Search results for 'F. E. Close' (try it on Scholar)

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  1. F. E. Close (2010). The Void. Sterling.score: 960.0
    What remains when you eliminate all matter? Can empty space-a void-exist? _Frank Close takes the reader on a lively and accessible tour through ancient ideas and cultural superstitions (including Aristotle, who insisted that the vacuum was impossible) to the frontiers of current scientific research. These newest discoveries tell us extraordinary things about the cosmos and may provide answers to some of our most fundamental questions: What lies outside the universe? If there was once nothing, then how did the universe (...)
     
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  2. F. E. Close (2007/2009). Nothing: A Very Short Introduction. Oxford University Press.score: 870.0
    This short, smart book tells you everything you need to know about "nothing." What remains when you take all the matter away? Can empty space--"nothing"--exist?
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  3. W. B. Anderson (1928). A History of Christian-Latin Poetry From the Beginnings to the Close of the Middle Ages. By F. J. E. Raby. Pp. Xii + 491. Oxford : At the Clarendon Press, 1927. 21s. Net. [REVIEW] The Classical Review 42 (02):88-89.score: 405.0
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  4. Bento Prado Júnior (2006). O Circuito da ipseidade e seu lugar em “O Ser e o Nada”. Doispontos 3 (2).score: 132.0
    A close examina t ion of Sartre's discussion of the limits of the self in Being and Nothingness may shed light on his ideas on the nature of Metaphysics, O ntology and Phenomenology. Some implicatio ns of his discussion are presented, centered on his de f e nse of the irre ducibility of the phe nome non of being to the being of the phenomenon when dealing with the passage from phenomenology to ontology, which culminates in his phe nomenological (...)
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  5. Luís F. S. Nascimento (2004). Razão e zombaria em Shaftesbury. Doispontos 1 (2).score: 90.0
    Sensus Communis: An Essay on the Freedom of Wit and Humour é o segundo de um conjunto de seis tratados que Anthony Ashley Cooper publicou em 1711 com o nome de Characteristicks of Men, Manners, Opinions, Times. O presente artigo busca analisar a estreita relação que os conceitos de “razão” e “zombaria” assumem nesta obra e a sua importância para a elaboração da noção shaftesburiana de “senso comum”. Reason and raillery in ShaftesburySensus Communis: An Essay on the Freedom of Wit (...)
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  6. Joel B. Hagen (1984). Experimentalists and Naturalists in Twentieth-Century Botany: Experimental Taxonomy, 1920-1950. [REVIEW] Journal of the History of Biology 17 (2):249 - 270.score: 87.0
    Experimental taxonomy was a diverse area of research, and botanists who helped develop it were motivated by a variety of concerns. While experimental taxonomy was never totally a taxonomic enterprise, improvement in classification was certainly one major motivation behind the research. Hall's and Clements' belief that experimental methods added more objectivity to classification was almost universally accepted by experimental taxonomists. Such methods did add a new dimension to taxonomy — a dimension that field and herbarium studies, however rigorous, could not (...)
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  7. Sir Hubert Ranee, Dr Jw Slaughter, Mr Dh Stott, Dr Pk Whelpton, Dr Rc Wolfinden, Dr F. Yates, Charles Arden-Close, E. W. Barnes, Cecil Binney & C. P. Blacker (1951). Notes and Memoranda. Eugenics Review 42:239.score: 87.0
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  8. H. Tristram Engelhardt Jr (2010). Moral Obligation After the Death of God: Critical Reflections on Concerns From Immanuel Kant, G.W.F. Hegel, and Elizabeth Anscombe. [REVIEW] In Ellen Frankel Paul, Fred Dycus Miller & Jeffrey Paul (eds.), Moral Obligation. Cambridge University Press. 317-340.score: 81.0
    Once God is no longer recognized as the ground and the enforcer of morality, the character and force of morality undergoes a significant change, a point made by G.E.M. Anscombe in her observation that without God the significance of morality is changed, as the word criminal would be changed if there were no criminal law and criminal courts. There is no longer in principle a God's-eye perspective from which one can envisage setting moral pluralism aside. In addition, it becomes impossible (...)
