Corporate social responsibility (CSR) refers to the duty of management to consider and respond to issues beyond the organization's economic and legal requirements in line with social and environmental values. However, 'management' is constituted by real people responsible for routine decisions and formulation and implementation of policies. It can be said therefore that the ethical ideals and beliefs of these individuals - in particular their personal values - play an important role in their decisions. It is contended in this article (...) that the personal values of managers may contribute to the creation and maintenance of 'CSR cultures' in their organizations; that is, organizational cultures focused on ensuring environmental and social sustainability. Based on an exploratory study carried out in Brazil in 2008, this article explores the perceptions of five CSR managers in relation to the influence of their personal values on their work. The first part discusses the notion of CSR within the context of Brazilian society, the second provides a brief literature review on the link between values and organizational cultures and the third explores the perceptions of the participating managers, identifying the main thematic patterns that emerged in the study. (shrink)
In this paper, I aim to offer a clear explanation of what monadic domination, understood as a relation obtaining exclusively among monads, amounts to in the philosophy of Leibniz (and this insofar as monadic domination is conceived by Leibniz not to account for the substantial unity of composite substances). Central to my account is the Aristotelian notion of a hierarchy of activities, as well as a particular understanding of the relations that obtain among the perceptions of monads that stand in (...) relations of monadic domination and subordination. (shrink)
The paper proposes a novel understanding of how Aristotle’s theoretical works complement each other in such a way as to form a genuine system, and this with the immediate (and ostensibly central) aim of addressing a longstanding question regarding Aristotle’s ‘first philosophy’—namely, is Aristotle’s first philosophy a contribution to theology, or to the science of being in general? Aristotle himself seems to suggest that it is in some ways both, but how this can be is a very difficult question. My (...) answer is in some respects a version of one that goes back at least to the middle ages—i.e., that first philosophy is concerned with the gods (and to that extent offers a theology) because the gods are causes and principles of beings precisely insofar as they are beings. The more original aspect of my position lies in my claim that the sort of tension found in the Metaphysics is likewise to be found in many of Aristotle’s physical works. Thus, for example, the De caelo is (I argue) concerned generally with natural beings (= beings susceptible of change), but its discussions are focused largely on the heavenly bodies and the Aristotelian elements insofar as they admit of change with respect to place. Here I claim that the particular objects of discussion are dealt with precisely because they are causes and principles of natural beings as such. Something similar goes, I claim, for the De generatione et corruptione, the general concern of which is a particular species of natural being—i.e., natural beings susceptible of generation and corruption. In this way, I argue, Aristotle successively deals in his theoretical works with those causes and principles of (say) a horse which attach to it insofar as it is a being, those causes and principles of a horse which attach to it insofar as it is a natural being, those causes and principles of a horse which attach to it insofar as it is a perishable natural being, and so on for the lower genera under which the species horse is subsumed. (shrink)
According to Margaret Wilson, Leibniz is inconsistent when it comes to the question of whether one can have distinct ideas of sensible qualities, and this because he sometimes conceives of sensible qualities as sensations and sometimes conceives of them as complexes of primary qualities. When he conceives of them as sensations, he denies that we can have distinct ideas of sensible qualities; when he conceives of them as complexes of primary qualities, he asserts that we can. In this paper I (...) argue that Wilson is wrong to think that Leibnizian ideas admit of various degrees of confusion or distinctness. I also argue that although Wilson's problem admits of being reformulated in a manner consistent with a correct understanding of Leibnizian perceptions and ideas, this reformulated version of the problem admits to a satisfactory interpretive solution. (shrink)
Assuming that legal science, specifically with regard to interpretation, has to provide the tools to reduce the uncertainty of legal solutions arising from the use of natural languages by legal orders, it becomes a central matter to identify, in this limited domain, the spectrum of semantic variation (and its boundaries) that language brings to the definition of a norm expressed by a norm sentence. It is in this framework that the present paper, analyzing norm sentences as a specific kind of (...) speech act, examines the relation of the legal order to natural language rules, the limits of linguistic uncertainty, and alternatives of meaning as distinct possibilities of norms covered by the text (that are, because of this, still within what literal meaning is). Considering interpretation just as the linguistic decoding process, the reverse of the process of creating norm sentences, the paper also argues that subjects not connected with the relation between norm sentences and norms (mainly, normative defeasibility) are analytically distinct and should be removed from the field of language. (shrink)
