Search results for 'Fairness' (try it on Scholar)

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  1. John Rawls (2001). Justice as Fairness: A Restatement. Harvard University Press.
    This book originated as lectures for a course on political philosophy that Rawls taught regularly at Harvard in the 1980s.
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  2.  32
    Daniel Koltonski (2014). The Principle of Fairness, Political Duties, and the Benefits Proviso Mistake. New Content is Available for Journal of Moral Philosophy (3):265-293.
    _ Source: _Page Count 29 Recent debate in the literature on political obligation about the principle of fairness rests on a mistake. Despite the widespread assumption to the contrary, a person can have a duty of fairness to share in the burdens of sustaining some cooperative scheme even though that scheme does not represent a net benefit to her. Recognizing this mistake allows for a resolution of the stalemate between those who argue that the mere receipt of some (...)
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  3.  20
    C. Armstrong (2016). Fairness, Free-Riding and Rainforest Protection. Political Theory 44 (1):106-130.
    If dangerous climate change is to be avoided, it is vital that carbon sinks such as tropical rainforests are protected. But protecting them has costs. These include opportunity costs: the potential economic benefits which those who currently control rainforests have to give up when they are protected. But who should bear those costs? Should countries which happen to have rainforests within their territories sacrifice their own economic development, because of our broader global interests in protecting key carbon sinks? This essay (...)
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  4.  16
    David R. Morrow (forthcoming). Fairness in Allocating the Global Emissions Budget. Environmental Values.
    One central question of climate justice is how to fairly allocate the global emissions budget. Some commentators hold that the concept of fairness is hopelessly equivocal on this point. Others claim that we need a complete theory of distributive justice to answer the question. This paper argues to the contrary that, given only weak assumptions about fairness, we can show that fairness requires an allocation that is at least as prioritarian as the equal per capita view. Since (...)
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  5.  85
    F. M. Kamm (2015). Cost Effectiveness Analysis and Fairness. Journal of Practical Ethics 3 (1):1-14.
    This article considers some different views of fairness and whether they conflict with the use of a version of Cost Effectiveness Analysis (CEA) that calls for maximizing health benefits per dollar spent. Among the concerns addressed are whether this version of CEA ignores the concerns of the worst off and inappropriately aggregates small benefits to many people. I critically examine the views of Daniel Hausman and Peter Singer who defend this version of CEA and Eric Nord among others who (...)
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  6. Rob van Someren Greve (2014). 'Ought', 'Can', and Fairness. Ethical Theory and Moral Practice 17 (5):913-922.
    According to the principle that ‘ought’ implies ‘can’, it is never the case that you ought to do something you cannot do. While many accept this principle in some form, it also has its share of critics, and thus it seems desirable if an argument can be offered in its support. The aim of this paper is to examine a particular way in which the principle has been defended, namely, by appeal to considerations of fairness. In a nutshell, the (...)
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  7.  38
    Nathaniel Sharadin (forthcoming). Fairness and the Strengths of Agents' Claims. Utilitas:1-14.
    John Broome has proposed a theory of fairness according to which fairness requires that agents' claims to goods be satisfied in proportion to the relative strength of their claims. In the case of competing claims for a single indivisible good, Broome argues that what fairness requires is the use of a weighted lottery as a surrogate to satisfying the competing claims: the relative chance of each claimant's winning the lottery should be set to the the relative strength (...)
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  8.  43
    Marcus Arvan, Errata - Rightness as Fairness: A Moral and Political Theory.
  9.  28
    Maurice E. Schweitzer & Donald E. Gibson (2008). Fairness, Feelings, and Ethical Decision- Making: Consequences of Violating Community Standards of Fairness. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 77 (3):287 - 301.
    In this article, we describe the influence of violations of community standards of fairness (Kahneman, Knetsch, and Thaler, 1986a) on subsequent ethical decision-making and emotions. Across two studies, we manipulated explanations for a common action, and we find that explanations that violate community standards of fairness (e.g., by taking advantage of an in crease in market power) lead to greater intentions to behave unethically than explanations that are consistent with community standards of fairness (e.g., by passing along (...)
