The ability to manipulate embryonic stem cells for tissues and organs regeneration and the great expectation existing in cellular therapy have lead to drive the attention of not only scientists but also philosophers and theologists on the issue of >. In this paper this issue is delt with from a gnoseologic perspective.
In this paper, we report on the design, redox potentials, excited state energies and radical ion pair state energies in electron donor–acceptor conjugates comprising the electron-donating π-extended tetrathia- fulvalene and several electron-accepting fullerenes. To this end, we contrast an empty fullerene, that is, C60, with two endohedral metallofullerenes, that is, open-shell La@C82 and closed-shell La2@C80, in terms of charge separation and charge recombination dynamics.
A partir de la reivindicación de Adorno del poder crítico del arte, este trabajo confronta la posición de este pensador con las de Kant y Hegel a propósito de la cuestión de la autonomía del ámbito estético. Explica por qué Adorno considera que ni Kant, quien afirma esa autonomía, ni Hegel, quien, por el contrario, asume su heteronomía, logran reconocer (el poder de) la obra de arte y de la experiencia estética. Muestra luego que Adorno tomó conciencia de que ello (...) proviene del compromiso de ambos autores con la pretensión de plena autonomía del sujeto moderno, y explica finalmente que Adorno sí reconoce la función crítica del arte y del pensamiento que le corresponde gracias a que rechaza tal pretenciosa subjetividad. Taking Adorno's vindication of the critical power of art as a starting point and focussing on the question of the autonomy of the aesthetic field, this paper confronts Adorno's position with those of Kant and Hegel. I explain why Adorno considers that neither Kant-affirming its autonomy- nor Hegel -assuming its heteronomy- succeeded in recognising (the power of) the work of art and the aesthetic experience. I show that Adorno saw that this was due to their common commitment to the modern subject's claim to full autonomy, and finally argue that Adorno, on the contrary, can do that because he abandons such a pretentious subjectivity. (shrink)
We present evidence indicating new individual differences with people's intuitions about the relation of determinism to freedom and moral responsibility. We analysed participants' written explanations of why a person acted. Participants offered one of either 'decision' or 'causal' based explanations of behaviours in some paradigmatic cases. Those who gave causal explanations tended to have more incompatibilist intuitions than those who gave decision explanations. Importantly, the affective content of a scenario influenced the type of explanation given. Scenarios containing highly affective actions (...) (e.g. murder) tended to generate more decision explanations than scenarios with low affective content (e.g. cheating on taxes). These results give important clues about the proximal processes generating some intuitions about free will and moral responsibility. (shrink)
Traveling-wave solutions of the standard and compound form of Korteweg–de Vries–Burgers equations are found using factorizations of the corresponding reduced ordinary differential equations. The procedure leads to solutions of Bernoulli equations of non-linearity 3/2 and 2 (Riccati), respectively. Introducing the initial conditions through an imaginary phase in the traveling coordinate, we obtain all the solutions previously reported, some of them being corrected here, and showing, at the same time, the presence of interesting details of these solitary waves that have been (...) overlooked before this investigation. (shrink)
Tsirelson’s problem deals with how to model separate measurements in quantum mechanics. In addition to its theoretical importance, the resolution of Tsirelson’s problem could have great consequences for device independent quantum key distribution and certified randomness. Unfortunately, understanding present literature on the subject requires a heavy mathematical background. In this paper, we introduce quansality, a new theoretical concept that allows to reinterpret Tsirelson’s problem from a foundational point of view. Using quansality as a guide, we recover all known results on (...) Tsirelson’s problem in a clear and intuitive way. (shrink)
The evolutionary implications of environmental change due to organismic action remain a controversial issue, after a decades—long debate on the subject. Much of this debate has been conducted in qualitative fashion, despite the availability of mathematical models for organism–environment interactions, and for gene frequencies when allele fitness can be related to exploitation of a particular environmental resource. In this article we focus on representative models dealing with niche construction, ecosystem engineering, the Gaia Hypothesis and community interactions of Lotka–Volterra type, and (...) show that their quantitative character helps bring into sharper focus the similarities and differences among their respective theoretical contexts. (shrink)
