Search results for 'External World' (try it on Scholar)

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  1. Elliott Sober (2011). Reichenbach's Cubical Universe and the Problem of the External World. Synthese 181 (1):3 - 21.score: 240.0
    This paper is a sympathetic critique of the argument that Reichenbach develops in Chap. 2 of Experience and Prediction for the thesis that sense experience justifies belief in the existence of an external world. After discussing his attack on the positivist theory of meaning, I describe the probability ideas that Reichenbach presents. I argue that Reichenbach begins with an argument grounded in the Law of Likelihood but that he then endorses a different argument that involves prior probabilities. I (...)
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  2. David William Harker (2013). Discussion Note: McCain on Weak Predictivism and External World Scepticism. Philosophia 41 (1):195-202.score: 240.0
    In a recent paper McCain (2012) argues that weak predictivism creates an important challenge for external world scepticism. McCain regards weak predictivism as uncontroversial and assumes the thesis within his argument. There is a sense in which the predictivist literature supports his conviction that weak predictivism is uncontroversial. This absence of controversy, however, is a product of significant plasticity within the thesis, which renders McCain’s argument worryingly vague. For McCain’s argument to work he either needs a stronger version (...)
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  3. Panayot K. Butchvarov (1998). Skepticism About the External World. New York: Oxford University Press.score: 228.0
    One of the most important and perennially debated philosophical questions is whether we can have knowledge of the external world. Butchvarov here considers whether and how skepticism with regard to such knowledge can be refuted or at least answered. He argues that only a direct realist view of perception has any hope of providing a compelling response to the skeptic and introduces the radical innovation that the direct object of perceptual, and even dreaming and hallucinatory, experience is always (...)
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  4. Don Locke (1967). Perception And Our Knowledge Of The External World. Ny: Humanities Press.score: 210.0
    Reissue from the classic Muirhead Library of Philosophy series (originally published between 1890s - 1970s).
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  5. Lorne Falkenstein (2004). Nativism and the Nature of Thought in Reid's Account of Our Knowledge of the External World. In Terence Cuneo & René van Woudenberg (eds.), The Cambridge Companion to Thomas Reid. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 156--179.score: 210.0
  6. J. E. Tiles (1988). Our Perception of the External World. Philosophy 24:15-19.score: 210.0
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  7. Harold Langsam (2006). Why I Believe in an External World. Metaphilosophy 37 (5):652-672.score: 198.0
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  8. Athanasios P. Fotinis (1974). Perception and the External World: A Historical and Critical Account. Philosophia 4:433-448.score: 198.0
  9. Naomi M. Eilan (1993). Molyneux's Question and the Idea of an External World. In Spatial Representation. Cambridge: Blackwell.score: 198.0
     
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  10. Martin Smith (2011). God and the External World. Ratio 24 (1):65-77.score: 180.0
    There are a number of apparent parallels between belief in God and belief in the existence of an external world beyond our experiences. Both beliefs would seem to condition one's overall view of reality and one's place within it – and yet it is difficult to see how either can be defended. Neither belief is likely to receive a purely a priori defence and any empirical evidence that one cites either in favour of the existence of God or (...)
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  11. Annalisa Coliva (2008). The Paradox of Moore's Proof of an External World. Philosophical Quarterly 58 (231):234–243.score: 180.0
    Moore's proof of an external world is a piece of reasoning whose premises, in context, are true and warranted and whose conclusion is perfectly acceptable, and yet immediately seems flawed. I argue that neither Wright's nor Pryor's readings of the proof can explain this paradox. Rather, one must take the proof as responding to a sceptical challenge to our right to claim to have warrant for our ordinary empirical beliefs, either for any particular empirical belief we might have, (...)
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  12. Eric Schliesser (2011). Philosophical Relations, Natural Relations, and Philosophic Decisionism in Belief in the External World: Comments on P. J. E. Kail, Projection and Realism in Hume's Philosophy. [REVIEW] Hume Studies 36 (1):67-76.score: 180.0
    My critical comments on Part I of P. J. E. Kail's Projection and Realism in Hume's Philosophy are divided into two parts. First, I challenge the exegetical details of Kail's take on Hume's important distinction between natural and philosophical relations. I show that Kail misreads Hume in a subtle fashion. If I am right, then much of the machinery that Kail puts into place for his main argument does different work in Hume than Kail thinks. Second, I offer a brief (...)