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  10.  32
    Louis Kaplow (2002). Fairness Versus Welfare. Harvard University Press.
    Summary of, and response to criticism of, the authors' book, Fairness versus welfare (Harvard University Press, 2002).
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  11.  19
    James J. Angel & Douglas McCabe (2013). Fairness in Financial Markets: The Case of High Frequency Trading. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 112 (4):585-595.
    Recent concern over “high frequency trading” (HFT) has called into question the fairness of the practice. What does it mean for a financial market to be “fair”? We first examine how high frequency trading is actually used. High frequency traders often implement traditional beneficial strategies such as market making and arbitrage, although computers can also be used for manipulative strategies as well. We then examine different notions of fairness. Procedural fairness can be viewed from the perspective of (...)
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  12.  11
    David B. Resnik & Susan A. Elmore (2016). Ensuring the Quality, Fairness, and Integrity of Journal Peer Review: A Possible Role of Editors. Science and Engineering Ethics 22 (1):169-188.
    A growing body of literature has identified potential problems that can compromise the quality, fairness, and integrity of journal peer review, including inadequate review, inconsistent reviewer reports, reviewer biases, and ethical transgressions by reviewers. We examine the evidence concerning these problems and discuss proposed reforms, including double-blind and open review. Regardless of the outcome of additional research or attempts at reforming the system, it is clear that editors are the linchpin of peer review, since they make decisions that have (...)
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  13. Jiafeng Zhu (2014). Fairness, Political Obligation, and the Justificatory Gap. Journal of Moral Philosophy (4):1-23.
    The moral principle of fairness or fair play is widely believed to be a solid ground for political obligation, i.e., a general prima facie moral duty to obey the law qua law. In this article, I advance a new and, more importantly, principled objection to fairness theories of political obligation by revealing and defending a justificatory gap between the principle of fairness and political obligation: the duty of fairness on its own is incapable of preempting the (...)
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  14.  22
    Dheeraj Sharma, Shaheen Borna & James M. Stearns (2009). An Investigation of the Effects of Corporate Ethical Values on Employee Commitment and Performance: Examining the Moderating Role of Perceived Fairness. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 89 (2):251 - 260.
    Corporate ethical values (CEVs) can be viewed outside the realm of organizational training, standard operating procedures, reward and punishment systems, formal statements, and as more representative of the real nature of the organization (Organ, 1988). Past researchers have empirically demonstrated the direct influence of CEVs on job performance. This study argues that employees' perception of organizational fairness will create perceptual distortion of CEVs. The results of the study indicate that perceived fairness moderates the influence of CEVs on two (...)
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  15. Jonathan Wolff (2010). Fairness, Respect and the Egalitarian Ethos Revisited. Journal of Ethics 14 (3-4):335-350.
    This paper reconsiders some themes and arguments from my earlier paper “Fairness, Respect and the Egalitarian Ethos.” That work is often considered to be part of a cluster of papers attacking “luck egalitarianism” on the grounds that insisting on luck egalitarianism's standards of fairness undermines relations of mutual respect among citizens. While this is an accurate reading, the earlier paper did not make its motivations clear, and the current paper attempts to explain the reasons that led me to (...)
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  16. Brad Hooker (2005). Fairness. Ethical Theory and Moral Practice 8 (4):329 - 352.
    The main body of this paper assesses a leading recent theory of fairness, a theory put forward by John Broome. I discuss Broome's theory partly because of its prominence and partly because I think it points us in the right direction, even if it takes some missteps. In the course of discussing Broome's theory, I aim to cast light on the relation of fairness to consistency, equality, impartiality, desert, rights, and agreements. Indeed, before I start assessing Broome's theory, (...)
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  17. Alejandro Rosas (2005). La Moral y Sus Sombras: La Racionalidad Instrumental y la Evolución de Las Normas de Equidad (Morality and its Shadows: Instrumental Rationality and the Evolution of Fairness Norms). Critica 37 (110):79 - 104.