En el presente artículo intentaremos aproximarnos a uno de los textos más emblemáticos del pensamiento de Schelling, Las Edades del Mundo (Die Weltalter), escrito entre 1813-1815, donde se encuentra todo el misterio de la filosofía medía de este autor que va desde el Ensayo de la libertad de 1809 hasta su reaparición en Munich y posteriormente en Berlín, donde sustituirá a Hegel a su muerte y formulará su famosa filosofía positiva, constituida por su Filosofía de la Mitología y de la (...) Revelación, como alternativa al pensamiento hegeliano. Intentaremos acercarnos a esa nueva noción de ciencia positiva a partir de un análisis del concepto de ¿crisis¿,... (Ver más) tematizado por Schelling en Las Edades del Mundo, en relación con una posible filosofía de la memoria. (shrink)
Neodymium 147 has been aligned in a crystal of neodymium ethyl sulphate. The directional distributions and states of polarization of the 90 and 530 kev ?-rays have been measured. It is concluded that both transitions are mixturee of M1 and E2 radiation (δE2/M1= ?0·17 ±0·15 for the 90 kev and + 0·75±0·25 for the 530 kev ?-rays) and that the 530 kev state has spin 7/2+. From the 530 kev results a value for the nuclear magnetic moment of 147Nd of (...) 0·44±.06 nuclear magnetons is found. (shrink)
An extruded Mg?1Mn?1Nd (wt%) (MN11) alloy was tested in tension in an SEM at temperatures of 323?K (50°C), 423?K (150°C), and 523?K (250°C) to analyse the local deformation mechanisms through in situ observations. Electron backscatter diffraction was performed before and after the deformation. It was found that the tensile strength decreased with increasing temperature, and the relative activity of different twinning and slip systems was quantified. At 323?K (50°C), extension twinning, basal, prismatic ?a?, and pyramidal ?c?+?a? slip were active. Much (...) less extension twinning was observed at 423?K (150°C), while basal slip and prismatic ?a? slip were dominant and presented similar activities. At 523?K (250°C), twinning was not observed, and basal slip controlled the deformation. (shrink)
Context In some cases, physicians estimate that continuous sedation until death may have a life-shortening effect. The accuracy of these estimations can be questioned. Aim The aim of this study is to compare two approaches to estimate the potential life-shortening effect of continuous sedation until death. Methods In 2008, 370 Dutch physicians filled out a questionnaire and reported on their last patient who received continuous sedation until death. The potential life-shortening effect of continuous sedation was estimated through a direct approach (...) (question: Did continuous sedation, according to your estimation, hasten the patient’s death? If yes: by how much time?) and an indirect approach (estimated life expectancy minus duration of sedation). The intrarater agreement between both approaches was determined with a weighted κ. Results According to the direct approach, sedation might have had a life-shortening effect in 51% of the cases and according to the indirect approach in 84%. The intrarater agreement between both approaches was fair (weighted κ=0.38). In 10% of all cases, the direct approach yielded higher estimates of the extent to which life had been shortened; in 58% of the cases, the indirect approach yielded higher estimates. Conclusions The results show a discrepancy between different approaches to estimate the potential life-shortening effect of continuous sedation until death. (shrink)
The human brainstem is critical for the control of many life-sustaining functions, such as consciousness, respiration, sleep, and transfer of sensory and motor information between the brain and the spinal cord. Most of our knowledge about structure and organization of white and gray matter within the brainstem is derived from ex vivo dissection and histology studies. However, these methods cannot be applied to study structural architecture in live human participants. Tractography from diffusion-weighted MRI may provide valuable insights about white matter (...) organization within the brainstem in vivo. However, this method presents technical challenges in vivo due to susceptibility artifacts, functionally dense anatomy, as well as pulsatile and respiratory motion. To investigate the limits of MR tractography, we present results from high angular resolution diffusion imaging (HARDI) of an intact excised human brainstem performed at 11.1T using isotropic resolution of 0.333, 1, and 2 mm, with the latter reflecting resolution currently used clinically. At the highest resolution, the dense fiber architecture of the brainstem is evident, but the definition of structures degrades as resolution decreases. In particular, the inferred corticopontine/corticospinal tracts (CPT/CST), superior (SCP) and middle cerebellar peduncle (MCP), and medial lemniscus (ML) pathways are clearly discernable and follow known anatomical trajectories at the highest spatial resolution. At lower resolutions, the CST/CPT, SCP, and MCP pathways are artificially enlarged due to inclusion of collinear and crossing fibers not inherent to these three pathways. The inferred ML pathways appear smaller at lower resolutions, indicating insufficient spatial information to successfully resolve smaller fiber pathways. Our results suggest that white matter tractography maps derived from the excised brainstem can be used to guide the study of the brainstem architecture using diffusion MRI in vivo. (shrink)
Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS) is a non-invasive neurostimulatory and neuromodulatory technique increasingly used in clinical and research practices around the world. Historically, the ethical considerations guiding the therapeutic practice of TMS were largely concerned with aspects of subject safety in clinical trials. While safety remains of paramount importance, the recent US Food and Drug Administration approval of the Neuronetics NeuroStar TMS device for the treatment of specific medication-resistant depression has raised a number of additional ethical concerns, including marketing, off-label use (...) and technician certification. This article provides an overview of the history of TMS and highlights the ethical questions that are likely arise as the therapeutic use of TMS continues to expand. (shrink)
El presente artículo presenta los nuevos e importantes descubrimientos en la terraza litoral al pie del oasis de niebla, a partir de Noviembre de 2003, que junto a estudios anteriores conforman un cuadro general bastante completo de los patrones de asentamiento, modus vivendi, costumbres y actividades económicas de los antiguos pobladores costeros del norte de Chile, que reafirman la enorme importancia que adquirió el ecosistema de oasis de niebla costero en el género de vida, tipos de asentamiento y desplazamientos de (...) los cazadores-recolectores marinos del litoral norte. (shrink)
OBJECTIVES: To analyse the attitudes of medical personnel towards terminally ill patients and their right to be fully informed. DESIGN: Self-administered questionnaire composed of 56 closed questions. SETTING: Three general hospitals and eleven health centres in Granada (Spain). The sample comprised 168 doctors and 207 nurses. RESULTS: A high percentage of medical personnel (24.1%) do not think that informing the terminally ill would help them face their illness with greater serenity. Eighty-four per cent think the patient's own home is the (...) best place to die: 8.9% of the subjects questioned state that the would not like to be informed of an incurable illness. CONCLUSION: In our opinion any information given should depend on the patient's personality, the stage of the illness and family circumstances. Our study confirms that a hospital is not the ideal environment for attending to the needs of the terminally ill and their families. (shrink)
This paper proposes to call «countermodern aesthetics» a philosophical line that, reaching from the last Kant to Heidegger, would oppose to the modern dominance of theory while acknowledging the inner connection of the aesthetic to truth, to the tragic truth. It presents then cinema as a mass medium that modern aesthetics interprets according to its own conception of art in order to fit it into the advanced capitalist system and its ideology. And, finally, ir argues that S.Zizek´s alternative understanding of (...) cinema, because of the tragic condition of its very underlying metaphysics, continues the tradition that has been presented as «counter-modern aesthetics». (shrink)
Pese a su origen y desarrollo filosófico, Lógica y Psicología, históricamente, han tendido no sólo a la disociación sino, más allá, al enfrentamiento. Durante décadas, excepción hecha de la llamada lógica intuicionista. la peor acusación que se le pudo hacer a un lógico fue la de psicologista. Sin embargo, lógica y psicología. tal y como pretende sena larse en este trabajo, no sólo están mucho más cercanas de lo que pudie ra parecer sino que. también, viven en una relación complementaria.
Este trabajo parte de la constatación del carácter central que en la reconocimiento adorniano de lo estético tiene la rehabilitación de su vínculo al conocimiento y a la verdad. Se reconstruye así la crítica de Adorno a la teoría estética kantiana desde su rechazo de la separación que Kant estableció entre el ámbito estético y el epistemológico. Esta crítica, que acusa a la estética kantiana de subjetivista, se retrotrae finalmente a la insatisfacción de Adorno respecto al enfoque trascendental, en tanto (...) que no dialéctico. En este punto deviene patente la necesidad de determinar la especificidad de su propia comprensión de lo estético y de la dialéctica. Sorprendentemente se descubre entonces una inesperada cercanía entre su posición y la de la misma estética kantiana que permite reconocer en ésta última ciertos rasgos que desbordan el propio sistema crítico hacia el planteamiento adorniano. Pero esta cercanía prueba también la inmanencia y legitimidad de la (ambigua) crítica de Adorno a Kant y, de resultas, el carácter insatisfactorio de la determinación kantiana del conocimiento y la verdad. (shrink)