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  13. Allan Hazlett (2006). How to Defeat Belief in the External World. Pacific Philosophical Quarterly 87 (2):198–212.score: 180.0
    I defend the view that there is a privileged class of propositions – that there is an external world, among other such 'hinge propositions'– that possess a special epistemic status: justified belief in these propositions is not defeated unless one has sufficient reason to believe their negation. Two arguments are given for this conclusion. Finally, three proposals are offered as morals of the preceding story: first, our justification for hinge propositions must be understood as defeatable, second, antiskeptics must (...)
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  14. Charles Bolyard (2006). Augustine, Epicurus, and External World Skepticism. Journal of the History of Philosophy 44 (2):157-168.score: 180.0
    : In Contra Academicos 3.11.24, Augustine responds to skepticism about the existence of the external world by arguing that what appears to be the world — as he terms things, the "quasi-earth" and "quasi-sky" — cannot be doubted. While some (e.g., M. Burnyeat and G. Matthews) interpret this passage as a subjectivist response to global skepticism, it is here argued that Augustine's debt to Epicurean epistemology and theology, especially as presented in Cicero's De Natura Deorum 1.25.69 - (...)
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  15. Kenneth G. Ferguson (2009). Meaning and the External World. Erkenntnis 70 (3):299 - 311.score: 180.0
    Realism, defined as a justified belief in the existence of the external world, is jeopardized by ‘meaning rationalism,’ the classic theory of meaning that sees the extension of words as a function of the intensions of individual speakers, with no way to ensure that these intensions actually correspond to anything in the external world. To defend realism, Ruth Millikan ( 1984 , 1989a , b , 1993 , 2004 , 2005 ) offers a biological theory of (...)
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  16. Bruce Aune (1991). Knowledge of the External World. Routledge.score: 180.0
    Many philosophers believe that the traditional problem of our knowledge of the external world was dissolved by Wittgestein and others. They argue that it was not really a problem - just a linguistic `confusion' that did not actually require a solution. Bruce Aune argues that they are wrong. He casts doubt on the generally accepted reasons for putting the problem aside and proposes an entirely new approach. By considering the history of the problem from Descartes to Kant, Aune (...)
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  17. Peter Alexander (1985). Ideas, Qualities, and Corpuscles: Locke and Boyle on the External World. Cambridge University Press.score: 180.0
    This study presents a substantial and often radical reinterpretation of some of the central themes of Locke's thought. Professor Alexander concentrates on the Essay Concerning Human Understanding and aims to restore that to its proper historical context. In Part I he gives a clear exposition of some of the scientific theories of Robert Boyle, which, he argues, heavily influenced Locke in employing similar concepts and terminology. Against this background, he goes on in Part II to provide an account of Locke's (...)
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  18. Ram Neta (2003). Contextualism and the Problem of the External World. Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 66 (1):1–31.score: 180.0
    A skeptic claims that I do not have knowledge of the external world. It has been thought that the skeptic reaches this conclusion because she employs unusually stringent standards for knowledge. But the skeptic does not employ unusually high standards for knowledge. Rather, she employs unusually restrictive standards of evidence. Thus, her claim that we lack knowledge of the external world is supported by considerations that would equally support the claim that we lack evidence for our (...)
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  19. Jack Lyons (2009). Perception and Basic Beliefs: Zombies, Modules, and the Problem of the External World. Oxford University Press.score: 180.0
    Perception and Basic Beliefs brings together an important treatment of these major epistemological topics and provides a positive solution to the traditional problem of the external world.
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  20. Paul Forster (2008). Neither Dogma nor Common Sense: Moore's Confidence in His 'Proof of an External World'. British Journal for the History of Philosophy 16 (1):163 – 195.score: 180.0
    (2008). Neither Dogma nor Common sense: Moore's confidence in his ‘proof of an external world’1. British Journal for the History of Philosophy: Vol. 16, No. 1, pp. 163-195.
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  21. Bertrand Russell (1914/2009). Our Knowledge of the External World: As a Field for Scientific Method in Philosophy. Routledge.score: 180.0
    Philosophy, from the earliest times, has made greater claims, and achieved fewer results, than any other branch of learning. In Our Knowledge of the External World , Bertrand Russell illustrates instances where the claims of philosophers have been excessive, and examines why their achievements have not been greater.