    Los sociobiólogos han defendido una posición "calvinista" que se resume en la siguiente fórmula: si la selección natural explica las actitudes morales, no hay altruismo genuino en la moral; si la moral es altruista, entonces la selección natural no puede explicarla. En este ensayo desenmascaro los presupuestos erróneos de esta posición y defiendo que el altruismo como equidad no es incompatible con la selección natural. Rechazo una concepción hobbesiana de la moral, pero sugiero su empleo en la interpretación de la (...)
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  18.  14
    Eliane Bacha & Sandra Walker (2013). The Relationship Between Transformational Leadership and Followers' Perceptions of Fairness. Journal of Business Ethics 116 (3):667-680.
    Of recent time, there has been a concern about ethical leadership and ethics in business. Research on leadership did not pay a lot of attention to fairness and many authors have studied the relationship between leader fairness and factors such as outcome satisfaction and trust in leader for instance. For the moment, there is no study that focused on the direct relationship between transformational leadership and fairness. That’s why; in this paper our aim is to study the (...)
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  19.  20
    A. C. Paseau & Ben Saunders (2015). Fairness and Aggregation. Utilitas 27 (4):460-469.
    Sometimes, two unfair distributions cancel out in aggregate. Paradoxically, two distributions each of which is fair in isolation may give rise to aggregate unfairness. When assessing the fairness of distributions, it therefore matters whether we assess transactions piecemeal or focus only on the overall result. This piece illustrates these difficulties for two leading theories of fairness before offering a formal proof that no non-trivial theory guarantees aggregativity. This is not intended as a criticism of any particular theory, but (...)
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  20.  76
    Marcus Arvan (2014). Justice as Fairness in a Broken World. Philosophy and Public Issues - Filosofia E Questioni Pubbliche 4 (2):95-126.
    In Ethics for a Broken World : Imagining Philosophy after Catastrophe, Tim Mulgan applies a number of influential moral and political theories to a “broken world ”: a world of environmental catastrophe in which resources are insufficient to meet everyone’s basic needs. This paper shows that John Rawls’ conception of justice as fairness has very different implications for a broken world than Mulgan suggests it does. §1 briefly summarizes Rawls’ conception of justice, including how Rawls uses a hypothetical model (...)
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  21.  40
    Marion Fortin & Martin R. Fellenz (2008). Hypocrisies of Fairness: Towards a More Reflexive Ethical Base in Organizational Justice Research and Practice. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 78 (3):415 - 433.
    Despite becoming one of the most active research areas in organizational behavior, the field of organizational justice has stayed at a safe distance from moral questions of values, as well as from critical questions regarding the implications of fairness considerations on the status quo of power relations in today’s organizations. We argue that both organizational justice research and the managerial practices it informs lack reflexivity. This manifests itself in two possible hypocrisies of fairness. Managers may apply organizational justice (...)
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  22.  5
    Jodie L. Ferguson, Pam Scholder Ellen & William O. Bearden (2013). Procedural and Distributive Fairness: Determinants of Overall Price Fairness. Journal of Business Ethics 121 (2):1-15.
    The present research isolates the fairness assessment of the process used by the retailer to set a price, as well as the distributive fairness of the price compared to the price that others are offered, and examines the combined effect of procedural fairness and distributive fairness on overall price fairness. Two experimental studies examine procedural and distributive fairness effects on overall price fairness. In study 1, procedural fairness and distributive fairness are (...)
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  23.  72
    Ben Saunders (2010). Fairness Between Competing Claims. Res Publica 16 (1):41-55.
    Fairness is a central, but under-theorized, notion in moral and political philosophy. This paper makes two contributions. Firstly, it criticizes Broome’s seminal account of fairness in Proc Aristotelian Soc 91:87–101, showing that there are problems with restricting fairness to a matter of relative satisfaction and holding that it does not itself require the satisfaction of the claims in question. Secondly, it considers the justification of lotteries to resolve cases of ties between competing claims, which Broome claims as (...)
