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  1. Johan Benthem, Davide Grossi & Fenrong Liu (2014). Priority Structures in Deontic Logic. Theoria 80 (2):116-152.
    This article proposes a systematic application of recent developments in the logic of preference to a number of topics in deontic logic. The key junction is the well-known Hansson conditional for dyadic obligations. These conditionals are generalized by pairing them with reasoning about syntactic priority structures. The resulting two-level approach to obligations is tested first against standard scenarios of contrary-to-duty obligations, leading also to a generalization for the Kanger-Anderson reduction of deontic logic. Next, the priority framework is applied to model (...)
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  2. Fenrong Liu, Jeremy Seligman & Patrick Girard (2014). Logical Dynamics of Belief Change in the Community. Synthese 191 (11):2403-2431.
    In this paper we explore the relationship between norms of belief revision that may be adopted by members of a community and the resulting dynamic properties of the distribution of beliefs across that community. We show that at a qualitative level many aspects of social belief change can be obtained from a very simple model, which we call ‘threshold influence’. In particular, we focus on the question of what makes the beliefs of a community stable under various dynamical situations. We (...)
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  3. Fenrong Liu & Kaile Su (2013). Logic and AI in China: An Introduction. [REVIEW] Minds and Machines 23 (1):1-4.
  4. Fenrong Liu & Yanjing Wang (2013). Reasoning About Agent Types and the Hardest Logic Puzzle Ever. Minds and Machines 23 (1):123-161.
    In this paper, we first propose a simple formal language to specify types of agents in terms of necessary conditions for their announcements. Based on this language, types of agents are treated as ‘first-class citizens’ and studied extensively in various dynamic epistemic frameworks which are suitable for reasoning about knowledge and agent types via announcements and questions. To demonstrate our approach, we discuss various versions of Smullyan’s Knights and Knaves puzzles, including the Hardest Logic Puzzle Ever (HLPE) proposed by Boolos (...)
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  5. Fengkui Ju & Fenrong Liu (2011). Prioritized Imperatives and Normative Conflicts. European Journal of Analytic Philosophy 7 (2):35-58.
    Imperatives occur ubiquitously in natural languages. They produce forces which change the addressee’s cognitive state and regulate her actions accordingly. In real life we often receive conflicting orders, typically, issued by various authorities with different ranks. A new update semantics is proposed in this paper to formalize this idea. The general properties of this semantics, as well as its background ideas are discussed extensively. In addition, we compare our framework with other approaches of deontic logics in the context of normative (...)
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  6. Fenrong Liu (2011). A Two-Level Perspective on Preference. Journal of Philosophical Logic 40 (3):421 - 439.
    This paper proposes a two-level modeling perspective which combines intrinsic 'betterness' and reason-based extrinsic preference, and develops its static and dynamic logic in tandem. Our technical results extend, integrate, and re-interpret earlier theorems on preference representation and update in the literature on preference change.
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  7. Fenrong Liu, Understanding Deontics From a Preference Perspective.
    SOCREAL 2010: 2nd International Workshop on Philosophy and Ethics of Social Reality. Sapporo, Japan, 2010-03-27/28. Keynote Lecture 2.
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  8. Fenrong Liu (2010). Von Wright's “the Logic of Preference” Revisited. Synthese 175 (1):69 - 88.
    Preference is a key area where analytic philosophy meets philosophical logic. I start with two related issues: reasons for preference, and changes in preference, first mentioned in von Wright’s book The Logic of Preference but not thoroughly explored there. I show how these two issues can be handled together in one dynamic logical framework, working with structured two-level models, and I investigate the resulting dynamics of reason-based preference in some detail. Next, I study the foundational issue of entanglement between preference (...)
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  9. Fenrong Liu & Jialong Zhang (2010). New Perspectives on Moist Logic. Journal of Chinese Philosophy 37 (4):605-621.
  10. Fenrong Liu (2009). Diversity of Agents and Their Interaction. Journal of Logic, Language and Information 18 (1):23-53.
    Diversity of agents occurs naturally in epistemic logic, and dynamic logics of information update and belief revision. In this paper we provide a systematic discussion of different sources of diversity, such as introspection ability, powers of observation, memory capacity, and revision policies, and we show how these can be encoded in dynamic epistemic logics allowing for individual variation among agents. Next, we explore the interaction of diverse agents by looking at some concrete scenarios of communication and learning, and we propose (...)
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  11. Johan Van Benthem, Sujata Ghosh & Fenrong Liu (2008). Modelling Simultaneous Games in Dynamic Logic. Synthese 165 (2):247 - 268.
    We make a proposal for formalizing simultaneous games at the abstraction level of player's powers, combining ideas from dynamic logic of sequential games and concurrent dynamic logic. We prove completeness for a new system of 'concurrent game logic' CDGL with respect to finite non-determined games. We also show how this system raises new mathematical issues, and throws light on branching quantifiers and independence-friendly evaluation games for first-order logic.
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  12. Johan van Benthem, Sujata Ghosh & Fenrong Liu (2008). Modelling Simultaneous Games in Dynamic Logic. Synthese 165 (2):247-268.
    We make a proposal for formalizing simultaneous games at the abstraction level of player’s powers, combining ideas from dynamic logic of sequential games and concurrent dynamic logic. We prove completeness for a new system of ‘concurrent game logic’ CDGL with respect to finite non-determined games. We also show how this system raises new mathematical issues, and throws light on branching quantifiers and independence-friendly evaluation games for first-order logic.
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  13. Johan van Benthem & Fenrong Liu (2007). Dynamic Logic of Preference Upgrade. Journal of Applied Non-Classical Logics 17 (2):157-182.
    Statements not only update our current knowledge, but also have other dynamic effects. In particular, suggestions or commands ?upgrade' our preferences by changing the current order among worlds. We present a complete logic of knowledge update plus preference upgrade that works with dynamic-epistemic-style reduction axioms. This system can model changing obligations, conflicting commands, or ?regret'. We then show how to derive reduction axioms from arbitrary definable relation changes. This style of analysis also has a product update version with preferences between (...)
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  14. Johan van Benthem & Fenrong Liu (2004). Diversity of Logical Agents in Games. Philosophia Scientiae 8:163-178.
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