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  22. Charles Landesman (1999). Moore's Proof of an External World and the Problem of Skepticism. Journal of Philosophical Research 24:21-36.score: 180.0
    Moore’s proof consists of the inference of both “Two hands exist at this moment” and “At least two external objects exist at this moment” from the premise “Here is one hand and here is another.” The paper claims that the proof succeeds in refuting both idealism (“There are no external objects”) and skepticism (“Nobody knows that there are external objects”). The paper defends Moore’s proof against the following objections: Idealism does not deny that there is an (...) world so Moore’s proof is beside the point; Moore may be mistaken about the premise; Moore has failed to prove the premise; Moore has failed to show how he knows the premise; the proof leads to an infinite regress; the proof begs the question because the premise assumes what needs to be proved; the premise depends upon a shaky inference; the premise rests upon evidence of the senses and thus begs the question; the proof fails to convince the skeptic. (shrink)
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  23. Manuel Pérez Otero (2013). Purposes of Reasoning and (a New Vindication of) Moore's Proof of an External World. Synthese 190 (18):4181-4200.score: 180.0
    A common view about Moore’s Proof of an External World is that the argument fails because anyone who had doubts about its conclusion could not use the argument to rationally overcome those doubts. I agree that Moore’s Proof is—in that sense—dialectically ineffective at convincing an opponent or a doubter, but I defend that the argument (even when individuated taking into consideration the purpose of Moore’s arguing and, consequently, the preferred addressee of the Proof) does not fail. The key (...)
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  24. Dorit Bar-On (1990). Scepticism: The External World and Meaning. Philosophical Studies 60 (3):207 - 231.score: 180.0
    In this paper, I compare and contrast two kinds of scepticism, Cartesian scepticism about the external world and Quinean scepticism about meaning. I expose Quine's metaphysical claim that there are no facts of the matter about meaning as a sceptical response to a sceptical problem regarding the possibility of our knowledge of meanings. I argue that this sceptical response is overkill; for the sceptical problem about our knowledge of meanings may receive a treatment similar to the naturalistic treatment (...)
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  25. Cecilia Wee (2001). Newman and the Proof of the External World in Descartes's Meditations. British Journal for the History of Philosophy 9 (1):123 – 130.score: 180.0
    In Descartes's _Third Meditation, the mediator states that he may have unknown faculties that could cause his ideas of corporeal things. His proof of the external world in the _Sixth Meditation, however, clearly relies on the assumption that he does not have such unknown faculties. This paper examines Lex Newman's attempt to resolve this apparent inconsistency. I argue that the attempt is not altogether successful.
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  26. Eric Thompson (2010). Pragmatic Invariantism and External World Skepticism. Southwest Philosophy Review 26 (1):35-42.score: 180.0
    Simply stated, Pragmatic Invariantism is the view that the practical interests of a person can influence whether that person’s true belief constitutes knowledge. My primary objective in this article is to show that Pragmatic Invariantism entails external world skepticism. Toward this end, I’ll first introduce a basic version of Pragmatic Invariantism (PI). Then I’ll introduce a sample skeptical hypothesis (SK) to the framework. From this I will show that it is extremely important that the phenomenally equivalent skeptical scenarios (...)
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  27. Donald D. Hoffman (2003). Does Perception Replicate the External World? Behavioral and Brain Sciences 26 (4):415-416.score: 180.0
    Vision scientists standardly assume that the goal of vision is to recover properties of the external world. Lehar's “miniature, virtual-reality replica of the external world inside our head” (target article, sect. 10) is an example of this assumption. I propose instead, on evolutionary grounds, that the goal of vision is simply to provide a useful user interface to the external world.
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  28. Rainer Mausfeld (2001). What's Within? Can the Internal Structure of Perception Be Derived From Regularities of the External World? Behavioral and Brain Sciences 24 (4):689-690.score: 180.0
    Shepard's approach is regarded as an attempt to rescue, within an evolutionary perspective, an empiricist theory of mind. Contrary to this, I argue that the structure of perceptual representations is essentially co-determined by internal aspects and cannot be understood if we confine our attention to the physical side of perception, however appropriately we have chosen our vocabulary for describing the external world. Furthermore, I argue that Kubovy and Epstein's “more modest interpretation” of Shepard's ideas on motion perception is (...)