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  24.  3
    Charlotte A. Newey (2016). Fairness as 'Appropriate Impartiality' and the Problem of the Self Serving Bias. Ethical Theory and Moral Practice 19 (3):695-709.
    Garrett Cullity contends that fairness is appropriate impartiality (See Cullity (2004) Chapters 8 and 10 and Cullity (2008)). Cullity deploys his account of fairness as a means of limiting the extreme moral demand to make sacrifices in order to aid others that was posed by Peter Singer in his seminal article ‘Famine, Affluence and Morality’. My paper is founded upon the combination of (1) the observation that the idea that fairness consists in appropriate impartiality is very vague (...)
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  25.  3
    Daniel Koltonski (2016). The Principle of Fairness, Political Duties, and the Benefits Proviso Mistake. Journal of Moral Philosophy 13 (3):265-293.
    _ Source: _Volume 13, Issue 3, pp 265 - 293 Recent debate in the literature on political obligation about the principle of fairness rests on a mistake. Despite the widespread assumption to the contrary, a person can have a duty of fairness to share in the burdens of sustaining some cooperative scheme even though that scheme does not represent a net benefit to her. Recognizing this mistake allows for a resolution of the stalemate between those who argue that (...)
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  26. Michael Otsuka (2010). Justice as Fairness: Luck Egalitarian, Not Rawlsian. [REVIEW] Journal of Ethics 14 (3-4):217-230.
    I assess G. A. Cohen's claim, which is central to his luck egalitarian account of distributive justice, that forcing others to pay for people's expensive indulgence is inegalitarian because it amounts to their exploitation. I argue that the forced subsidy of such indulgence may well be unfair, but any such unfairness fails to ground an egalitarian complaint. I conclude that Cohen's account of distributive justice has a non-egalitarian as well as an egalitarian aspect. Each impulse arises from an underlying commitment (...)
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  27.  4
    Jodie L. Ferguson, Pam Scholder Ellen & Gabriela Herrera Piscopo (2011). Suspicion and Perceptions of Price Fairness in Times of Crisis. Journal of Business Ethics 98 (2):331 - 349.
    Times of crisis bring about increased demands on businesses as shortages, or unexpected but significant, business costs are encountered. Passing on such costs to consumers is a challenge. When faced with a retail price increase, consumers may rely on cues as to the motive behind the increase. Such cues can raise suspicion of alternative motive (e. g., taking advantage of the consumer) affecting consumers' judgments of price fairness. This research investigates two triggers of suspicion: salience of alternative motives, and (...)
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  28. Tim Henning (2015). From Choice to Chance? Saving People, Fairness, and Lotteries. Philosophical Review 124 (2):169-206.
    Many authors in ethics, economics, and political science endorse the Lottery Requirement, that is, the following thesis: where different parties have equal moral claims to one indivisible good, it is morally obligatory to let a fair lottery decide which party is to receive the good. This article defends skepticism about the Lottery Requirement. It distinguishes three broad strategies of defending such a requirement: the surrogate satisfaction account, the procedural account, and the ideal consent account, and argues that none of these (...)
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  29. G. Stoney Alder & Joseph Gilbert (2006). Achieving Ethics and Fairness in Hiring: Going Beyond the Law. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 68 (4):449 - 464.
    Since the passage of Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and more recent Federal legislation, managers, regulators, and attorneys have been busy in sorting out the legal meaning of fairness in employment. While ethical managers must follow the law in their hiring practices, they cannot be satisfied with legal compliance. In this article, we first briefly summarize what the law requires in terms of fair hiring practices. We subsequently rely on multiple perspectives to explore the ethical (...)
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  30.  40
    Lynn A. Jansen & Steven Wall (2009). Paternalism and Fairness in Clinical Research. Bioethics 23 (3):172-182.