A number of recent studies have called into question the traditional interpretation of Leibniz as an idealist beginning, at the latest, with the composition of the Discourse on Metaphysics (1686). In particular, in a recent book Daniel Garber affirms that between the late 1670s and late 1690s Leibniz maintains a realist doctrine according to which the created world is populated with extended corporeal substances. In trying to prove his thesis, Garber appeals to a document written in 1690 where Leibniz, addressing (...) an objection by Michelangelo Fardella, denies that bodies are composed of souls, declares that souls are substantial forms, and affirms that bodies are composed instead of substances. According to Garber, this shows that Leibniz then believed that bodies were composed, not of simple substances, but of extended substances possessing souls. Here I try to show that, to the contrary, the mentioned document (along with two others closely associated with it) support the traditional interpretation of Leibniz as an idealist in 1690. (shrink)
This paper contributes to those analyses that have discussed Hegel'sinfluence on Freire, and Freire's rethinking of Hegel. Yet, my narrative of the dialectic of conscientizacion, which I presenthere, is a novel attempt to read both thinkers simultaneously.Thus, in this paper I am exploring, and not didactically proving Gadotti's (1994) important, yet unqualified,claim that Hegel's dialectic ``can be considered the principaltheoretical framework of (Freire's) Pedagogy of the Oppressed.It could be said that the whole of his theory of conscientization has its roots (...) in Hegel'' (p. 74). And in thisexploration, I am not demonstrating Freire's ``expansion'' ofHegel's dialectic (Schutte, 1990), nor taking a positionon whether or not the dialectic of Freire's Pedagogy of theOppressed supersedes the Hegelian dialectic (Torres, 1976). Nor am I offering a ``comparison'' of the two dialectics(Torres, 1994). (Of course, having made these claims,I am, as it were, taunting the reader to deconstruct mypiece.) My aim here is to immerse, or insert, myself intothe Freirean/Hegelian dialectic itself. I attempt to situatemyself within that peculiar position of the dialecticianwho ``braids'' ideas through synthetic textual analysis.I use a third person descriptive perspective thatincorporates the ``voices'' of Freire and Hegel, and, thereby, weave a ``new'' synthesized account of theemergence of critical consciousness within the formaleducational setting. (shrink)
Changes in modern societies originate the perception that ethical behaviour is essential in organization’s practices especially in the way they deal with aspects such as human rights. These issues are usually under the umbrella of the concept of social responsibility. Recently the Report of the International Bioethics Committee of UNESCO on Social Responsibility and Health has addressed this concept of social responsibility in the context of health care delivery suggesting a new paradigm in hospital governance. The objective of this paper (...) is to address the issue of corporate social responsibility in health care, namely in the hospital setting, emphasising the special governance arrangements of such complex organisations and to evaluate if new models of hospital management (entrepreneurism) will need robust mechanisms of corporate governance to fulfil its social responsiveness. The scope of this responsible behaviour requires hospitals to fulfil its social and market objectives, in accordance to the law and general ethical standards. Social responsibility includes aspects like abstention of harm to the environment or the protection of the interests of all the stakeholders enrolled in the deliverance of health care. In conclusion, adequate corporate governance and corporate strategy are the gold standard of social responsibility. In a competitive market hospital governance will be optimised if the organization culture is reframed to meet stakeholders’ demands for unequivocal assurances on ethical behaviour. Health care organizations should abide to this new governance approach that is to create organisation value through performance, conformance and responsibility. (shrink)
Este livro, que reúne trabalhos apresentados no Encontro Nacional de 'Filosofia e Literatura', realizado na PUCRS, em junho de 2002, apresenta textos de filósofos que se aproximam, por vias diversas, do fenômeno literário, com enfoques ...
A ideia do “fi m da história”, subentendida no capítulo fi nal da Fenomenologia do espírito, serviu de base para o início de uma discussão, feita a partir das posições assumidas por Alexandre Kojève nos seus cursos sobre Hegel em Paris, na década de 1930, e em sua publicação no fi nal dos anos 1940 (com reedição em 1968), voltou à baila com o artigo de Francis Fukuyama, de 1989, sobre o “fim da história”, no qual ele comemorava o fi (...) m do “socialismo real” e a hegemonia mundial completa dos Estados Unidos da América. Passada a euforia sobre a “nova ordem mundial”, inclusive em virtude de sucessivas crises econômicas, é interessante recolocar a questão sobre as condições sob as quais são aceitáveis conceitos associados a esse tema, especialmente o substantivo “pós-história” e o adjetivo “pós-histórico”. A tese a ser defendida nesse artigo é a de que o campo da estética é um âmbito em que esses conceitos são defensáveis. Como exemplos de refl exões estéticas frutíferas que deles se valem, são consideradas a noção de “arte pós-histórica”, de Arthur Danto, e os desdobramentos estéticos do conceito de “pós-história”, tal como sustentado por Vilém Flusser. (shrink)