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  9. Stephen Houlgate, Hegel's Aesthetics.score: 81.0
    G.W.F. Hegel's aesthetics, or philosophy of art, forms part of the extraordinarily rich German aesthetic tradition that stretches from J.J. Winckelmann's Thoughts on the Imitation of the Painting and Sculpture of the Greeks (1755) and G.E. Lessing's Laocoon (1766) through Immanuel Kant's Critique of the Power of Judgment (1790) and Friedrich Schiller's Letters on the Aesthetic Education of Man (1795) to Friedrich Nietzsche's Birth of Tragedy (1872) and (in the twentieth century) Martin Heidegger's The Origin of the Work of Art (...)
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  10. Chris Matthew Sciabarra & Larry J. Sechrest (2005). Ayn Rand Among the Austrians: Introduction. Journal of Ayn Rand Studies 6 (2):241 - 250.score: 81.0
    This article surveys Rand's relationship to key thinkers in the Austrian school of economics, including Ludwig von Mises, Murray N. Rothbard, and F. A. Hayek. Austrian theory informs the writings of Rand and her early associates (e.g., Nathaniel Branden, Alan Greenspan, and George Reisman) on topics ranging from monopoly to business cycles. Some post-Randian thinkers (e.g., Richard Salsman), however, have repudiated many of these insights, thus constituting a movement away from the historically close relationship between Objectivism and Austrianism. This (...)
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  11. L. A. Zadeh (1983). A Fuzzy-Set-Theoretic Approach to the Compositionality of Meaning: Propositions, Dispositions and Canonical Forms. Journal of Semantics 2 (3-4):253-272.score: 81.0
    In its traditional interpretation, Frege's principle of compositionality is not sufficiently flexible to have a wide applicability to natural languages. In a fuzzy-set-theoretic setting which is outlined in this paper, Frege's principle is modified and broadened by allowing the meaning of a proposition, p, to be composed not from the meaning of the constituents of p, but, more generally, from the meaning of a collection of fuzzy relations which form a so-called explanatory database that is associated with p. More specifically, (...)
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  12. Františka + Tim Gilman (2011). Rainer Ganahl's S/L. Continent 1 (1):15-20.score: 81.0
    The greatest intensity of “live” life is captured from as close as possible in order to be borne as far as possible away. Jacques Derrida. Echographies of Television . Rainer Ganahl has made a study of studying. As part of his extensive autobiographical art practice, he documents and presents many of the ambitious educational activities he undertakes. For example, he has been videotaping hundreds of hours of solitary study that show him struggling to learn Chinese, Arabic and a host (...)
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  13. Jean-Pierre Gourret (1995). Modelling the Mitotic Apparatus. Acta Biotheoretica 43 (1-2).score: 81.0
    This bibliographical review of the modelling of the mitotic apparatus covers a period of one hundred and twenty years, from the discovery of the bipolar mitotic spindle up to the present day. Without attempting to be fully comprehensive, it will describe the evolution of the main ideas that have left their mark on a century of experimental and theoretical research. Fol and Bütschli's first writings date back to 1873, at a time when Schleiden and Schwann's cell theory was rapidly gaining (...)
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  14. Gunther Mainhardt (2013). Traces, Traceability, and Lattices of Traces Under the Set Theoretic Inclusion. Archive for Mathematical Logic 52 (7-8):847-869.score: 81.0
    Let a trace be a computably enumerable set of natural numbers such that ${V^{[m]} = \{n : \langle n, m\rangle \in V \}}$ is finite for all m, where ${\langle^{.},^{.}\rangle}$ denotes an appropriate pairing function. After looking at some basic properties of traces like that there is no uniform enumeration of all traces, we prove varied results on traceability and variants thereof, where a function ${f : \mathbb{N} \rightarrow \mathbb{N}}$ is traceable via a trace V if for all ${m, \langle (...)
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  15. John F. Halpin (1998). Lewis, Thau, and Hall on Chance and the Best-System Account of Law. Philosophy of Science 65 (2):349-360.score: 45.0
    August 16, 1997 David Lewis2 has long defended an account of scientific law acceptable even to an empiricist with significant metaphysical scruples. On this account, the laws are defined to be the consequences of the best system for axiomitizing all occurrent fact. Here "best system" means the set of sentences which yields the best combination of strength of descriptive content 3 with simplicity of exposition. And occurrent facts, the facts to be systematized, are roughly the particular facts about a localized (...)