    In this paper, we defend the ethics of clinical research against the charge of paternalism. We do so not by denying that the ethics of clinical research is paternalistic, but rather by defending the legitimacy of paternalism in this context. Our aim is not to defend any particular set of paternalistic restrictions, but rather to make a general case for the permissibility of paternalistic restrictions in this context. Specifically, we argue that there is no basic liberty-right to participate in clinical (...)
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  31.  11
    Göran Duus-Otterström (forthcoming). Fairness-Based Retributivism Reconsidered. Criminal Law and Philosophy:1-18.
    In this paper, I defend fairness-based retributivism against two important objections, the no-benefit objection and the social injustice objection. I argue that the theory can defeat the no-benefit objection by developing an account of how crimes can be sources of unfairness by inflicting losses on people, and that it can blunt the social injustice objection by toning down the theory’s distributive aspirations. I conclude that fairness-based retributivism, contrary to received wisdom, merits further attention from legal and political philosophers.
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  32.  13
    Stephen T. Asma (2012). Against Fairness. The University of Chicago Press.
    Even Jesus had a favorite -- Saints and favorites -- Fairness, tribes, and nephews -- Classic cases of favoritism -- To thy own tribe be true: biological favoritism -- Moral gravity -- The biochemistry of favoritism -- Humans are wired for favoritism -- A healthy addiction -- Flexible favoritism -- Kin selection -- Rational or emotional motives -- Conflicting brain systems -- Facts and values -- In praise of exceptions -- Building the grid of impartiality -- Going off the (...)
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  33.  10
    Christian Pfeifer (2007). The Perceived Fairness of Layoffs in Germany: Participation, Compensation, or Avoidance? [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 74 (1):25 - 36.
    This study analyses to what extend and under what circumstances layoffs are accepted in Germany. Principles of distributive justice and rules of procedural justice form the theoretical framework of the analysis. Based on this, hypotheses are generated, which are tested empirically in a telephone survey conducted between East and West Germans in 2004 (n = 3036). The empirical analysis accounts for the different points of views of implicated stakeholders and impartial spectators. Key findings are: (1) The management of a company (...)
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  34.  13
    Trisha Phillips (2012). More on Benchmarks of Fairness: Response to Ballantyne. Bioethics 26 (1):49-56.
    This paper challenges the fitness of Angela Ballantyne's proposed theory of exploitation by situating her ‘fair risk account’ in an ongoing dialogue about the adequacy conditions for benchmarks of fairness. It identifies four adequacy conditions: (1) the ability to focus on level rather than type of benefit; (2) the ability to focus on micro-level rather than macro-level fairness; (3) the ability to prevent discrimination based on need; and (4) the ability to prescribe a certain distribution as superior to (...)
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  35.  1
    Saul Smilansky (forthcoming). Parfit on Free Will, Desert, and the Fairness of Punishment. Journal of Ethics:1-10.
    In his recent monumental book On What Matters, Derek Parfit argues for a hard determinist view that rejects free will-based moral responsibility and desert. This rejection of desert is necessary for his main aim in the book, the overall reconciliation of normative ethics. In Appendix E of his book, however, Parfit claims that it is possible to mete out fair punishment. Parfit’s position on punishment here seems to be inconsistent with his hard determinism. I argue that Parfit is mistaken here, (...)
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  36.  4
    Jan-Willem Burgers (2016). Perspectives on the Fairness of Lotteries. Res Publica 22 (2):209-224.
    When there are equally strong claimants for a scarce good, lotteries are often argued to be a fair method of allocation. This paper reproduces four of the views on the fairness of lotteries that have been presented in the literature: the distributive view; the preference view; the actual consent view; and the expressive view. It argues that these four views cannot offer plausible explanations for the fairness of lotteries. The distributive view is argued to be inadequate because, even (...)
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  37.  18
    Stefan T. Trautmann (2010). Individual Fairness in Harsanyi's Utilitarianism: Operationalizing All-Inclusive Utility. [REVIEW] Theory and Decision 68 (4):405-415.