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  29. James D. Stuart (1986). Descartes' Proof of the External World. History of Philosophy Quarterly 3 (1):19 - 28.score: 180.0
    I argue that descartes' doubting of the external world does not rest on doubting the truth of clear and distinct ideas. in fact, he denies that we clearly and distinctly perceive the "existence" of material things. thus, their existence is not established through the validation of such ideas and we can understand why descartes' argument for their existence takes the form it does. i suggest that dreams lead him to conclude that the existence of material things is not (...)
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  30. Basil Smith, Cartesian Scepticism About the External World, Semantic or Content Externalism, and the Mind.score: 180.0
    This thesis has three parts. In the first part, the author defends the coherence of Cartesian scepticism about the external world. In particular, the author contends that such scepticism survives attacks from Descartes himself, as well as from W.V.O. Quine, Robert Nozick, Alvin Goldman, and David Armstrong. It follows that Cartesian scepticism remains intact. In the second part of this thesis, the author contends that the semantic or content externalisms of Hilary Putnam and Tyler Burge do not refute (...)
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  31. D. W. Hamlyn (1988). The Problem of the External World. Royal Institute of Philosophy Lectures 24:1-13.score: 174.0
    The paper investigates the senses in which the world may be thought external, and argues that none of them supports doubt about the possibility of knowledge of the world. Scepticism sometimes depends on certain erroneous conceptions of perception, especially those which lead to belief in 'inner, representational states'. How we perceive things depends on the satisfaction of certain general conditions--on what concepts we have, on the kind of senses we have, and so on a kind of anthropocentricity; (...)
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  32. Mark Johnston (1996). Is the External World Invisible? Philosophical Issues 7:185-198.score: 162.0
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  33. Enrique Villanueva (1996). Would More Acquaintance with the External World Relieve Epistemic Anxiety? Philosophical Issues 7:215-218.score: 162.0
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  34. W. M. Stuckey, Michael Silberstein & Michael Cifone, Reversing the Arrow of Explanation in the Relational Blockworld: Why Temporal Becoming, the Dynamical Brain and the External World Are All "in the Mind".score: 156.0
    We introduce the Relational Blockworld (RBW) as a paradigm for deflating the mysteries associated with quantum non-separability/non-locality and the measurement problem. We begin by describing how the relativity of simultaneity implies the blockworld, which has an explanatory potential subsuming both dynamical and relational explanations. It is then shown how the canonical commutation relations fundamental to non-relativistic quantum mechanics follow from the relativity of simultaneity. Therefore, quantum mechanics has at its disposal the full explanatory power of the blockworld. Quantum mechanics exploits (...)
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  35. Jaakko Hintikka (1979). Virginia Woolf and Our Knowledge of the External World. Journal of Aesthetics and Art Criticism 38 (1):5-14.score: 156.0
    The longstanding critical refrain that Virginia Woolf's fiction represents a turn "inward" to the vagaries of the inner life has more recently been countered with an "outward" approach emphasizing Woolf's interest in the material world, its everyday objects and their social and political significance. Yet one of the most curious and pervasive features of Woolf's oeuvre is that characters are so frequently wrong in their perceptions. This essay consolidates the inward and outward approaches by tracing the trope of misperception (...)
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  36. Annemarie Butler (2008). Natural Instinct, Perceptual Relativity, and Belief in the External World in Hume's Enquiry. Hume Studies 34 (1):115-158.score: 156.0
    In part 1 of Enquiry 12, Hume presents a skeptical argument against belief in external existence. The argument involves a perceptual relativity argument that seems to conclude straightaway the double existence of objects and perceptions, where objects cause and resemble perceptions. In Treatise 1.4.2, Hume claimed that the belief in double existence arises from imaginative invention, not reasoning about perceptual relativity. I dissolve this tension by distinguishing the effects of natural instinct and showing that some ofthese effects supplement the (...)
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  37. Lex Newman (1994). Descartes on Unknown Faculties and Our Knowledge of the External World. Philosophical Review 103 (3):489-531.score: 156.0
    How are we to understand philosophical claims about sense perception being direct versus indirect? There are multiple relevant notions of perceptual directness, so I argue. Perception of external objects may be direct on some notions, while indirect on others. My interest is with the sense in which ideas count as perceptual mediators in the philosophy of Descartes and Locke. This paper has two broader aims. The first is to clarify four main notions of perceptual directness. The second is to (...)