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  16. R. E. Lawrence & F. A. Curlin (2011). The Rise of Empirical Research in Medical Ethics: A MacIntyrean Critique and Proposal. Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 36 (2):206-216.score: 45.0
    Hume's is/ought distinction has long limited the role of empirical research in ethics, saying that data about what something is cannot yield conclusions about the way things ought to be. However, interest in empirical research in ethics has been growing despite this countervailing principle. We attribute some of this increased interest to a conceptual breakdown of the is/ought distinction. MacIntyre, in reviewing the history of the is/ought distinction, argues that is and ought are not strictly separate realms but exist in (...)
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  17. E. Bouscaren & F. Delon (2002). Minimal Groups in Separably Closed Fields. Journal of Symbolic Logic 67 (1):239-259.score: 39.0
    We give a complete description of minimal groups infinitely definable in separably closed fields of finite degree of imperfection. In particular we answer positively the question of the existence of such a group with infinite transcendence degree (i.e., a minimal group with non thin generic).
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  18. J. L. F. Barbón & E. Rabinovici (2003). Remarks on Black Hole Instabilities and Closed String Tachyons. Foundations of Physics 33 (1):145-165.score: 36.0
    Physical arguments stemming from the theory of black-hole thermodynamics are used to put constraints on the dynamics of closed-string tachyon condensation in Scherk–Schwarz compactifications. A geometrical interpretation of the tachyon condensation involves an effective capping of a noncontractible cycle, thus removing the very topology that supports the tachyons. A semiclassical regime is identified in which the matching between the tachyon condensation and the black-hole instability flow is possible. We formulate a generalized correspondence principle and illustrate it in several different circumstances: (...)
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  19. E. I. Guendelman (2001). The Volume Element of Space-Time and Scale Invariance. Foundations of Physics 31 (7):1019-1037.score: 30.0
    Scale invariance is considered in the context of gravitational theories where the action, in the first order formalism, is of the form S=∫ L 1 Φ d 4 x+∫ L 2 $\sqrt{-g}$ d 4 x where the volume element Φ d 4 x is independent of the metric. For global scale invariance, a “dilaton” φ has to be introduced, with non-trivial potentials V(φ)=f 1 eαφ in L 1 and U(φ)=f 2 e 2αφ in L 2 . This leads to non-trivial (...)
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  20. Jan E. Holly (1995). Canonical Forms for Definable Subsets of Algebraically Closed and Real Closed Valued Fields. Journal of Symbolic Logic 60 (3):843-860.score: 30.0
    We present a canonical form for definable subsets of algebraically closed valued fields by means of decompositions into sets of a simple form, and do the same for definable subsets of real closed valued fields. Both cases involve discs, forming "Swiss cheeses" in the algebraically closed case, and cuts in the real closed case. As a step in the development, we give a proof for the fact that in "most" valued fields F, if f(x),g(x) ∈ F[ x] and v is (...)
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  21. John L. Bell (1999). Finite Sets and Frege Structures. Journal of Symbolic Logic 64 (4):1552-1556.score: 29.0
    Call a family F of subsets of a set E inductive if ∅ ∈ F and F is closed under unions with disjoint singletons, that is, if ∀X∈F ∀x∈E–X(X ∪ {x} ∈ F]. A Frege structure is a pair (E.
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  22. Lynsey Wolter (2010). Teaching & Learning Guide For: Demonstratives in Philosophy and Linguistics. Philosophy Compass 5 (1):108-111.score: 27.0
    Demonstrative noun phrases (e.g. this; that guy over there ) are intimately connected to the context of use in that their reference is determined by demonstrations and/or the speaker's intentions. The semantics of demonstratives therefore has important implications not only for theories of reference, but for questions about how information from the context interacts with formal semantics. First treated by Kaplan as directly referential , demonstratives have recently been analyzed as quantifiers by King, and the choice between these two approaches (...)
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  23. Boris Rähme (2013). Common Sense, Strict Incompatibilism, and Free Will. Philosophical Inquiries 1 (1):107-124.score: 27.0
    Peter van Inwagen and Colin McGinn hold that there are strong arguments for strict incompatibilism, i.e. for the claim that the free will thesis (F) is inconsistent not just with determinism but with the negation of determinism as well. Interestingly, both authors deny that these arguments are apt to justify the claim that (F) is false. I argue that van Inwagen and McGinn are right in taking the fact that epistemic commitment to (F) is deeply rooted in common sense to (...)