This paper analyses the gender pay determinants between top and lower level of Portuguese employees. A relatively large data pool, for 2003, covering business functions hitherto neglected, sheds a new light into the factors that lead to the earnings of men and women. Our analysis combines human capital with internal-labour-markets theories. Our findings allow the identification of jobsegregation as one important source of the gender pay gap. Moreover, they confirm that earnings are determined by different factors and suggest a reasonable (...) opportunity for women to combine career and family. (shrink)
Para Hannah Arendt, a modernidade configura um período histórico de obscurecimento das determinações políticas democráticas, pois, onde a política não foi reduzida ao plano da violência, como no caso dos fenômenos totalitários, ela foi reduzida ao plano da administração burocrática dos interesses econômicos da sociedade. Neste artigo, pretendo discutir a constituição argumentativa desse diagnóstico, referindo-o à sua raiz de inspiração, isto é, as críticas de Nietzsche e Heidegger à modernidade. Finalmente, procuro demonstrar que Arendt não se limitou a uma concepção (...) negativa das possibilidades políticas modernas, pois vislumbrou nos modernos eventos revolucionários a possibilidade de uma revitalização da política em suas determinações democráticas originárias, dado que aí se restabeleceram os laços entre a ação política, a liberdade e a felicidade pública. (shrink)
Discute-se o diagnóstico crítico da Modernidade proposto por Heidegger e Foucault enfatizando as suas continuidades. Em linhas gerais, pode-se afirmar que, em Heidegger, é a reflexão filosófica que se assume enquanto essencialmente histórica, ao passo que, para Foucault, é a investigação essencialmente histórica que assume o caráter de reflexão filosófica. No entanto, ainda que a partir de démarches teóricas distintas, ambos consideram que a compreensão a respeito de quem somos, hoje, depende de uma análise da constituição da modernidade como época (...) histórica determinada pelo humanismo, isto é, pela concepção do homem como senhor da totalidade do ente (Heidegger) e pela concepção do homem como sujeito e objeto de relações de poder-saber (Foucault). Tal mutação epocal na concepção do humano foi decisiva para a liberação da revolução científica que culminou na técnica moderna e na biopolítica. Se, como afirma Foucault, a biopolítica é a política de nosso tempo, ou seja, de uma época que politizou o fenômeno da vida por meio de sua gestão técnico-administrativa, então a técnica moderna, que implica a concepção do homem como sujeito assujeitado pela tecnologia, constitui a instância por meio da qual a vida humana pode ser simultaneamente produzida e aniquilada por meios científicos. (shrink)
El llamado "argumento de los posibles" desarrollado por Kant en el Beweisgrund está destinado a demostrar la existencia del ens realissimum de la tradición metafísica moderna. El presente estudio pretende explorar la importancia de esta prueba en el contexto global del pensamiento kantiano, a partir de la ambigüedad del concepto de realidad y de su precisión en la filosofía crítica.
El término que nombra la esencia de la técnica es el monograma de la tesis misma: "ge-stell". Siguiendo en textos de diversas épocas el hilo, a menudo anfibológico, de la exposición heideggeriana, se pone de relieve que en lo así mencionado trasparece una triple determinación o posición: la "articulación de un conjunto en el lugar" de una "figura". Esta concepción es la que esta a la base de las definiciones heideggerianas mas conocidas, cuya comprensión habilita. En ese sentido, la tesis (...) heideggeriana se traduce en la afirmación de la técnica no sólo como esquema del proyecto de mundo dominante de la modernidad tardía, sino a la vez como lugar de "aletheia" y, por tanto, también como un destello del "er-eignis". (shrink)
This paper intends to analyze the basic assumptions that sustain John Locke’s refutation of patriarchalism. It will be shown that neither his idea of paternal power, nor his notion of family, departs from the lockean idea of human freedom. Against our expectations, these arguments go through a different path, departing from those two aspects of human life (dependency and weakness) that do not match with the image of an independent and capable man. Considering this, it will be possible to conclude (...) that some of Locke’s most important arguments are based on the presumption of the existence of childhood. It will be shown how childhood acquires a theoretical and practical status similar to that of the principles of human freedom and equality. Like these, the principle of childhood will also reveal to be capable of fulﬁlling the purpose that seems to go through the Two Treatises, namely to limit political authority. (shrink)
En la larga historia de la recepción de la filosofía crítica, Heidegger ocupa un lugar singular: más que recibir, intercepta la mirada y las problemáticas kantianas, que así ganan un contexto de sentido muy preciso pero distinto del suyo originario. Después de deshacer el principal equivoco ligado a la interpretación de este encuentro de miradas, se explicita la decisión hermenéutica heideggeriana y sus consecuencias teóricas más importantes.
Este trabajo indaga las resemantizaciones del mito de Venus en tres poetas latinoamericanos: Julián del Casal, Rubén Darío y José Lezama Lima teniendo en cuenta la intertextualidad y las poéticas correspondientes. This paper analyses the Venus myth appropiation into the poetry of Julián del Casal, Rubén Darío and José Lezama Lima considering their poetry and intertextuality.