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  38. John Earman (ed.) (1993). Philosophical Problems of the Internal and External World. University of Pittsburgh Press.score: 156.0
    Now, considering the determinism or indeterminism of the world, ... The question of free will, and the mind-body problem, are two that come to mind. ...
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  39. Brian Glenney (2011). Adam Smith and the Problem of the External World. Journal of Scottish Philosophy 9 (2):205-223.score: 156.0
    How does the mind attribute external causes to internal sensory experiences? Adam Smith addresses this question in his little known essay ‘Of the External Senses.’ I closely examine Smith's various formulations of this problem and then argue for an interpretation of his solution: that inborn perceptual mechanisms automatically generate external attributions of internal experiences. I conclude by speculating that these mechanisms are best understood to operate by simulating tactile environments.
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  40. Laurence BonJour (1999). Foundationalism and the External World. Philosophical Perspectives 13 (s13):229-249.score: 150.0
    Outlines a tenable version of a traditional foundationalist account\nof empirical justification and its implications for the justification\nof beliefs about physical or material objects. Presupposing the acceptability\nof other beliefs about physical objects; Concept of a basic belief;\nMetabeliefs about one's own occurrent beliefs; Beliefs about sensory\nexperience.
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  41. Bredo C. Johnsen (2009). The Argument for Radical Skepticism Concerning the External World. Journal of Philosophy 106 (12):679-693.score: 150.0
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  42. John Greco (2007). External World Skepticism. Philosophy Compass 2 (4):625–649.score: 150.0
    Recent literature in epistemology has focused on the following argument for skepticism (SA): I know that I have two hands only if I know that I am not a handless brain in a vat. But I don't know I am not a handless brain in a vat. Therefore, I don't know that I have two hands. Part I of this article reviews two responses to skepticism that emerged in the 1980s and 1990s: sensitivity theories and attributor contextualism. Part II considers (...)
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  43. Richard Mark Fincham (2011). Transcendental Idealism and the Problem of the External World. Journal of the History of Philosophy 49 (2):221-241.score: 150.0
    Kant's transcendental idealism is often praised for resolving antinomies and attacked for representationalism. Such an attitude prevailed even among Kant's contemporaries. As early as 1787 Friedrich Heinrich Jacobi noted that the "main advantage" of the doctrine that we cognize only appearances and not things in themselves is that it resolves the antinomical conflicts in which previous metaphysics was embroiled and thus "sets reason at rest." Yet, at the same time, Jacobi bemoaned that the transcendental idealist cannot consistently uphold the positive (...)
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  44. Adam Leite (2004). Skepticism, Sensitivity, and Closure, or Why the Closure Principle is Irrelevant to External World Skepticism. Croatian Journal of Philosophy 12:335-350.score: 150.0
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  45. Keith Allen (2010). Perception and Basic Beliefs: Zombies, Modules, and the Problem of the External World * By JACK C. LYONS. Analysis 70 (2):391-393.score: 150.0
    (No abstract is available for this citation).
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  46. W. E. S. McNeill (2012). Perception and Basic Beliefs: Zombies, Modules, and the Problem of the External World, by Jack C. Lyons. Mind 120 (480):1271-1276.score: 150.0
    I give a brief precis of Lyons' book. I discuss the problem of delineating basic from non-basic beliefs. I argue that one of Lyons' possible solutions doesn't work - his definition of a perceptual module does not allow us to decide which beliefs are basic. And I argue that another possible solution undermines some of Lyons' motivation. The intuitive understanding of belief may not generate the Clairvoyancy troubles he fears.
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  47. H. H. Price (1941). Proof of an External World. Annual Philosophical Lecture, Henriette Hertz Trust, British Academy, 1939. By G. E. Moore, Fellow of the Academy. From the Proceedings of the British Academy, Vol. XXV. (London: Humphrey Milford. 1940. Pp. 30. Price 2s. Net.). [REVIEW] Philosophy 16 (61):104-.score: 150.0
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  48. Boyd H. Bode (1905). 'Pure Experience' and the External World. Journal of Philosophy, Psychology and Scientific Methods 2 (5):128-133.score: 150.0
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  49. B. Bosanquet & C. D. Broad (1922). Prof. Broad on the External World. Mind 31 (121):122-123.score: 150.0
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  50. Ezra Talmor (1988). Ideas, Qualities and Corpuscles. Locke and Boyle on the External World. Journal of the History of Philosophy 26 (1):152-153.score: 150.0
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