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  24. Monroe C. Beardsley (1975). Actions and Events: The Problem of Individuation. American Philosophical Quarterly 12 (4):263 - 276.score: 27.0
    For the events "e" and "f" to be identical, They must have the same subject and spatio-Temporal location, And their (participial) property-Descriptions must belong to the same "modification set" (e.G., Reddening, Reddening slowly, Reddening in july). The same criterion applies to actions, Which are here treated strictly as a proper subclass of events (john's closing the door = the door's being closed by john = the door's becoming closed). Actions related by goldman's "causal generation" are therefore distinct, But those related (...)
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  25. Robert K. Meyer (2008). Ai, Me and Lewis (Abelian Implication, Material Equivalence and C I Lewis 1920). Journal of Philosophical Logic 37 (2):169 - 181.score: 27.0
    C I Lewis showed up Down Under in 2005, in e-mails initiated by Allen Hazen of Melbourne. Their topic was the system Hazen called FL (a Funny Logic), axiomatized in passing in Lewis 1921. I show that FL is the system MEN of material equivalence with negation. But negation plays no special role in MEN. Symbolizing equivalence with → and defining ∼A inferentially as A→f, the theorems of MEN are just those of the underlying theory ME of pure material equivalence. (...)
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  26. Ulrich Kohlenbach (1992). Effective Bounds From Ineffective Proofs in Analysis: An Application of Functional Interpretation and Majorization. Journal of Symbolic Logic 57 (4):1239-1273.score: 27.0
    We show how to extract effective bounds Φ for $\bigwedge u^1 \bigwedge v \leq_\gamma tu \bigvee w^\eta G_0$ -sentences which depend on u only (i.e. $\bigwedge u \bigwedge v \leq_\gamma tu \bigvee w \leq_\eta \Phi uG_0$ ) from arithmetical proofs which use analytical assumptions of the form \begin{equation*}\tag{*}\bigwedge x^\delta\bigvee y \leq_\rho sx \bigwedge z^\tau F_0\end{equation*} (γ, δ, ρ, and τ are arbitrary finite types, η ≤ 2, G0 and F0 are quantifier-free, and s and t are closed terms). If τ (...)
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  27. Anatolij Dvurečenskij, Tibor Neubrunn & Sylvia Pulmannová (1990). Finitely Additive States and Completeness of Inner Product Spaces. Foundations of Physics 20 (9):1091-1102.score: 27.0
    For any unit vector in an inner product space S, we define a mapping on the system of all ⊥-closed subspaces of S, F(S), whose restriction on the system of all splitting subspaces of S, E(S), is always a finitely additive state. We show that S is complete iff at least one such mapping is a finitely additive state on F(S). Moreover, we give a completeness criterion via the existence of a regular finitely additive state on appropriate systems of subspaces. (...)
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  28. Bruce I. Rose (1978). Rings Which Admit Elimination of Quantifiers. Journal of Symbolic Logic 43 (1):92-112.score: 27.0
    We say that a ring admits elimination of quantifiers, if in the language of rings, {0, 1, +, ·}, the complete theory of R admits elimination of quantifiers. Theorem 1. Let D be a division ring. Then D admits elimination of quantifiers if and only if D is an algebraically closed or finite field. A ring is prime if it satisfies the sentence: ∀ x ∀ y ∃ z (x = 0 ∨ y = 0 ∨ xzy ≠ 0). Theorem (...)
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  29. J. Atlas (1997). Negative Adverbials, Prototypical Negation and the De Morgan Taxonomy. Journal of Semantics 14 (4):349-367.score: 27.0
    Gamut (1991) and Atlas (1991, 1993, 1996b) showed that the Generalized Quantifier 1only Proper Name1 licenses Negative Polarity Items but fails to be downwards monotonic in Barwise & Cooper's (1981) sense. In Atlas (1996a, in press) I examined Zwarts's (1996, 1998) De Morgan taxonomy for negative Noun Phrases. Two of the four De Morgan entailments used by Zwarts to characterize the negation of negative Noun Phrases express downward monotonicity of the Noun Phrase Q, viz. Q(For G) ⊩ QF& QG, and (...)
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  30. T. Ziemke (2012). The Construction of Embodied Agency: The Other Side of the System–Environment Coin. Constructivist Foundations 8 (1):52-54.score: 27.0
    Open peer commentary on the article “Observing Environments” by Hugo F. Alrøe & Egon Noe. Upshot: Complementary to Alrøe and Noe’s discussion of constructivist notions of environment, world, etc., this commentary addresses the closely-related notion of agency in constructivist theories – in particular, the question of what would be required for artificial agency – and identifies open questions and fundamental disagreements among constructivist theorists.