    Fairness can be incorporated into Harsanyi’s utilitarianism through all-inclusive utility. This retains the normative assumptions of expected utility and Pareto-efficiency, and relates fairness to individual preferences. It makes utilitarianism unfalsifiable, however, if agents’ all-inclusive utilities are not explicitly specified. This note proposes a two-stage model to make utilitarian welfare analysis falsifiable by specifying all-inclusive utilities explicitly through models of individual fairness preferences. The approach is applied to include fairness in widely discussed allocation examples.
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  38.  49
    Brad Partridge (2011). Fairness And Performance-Enhancing Swimsuits AT The 2009 Swimming World Championships: The 'Asterisk' Championships. Sport, Ethics and Philosophy 5 (1):63-74.
    The use of polyurethane swimsuits at the 2009 World Aquatics Championships resulted in world records being set for almost all swimming events. This paper explores the implications that the use of these performance-enhancing swimsuits had on fairness in relative and absolute outcomes in swimming. I claim that the use of ?super swimsuits? unfairly influenced relative outcomes within the competition because not all swimmers used, or had access to, the same types of swimsuit (some of which were clearly ?faster? than (...)
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  39.  9
    Marjorie Chan (2002). Violations of Service Fairness and Legal Ramifications: The Case of the Managed Care Industry. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 36 (4):315 - 336.
    Adapted from Chan's (2000) model depicting success of litigation, this paper argues that with the application of various legislation, health maintenance organizations' (HMOs') violations of service fairness to each group: enrollees, physicians, and hospitals give rise to each group's lawsuits against the HMOs. Various authors (Bowen et al., 1999; Seiders and Berry, 1998) indicate that justice concepts such as distributive, procedural, and interactional justice can be applied to the area of service fairness. The violation of these underlying justice (...)
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  40.  22
    Edward Song (2012). Acceptance, Fairness, and Political Obligation. Legal Theory 18 (2):209-229.
    Among the most popular strategies for justifying political obligations are those that appeal to the principle of fairness. These theories face the challenge, canonically articulated by Robert Nozick, of explaining how it is that persons are obligated to schemes when they receive goods that they do not ask for but cannot reject. John Simmons offers one defense of the principle of fairness, arguing that people could be bound by obligations of fairness if they voluntarily accept goods produced (...)
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  41.  22
    Dong-il Kim (2013). Right, Equality, and the Fairness Obligation. Philosophia 41 (3):795-807.
    The principle of fairness holds that individuals (beneficiaries) who benefit from a cooperative scheme of others (cooperators) have an obligation to do their share in return for their benefit. The original proponent of this principle, H. L. A. Hart suggests ‘mutuality of restrictions’ as a moral basis because it is fair to mutually restrict the freedom of both beneficiaries and cooperators; so called the fairness obligation. This paper explores ‘mutuality of restrictions’, which is interpreted as a right-based and (...)
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  42.  8
    Achille Basile, Maria Gabriella Graziano & Marialaura Pesce (2014). On Fairness of Equilibria in Economies with Differential Information. Theory and Decision 76 (4):573-599.
    The paper proposes a notion of fairness which overcomes the conflict arising between efficiency and the absence of envy in economies with uncertainty and asymmetrically informed agents. We do it in general economies which include, as particular cases, the main models of differential information economies, providing in this framework a natural competitive equilibrium notion which satisfies the fair criterion. The analysis is conducted allowing the presence of large traders, which may cause the lack of perfect competition.
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  43.  8
    Flora Colledge & Bernice Elger (2015). Getting a Fair Share: Attitudes and Perceptions of Biobank Stakeholders Concerning the Fairness of Sample Sharing. Bioethics 29 (6):424-430.
    Biobanks are essential tools for furthering a broad range of medical research areas. However, despite the plethora of national and international laws and guidelines which apply to them, the access and sharing policies of biobanks are only sparsely addressed by regulatory bodies. The ‘give and take’ process of biosample sharing is largely left up to biobank stakeholders themselves to oversee; it is therefore both in stakeholders' power, and in their interest, to ensure that sample accessibility is fair. This is an (...)
