiction, about the historical past, about how things might have been, and about our own past and our plans for the future. In this paper, which is part of a larger project, I will be focusing on just one kind of narrative thinking: the kind that we sometimes engage in when we think about, evaluate, and respond emotionally to, our own past lives from a (...)
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  42. Allan Hazlett (2006). How to Defeat Belief in the External World. Pacific Philosophical Quarterly 87 (2):198–212.score: 18.0
    I defend the view that there is a privileged class of propositions – that there is an external world, among other such 'hinge propositions'– that possess a special epistemic status: justified belief in these propositions is not defeated unless one has sufficient reason to believe their negation. Two arguments are given for this conclusion. Finally, three proposals are offered as morals of the preceding story: first, our justification for hinge propositions must be understood as defeatable, second, antiskeptics must explain (...)
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  43. Charles Bolyard (2006). Augustine, Epicurus, and External World Skepticism. Journal of the History of Philosophy 44 (2):157-168.score: 18.0
    : In Contra Academicos 3.11.24, Augustine responds to skepticism about the existence of the external world by arguing that what appears to be the world — as he terms things, the "quasi-earth" and "quasi-sky" — cannot be doubted. While some (e.g., M. Burnyeat and G. Matthews) interpret this passage as a subjectivist response to global skepticism, it is here argued that Augustine's debt to Epicurean epistemology and theology, especially as presented in Cicero's De Natura Deorum 1.25.69 - 1.26.74, provides (...)
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  44. David Kirsh (2009). Interaction, External Representation and Sense Making. Proceedings of the 31st Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society:1103-1108.score: 18.0
    Why do people create extra representations to help them make sense of situations, diagrams, illustrations, instructions and problems? The obvious explanation – external representations save internal memory and computation – is only part of the story. I discuss eight ways external representations enhance cognitive power: they provide a structure that can serve as a shareable object of thought; they create persistent referents; they change the cost structure of the inferential landscape; they facilitate re-representation; they are often a more (...)
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  45. Kenneth G. Ferguson (2009). Meaning and the External World. Erkenntnis 70 (3):299 - 311.score: 18.0
    Realism, defined as a justified belief in the existence of the external world, is jeopardized by ‘meaning rationalism,’ the classic theory of meaning that sees the extension of words as a function of the intensions of individual speakers, with no way to ensure that these intensions actually correspond to anything in the external world. To defend realism, Ruth Millikan ( 1984 , 1989a , b , 1993 , 2004 , 2005 ) offers a biological theory of meaning called (...)
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  46. John Dilworth (2004). Internal Versus External Representation. Journal of Aesthetics and Art Criticism 62 (1):23-36.score: 18.0
    I argue that the concept of representation is ambiguous: a picture of 'a man', when there is no actual man that it depicts, both does, in one sense, and does not, in another sense, represent 'a man'--hence the need for a distinction of internal from external representation. Internal representation is also defended from reductive, non-referential alternative views, and from 'prosthesis' views of picturing, according to which seeing a picture of an actual man just is seeing through the picture to (...)
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  47. Sean Enda Power (2013). Perceiving External Things and the Time-Lag Argument. European Journal of Philosophy 21 (1):94-117.score: 18.0
    : We seem to directly perceive external things. But can we? According to the time-lag argument, we cannot. What we directly perceive happens now. There is a time-lag between our perceptions and the external things we seem to directly perceive; these external things happen in the past; thus, what we directly perceive must be something else, for example, sense-data, and we can only at best indirectly perceive other things. This paper examines the time-lag argument given contemporary metaphysics. (...)
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  48. Liliane Haegeman (2003). Conditional Clauses: External and Internal Syntax. Mind and Language 18 (4):317–339.score: 18.0
    The paper focuses on the difference between eventconditionals and premiseconditionals. An eventconditional contributes to event structure: it modifies the main clause event; a premiseconditional structures the discourse: it makes manifest a proposition that is the privileged context for the processing of the associated clause. The two types of conditional clauses will be shown to differ both in terms of their 'external syntax' and in terms of their 'internal syntax'. The peripheral structure of event conditionals will be shown to lack (...)
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  49. Bruce Aune (1991). Knowledge of the External World. Routledge.score: 18.0
    Many philosophers believe that the traditional problem of our knowledge of the external world was dissolved by Wittgestein and others. They argue that it was not really a problem - just a linguistic `confusion' that did not actually require a solution. Bruce Aune argues that they are wrong. He casts doubt on the generally accepted reasons for putting the problem aside and proposes an entirely new approach. By considering the history of the problem from Descartes to Kant, Aune shows (...)
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