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  31. L. R. Galminas & John W. Rosenthal (2002). More Undecidable Lattices of Steinitz Exchange Systems. Journal of Symbolic Logic 67 (2):859-878.score: 27.0
    We show that the first order theory of the lattice $\mathscr{L}^{ (S) of finite dimensional closed subsets of any nontrivial infinite dimensional Steinitz Exhange System S has logical complexity at least that of first order number theory and that the first order theory of the lattice L(S ∞ ) of computably enumerable closed subsets of any nontrivial infinite dimensional computable Steinitz Exchange System S ∞ has logical complexity exactly that of first order number theory. Thus, for example, the lattice of (...)
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  32. Stephen Castles (2003). Jerarquías de ciudadanía en el nuevo orden global. Anales de la Cátedra Francisco Suárez 37:9-33.score: 27.0
    I n Citizenshi p an d Migration : Globalizatio n an d th e Politic s o f Belongin g publishe d in 2000 , Alastai r Davidso n an d I showe d tha t globalisatio n an d migratio n thro w u p serious challenge s fo r citizenship . Thi s articl e goe s further , b y examinin g change s resultin g from th e emergenc e o f a ne w constellatio n (...)
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  33. Françoise Delon & Danielle Gondard (1991). XVIIème Problème de Hilbert Sur Les Corps Chaîne-Clos. Journal of Symbolic Logic 56 (3):853-861.score: 27.0
    A chain-closed field is defined as a chainable field (i.e. a real field such that, for all n ∈ N, Σ K2n+1 ≠ Σ K2n) which does not admit any "faithful" algebraic extension, and can also be seen as a field having a Henselian valuation ν such that the residue field K/ν is real closed and the value group ν K is odd divisible with |ν K/2ν K| = 2. If K admits only one such valuation, we show that f (...)
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  34. Radim Bělohlávek (2003). Birkhoff Variety Theorem and Fuzzy Logic. Archive for Mathematical Logic 42 (8):781-790.score: 27.0
    An algebra with fuzzy equality is a set with operations on it that is equipped with similarity ≈, i.e. a fuzzy equivalence relation, such that each operation f is compatible with ≈. Described verbally, compatibility says that each f yields similar results if applied to pairwise similar arguments. On the one hand, algebras with fuzzy equalities are structures for the equational fragment of fuzzy logic. On the other hand, they are the formal counterpart to the intuitive idea of having functions (...)
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  35. Karl-Heinz Niggl (1998). A Restricted Computation Model on Scott Domains and its Partial Primitive Recursive Functionals. Archive for Mathematical Logic 37 (7):443-481.score: 27.0
    The paper builds on both a simply typed term system ${\cal PR}^\omega$ and a computation model on Scott domains via so-called parallel typed while programs (PTWP). The former provides a notion of partial primitive recursive functional on Scott domains $D_\rho$ supporting a suitable concept of parallelism. Computability on Scott domains seems to entail that Kleene's schema of higher type simultaneous course-of-values recursion (scvr) is not reducible to partial primitive recursion. So extensions ${\cal PR}^{\omega e}$ and PTWP $^e$ are studied that (...)
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  36. Karl-Heinz Niggl (1997). Non-Definability of the Ackermann Function with Type 1 Partial Primitive Recursion. Archive for Mathematical Logic 37 (1):1-13.score: 27.0
    The paper builds on a simply typed term system ${\cal PR}^\omega $ providing a notion of partial primitive recursive functional on arbitrary Scott domains $D_\sigma$ that includes a suitable concept of parallelism. Computability on the partial continuous functionals seems to entail that Kleene's schema of higher type simultaneous course-of-values recursion (SCVR) is not reducible to partial primitive recursion. So an extension ${\cal PR}^{\omega e}$ is studied that is closed under SCVR and yet stays within the realm of subrecursiveness. The twist (...)
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  37. Frank Wolter (1998). All Finitely Axiomatizable Subframe Logics Containing the Provability Logic CSM_{0} Are Decidable. Archive for Mathematical Logic 37 (3):167-182.score: 27.0
    In this paper we investigate those extensions of the bimodal provability logic ${\vec CSM}_{0}$ (alias ${\vec PRL}_{1}$ or ${\vec F}^{-})$ which are subframe logics, i.e. whose general frames are closed under a certain type of substructures. Most bimodal provability logics are in this class. The main result states that all finitely axiomatizable subframe logics containing ${\vec CSM}_{0}$ are decidable. We note that, as a rule, interesting systems in this class do not have the finite model property and are not even (...)