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  44.  11
    Magnus Ulväng (2014). Criminal and Procedural Fairness: Some Challenges to the Presumption of Innocence. [REVIEW] Criminal Law and Philosophy 8 (2):469-484.
    The presumption of innocence (POI) requires all judges, juries, and other officials in a trial, to presume and treat any accused of criminal wrongdoing as innocent, until he or she is proven guilty. Although a POI lacks an authoritative definition, this overarching principle of procedural fairness is so robust and vital for the exercise of legal power in matters of criminal law that one rarely finds anyone questioning its standing. In this article I examine the rationale behind the POI (...)
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  45.  3
    A. Diduck (2001). Fairness and Justice for All? The House of Lords in White V. White [2000] 2 F.L.R. 981. Feminist Legal Studies 9 (2):173-183.
    In the recent U.K. decision of White v.White, the House of Lords clarified thelaw to be applied in applications under s. 25of the Matrimonial Causes Act 1973. Itconfirmed that the overriding goal of the courtin such cases was to achieve fairness, but,crucially, it articulated a view of fairnesswhich took equality and non-discrimination asstarting points. On this view, the courtchallenged historically gendered assumptions offairness, contribution to the family welfare,and the value of different kinds of work. Whilethe decision has far-reaching potential (...)
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  46.  9
    Paul T. Menzel (2014). Against Fairness. Journal of Bioethical Inquiry 11 (1):95-97.
    The book, Against Fairness, by philosopher Stephen T. Asma is reviewed. Concepts of favoritism and justice are explored.
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  47.  22
    Frederick Bird, Thomas Vance & Peter Woolstencroft (2009). Fairness in International Trade and Investment: North American Perspectives. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 84 (3):405 - 425.
    This article reviews the practices and differing sets of attitudes North Americans have taken with respect to fairness in international trade and proposes a set of common considerations for ongoing debates about these matters. After reviewing the asymmetrical relations between Canada, the United States, and Mexico and the impact of multilateral trade agreements on bilateral trade between these countries, the article looks at four typical normative views with respect to trade held by North Americans. These views variously emphasize concerns (...)
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  48.  9
    Melanie Kröger & Martina Schäfer (2014). Between Ideals and Reality: Development and Implementation of Fairness Standards in the Organic Food Sector. [REVIEW] Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 27 (1):43-63.
    The organic sector is in an ongoing, but somewhat ambiguous, process of differentiation. Continuing growth has also entailed intensified competition and the emergence of conventional structures within the sector. Producers are under pressure to adapt their terms of production to these developments, bearing the risk that the original values and principles of organic farming may become irrelevant. To confront these tendencies and maintain their position on the market, organic producers and processors have launched a number of organic–fair initiatives. As some (...)
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    Professor Robert E. McGinn (1995). The Engineer's Moral Right to Reputational Fairness. Science and Engineering Ethics 1 (3):217-230.
    This essay explores the issue of the moral rights of engineers. An historical case study is presented in which an accomplished, loyal, senior engineer was apparently wronged as a result of actions taken by his employer in pursuit of legitimate business interests. Belief that the engineer was wronged is justified by showing that what happened to him violated what can validly be termed one of his moral rights as an engineer: the right to reputational fairness. It is then argued (...)
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    Evelien Croonen (2010). Trust and Fairness During Strategic Change Processes in Franchise Systems. Journal of Business Ethics 95 (2):191 - 209.
    A very important challenge for franchisors is adapting the strategies of their franchise systems to new threats and opportunities. During such strategic change processes (SCPs) franchisees are often required to make major financial investments and/or adjustments in their trade practices without any guarantee of positive benefits. It is, therefore, important that franchisees trust their franchisors during such change processes and that they perceive the change process as fair. This article aims to generate theory on franchisees' perceptions of trust and (...) during SCPs. On the basis of case studies regarding eight change processes in four Dutch drugstore franchise systems, this article distinguishes different levels of franchisee trust and discusses five instruments that franchisors can "institutionalize" in their franchise systems to influence their franchisees' trust and fairness perceptions. (shrink)
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