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  38. M. Hochel, E. G. Milan, A. Gonzalez, F. Tornay, K. McKenney, R. Diaz Caviedes, J. L. Mata Martin, M. A. Rodriguez Artacho, E. Dominguez Garcia & J. Vila (2007). Experimental Study of Phantom Colours in a Colour Blind Synaesthete. Journal of Consciousness Studies 14 (4):75-95.score: 24.0
    Synaesthesia is a condition in which one type of stimulation evokes the sensation of another, as when the hearing of a sound produces photisms, i.e. mental percepts of colours. R is a 20 year old colour blind subject who, in addition to the relatively common grapheme-colour synaesthesia, presents a rarely reported cross modal perception in which a variety of visual stimuli elicit aura-like percepts of colour. In R, photisms seem to be closely related to the affective valence of stimuli and (...)
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  39. Paola E. Dussias Jason W. Gullifer, Judith F. Kroll (2013). When Language Switching has No Apparent Cost: Lexical Access in Sentence Context. Frontiers in Psychology 4.score: 24.0
    We report two experiments that investigate the effects of sentence context on bilingual lexical access in Spanish and English. Highly proficient Spanish-English bilinguals read sentences in Spanish and English that included a marked word to be named. The word was either a cognate with similar orthography and/or phonology in the two languages, or a matched non-cognate control. Sentences appeared in one language alone (i.e., Spanish or English) and target words were not predictable on the basis of the preceding semantic context. (...)
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  40. András Szigeti (2014). Focusing Forgiveness. Journal of Value Inquiry 48 (2):217-234.score: 18.0
    IntroductionIt is clear that forgiveness is closely related to emotions. Bishop Butler’s “forswearing of resentment” is still the definition most philosophical works on the subject take as their point of departure. Some others disagree but usually only insofar as they focus on another reactive emotion – e.g., moral hatred, disappointment, anger – which we overcome when we forgive.More specifically, according to Roberts the emotion we overcome in forgiveness is anger, see Robert C. Roberts, “Forgivingness,” American Philosophical Quarterly 32 (1995): 289–306. (...)
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  41. F. Herbut (2010). On EPR-Type Entanglement in the Experiments of Scully Et Al. II. Insight in the Real Random Delayed-Choice Erasure Experiment. Foundations of Physics 40 (3):301-312.score: 15.0
    It was pointed out in the first part of this study (Herbut in Found. Phys. 38:1046–1064, 2008) that EPR-type entanglement is defined by the possibility of performing any of two mutually incompatible distant, i.e., direct-interaction-free, measurements. They go together under the term ‘EPR-type disentanglement’. In this second part, quantum-mechanical insight is gained in the real random delayed-choice erasure experiment of Kim et al. (Phys. Rev. Lett. 84:1–5, 2000) by a relative-reality-of-unitarily-evolving-state (RRUES) approach (explained in the first part). Finally, it is (...)
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  42. Lawrence E. Johnson (1992). Focusing on Truth. Routledge.score: 15.0
    Focusing on Truth explores the question of what truth is, balancing historical with issue-orientated discussion. The book offers a comprehensive survey of all the major theories of truth. Lawrence Johnson investigates a number of closely related matters of truth in his inquiry, such as: What sorts of things are true or false? What is attributed to them when they are said to be true or false? What do facts have to do with truth? What can we learn from previous theories? (...)
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  43. H. Rabagliati, G. F. Marcus & L. Pylkkanen (2011). Rules, Radical Pragmatics and Restrictions on Regular Polysemy. Journal of Semantics 28 (4):485-512.score: 15.0
    Although regular polysemy [e.g. producer for product (John read Dickens) or container for contents (John drank the bottle)] has been extensively studied, there has been little work on why certain polysemy patterns are more acceptable than others. We take an empirical approach to the question, in particular evaluating an account based on rules against a gradient account of polysemy that is based on various radical pragmatic theories (Fauconnier 1985; Nunberg 1995). Under the gradient approach, possible senses become more acceptable as (...)
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  44. E. R. John, L. S. Prichep, W. Kox, P. Valdes-Sosa, J. Bosch-Bayard, E. Aubert, M. Tom, F. diMichele & L. D. Gugino (2001). Invariant Reversible QEEG Effects of Anesthetics. Consciousness and Cognition 10 (2):165-183.score: 15.0
    Continuous recordings of brain electrical activity were obtained from a group of 176 patients throughout surgical procedures using general anesthesia. Artifact-free data from the 19 electrodes of the International 10/20 System were subjected to quantitative analysis of the electroencephalogram (QEEG). Induction was variously accomplished with etomidate, propofol or thiopental. Anesthesia was maintained throughout the procedures by isoflurane, desflurane or sevoflurane (N = 68), total intravenous anesthesia using propofol (N = 49), or nitrous oxide plus narcotics (N = 59). A set (...)
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  45. Joseph F. Hanna (1978). On Transmitted Information as a Measure of Explanatory Power. Philosophy of Science 45 (4):531-562.score: 15.0
    This paper contrasts two information-theoretic approaches to statistical explanation: namely, (1) an analysis, which originated in my earlier research on problems of testing stochastic models of learning, based on an entropy-like measure of expected transmitted-information (and here referred to as the Expected-Information Model), and (2) the analysis, which was proposed by James Greeno (and which is closely related to Wesley Salmon's Statistical Relevance Model), based on the information-transmitted-by-a-system. The substantial differences between these analyses can be traced to the following basic (...)
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  46. F. Geringswald, F. Baumgartner & S. Pollmann (2011). Simulated Loss of Foveal Vision Eliminates Visual Search Advantage in Repeated Displays. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 6:134-134.score: 15.0
    In the contextual cueing paradigm, incidental visual learning of repeated distractor configurations leads to faster search times in repeated compared to new displays. This contextual cueing is closely linked to the visual exploration of the search arrays as indicated by fewer fixations and more efficient scan paths in repeated search arrays. Here, we examined contextual cueing under impaired visual exploration induced by a simulated central scotoma that causes the participant to rely on extrafoveal vision. We let normal-sighted participants search for (...)
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  47. Wesley H. Holliday, Tomohiro Hoshi & Thomas F. Icard (2012). A Uniform Logic of Information Dynamics. In Thomas Bolander, Torben Braüner, Silvio Ghilardi & Lawrence Moss (eds.), Advances in Modal Logic 9. College Publications.score: 15.0
    Unlike standard modal logics, many dynamic epistemic logics are not closed under uniform substitution. A distinction therefore arises between the logic and its substitution core, the set of formulas all of whose substitution instances are valid. The classic example of a non-uniform dynamic epistemic logic is Public Announcement Logic (PAL), and a well-known open problem is to axiomatize the substitution core of PAL. In this paper we solve this problem for PAL over the class of all relational models with infinitely (...)
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  48. Renato A. Lewin, Irene F. Mikenberg & María G. Schwarze (1997). On the Algebraizability of Annotated Logics. Studia Logica 59 (3):359-386.score: 15.0
    Annotated logics were introduced by V.S. Subrahmanian as logical foundations for computer programming. One of the difficulties of these systems from the logical point of view is that they are not structural, i.e., their consequence relations are not closed under substitutions. In this paper we give systems of annotated logics that are equivalent to those of Subrahmanian in the sense that everything provable in one type of system has a translation that is provable in the other. Moreover these new systems (...)
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  49. Barbara F. Csima, Valentina S. Harizanov, Russell Miller & Antonio Montalbán (2011). Computability of Fraïssé Limits. Journal of Symbolic Logic 76 (1):66 - 93.score: 15.0
    Fraïssé studied countable structures S through analysis of the age of S i.e., the set of all finitely generated substructures of S. We investigate the effectiveness of his analysis, considering effectively presented lists of finitely generated structures and asking when such a list is the age of a computable structure. We focus particularly on the Fraïssé limit. We also show that degree spectra of relations on a sufficiently nice Fraïssé limit are always upward closed unless the relation is definable by (...)
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  50. William E. Morris (1990). Knowledge and the Regularity Theory of Information. Synthese 82 (3):375-398.score: 12.0
    Fred Dretske's "Knowledge and the Flow of Information" is an extended attempt to develop a philosophically useful theory of information. Dretske adapts central ideas from Shannon and Weaver's mathematical theory of communication, and applies them to some traditional problems in epistemology. In doing so, he succeeds in building for philosophers a much-needed bridge to important work in cognitive science. The pay-off for epistemologists is that Dretske promises a way out of a long-standing impasse -- the Gettier problem. He offers an (...)
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