Search results for 'Fertility congresses' (try it on Scholar)

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  1. Zbigniew Bańkowski, J. Barzelatto & Alexander Morgan Capron (eds.) (1989). Ethics and Human Values in Family Planning: Conference Highlights, Papers, and Discussion: Xxii Cioms Conference, Bangkok, Thailand, 19-24 June 1988. [REVIEW] Cioms.
     
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  2.  5
    Hillard S. Kaplan, Jane B. Lancaster, Sara E. Johnson & John A. Bock (1995). Does Observed Fertility Maximize Fitness Among New Mexican Men? Human Nature 6 (4):325-360.
    Our objective is to test an optimality model of human fertility that specifies the behavioral requirements for fitness maximization in order (a) to determine whether current behavior does maximize fitness and, if not, (b) to use the specific nature of the behavioral deviations from fitness maximization towards the development of models of evolved proximate mechanisms that may have maximized fitness in the past but lead to deviations under present conditions. To test the model we use data from a representative (...)
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  3.  2
    Patricia Draper & Raymond Hames (2000). Birth Order, Sibling Investment, and Fertility Among Ju/'Hoansi (!Kung). Human Nature 11 (2):117-156.
    Birth order has been examined over a wide variety of dimensions in the context of modern populations. A consistent message has been that it is better to be born first. The analysis of birth order in this paper is different in several ways from other investigations into birth order effects. First, we examine the effect of birth order in an egalitarian, small-scale, kin-based society, which has not been done before. Second, we use a different outcome measure, fertility, rather than (...)
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  4.  4
    Johannes Johow & Eckart Voland (2012). Conditional Grandmother Effects on Age at Marriage, Age at First Birth, and Completed Fertility of Daughters and Daughters-in-Law in Historical Krummhörn. Human Nature 23 (3):341-359.
    Based on historical data pertaining to the Krummhörn population (eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, Germany), we compared reproductive histories of mothers according to whether the maternal grandmother (MGM) or the paternal grandmother (PGM) or neither of them was resident in the parents’ parish at the time of the mother’s first birth. In contrast to effects of PGMs, we discovered conditional differences in the MGM’s effects between landless people and wealthier, commercial farmers. Our data indicate that the presence of the MGM (...)
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  5.  8
    E. Suzanne Nederlof & Constant Dangbégnon (2007). Lessons for Farmer-Oriented Research: Experiences From a West African Soil Fertility Management Project. [REVIEW] Agriculture and Human Values 24 (3):369-387.
    Donors, scientists and farmers all benefit when research and development projects have high impact. However, potential benefits are sometimes not realized. Our objective in this study is to determine why resource-poor farmers in Togo (declined to) adopt recommended practices that were promoted through a multi-organizational project on soil fertility management. We examine the processes and outcomes related to the adoption process. The project was undertaken in three villages in the Central Region of Togo in West Africa. The development (...)
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  6.  3
    Martie G. Haselton & Geoffrey F. Miller (2006). Women's Fertility Across the Cycle Increases the Short-Term Attractiveness of Creative Intelligence. Human Nature 17 (1):50-73.
    Male provisioning ability may have evolved as a “good dad” indicator through sexual selection, whereas male creativity may have evolved partly as a “good genes” indicator. If so, women near peak fertility (midcycle) should prefer creativity over wealth, especially in short-term mating. Forty-one normally cycling women read vignettes describing creative but poor men vs. uncreative but rich men. Women’s estimated fertility predicted their short-term (but not long-term) preference for creativity over wealth, in both their desirability ratings of individual (...)
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  7.  3
    Rosalind McDougall (2015). The Ethics of Fertility Preservation for Paediatric Cancer Patients: From Offer to Rebuttable Presumption. Bioethics 29 (9):639-645.
    Given advances in the science of fertility preservation and the link between fertility choices and wellbeing, it is time to reframe our ethical thinking around fertility preservation procedures for children and young people with cancer. The current framing of fertility preservation as a possible offer may no longer be universally appropriate. There is an increasingly pressing need to discuss the ethics of failing to preserve fertility, particularly for patient groups for whom established (...)
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  8.  3
    Colin J. Pilbeam, Sudarshan B. Mathema, Peter J. Gregory & Padma B. Shakya (2005). Soil Fertility Management in the Mid-Hills of Nepal: Practices and Perceptions. [REVIEW] Agriculture and Human Values 22 (2):243-258.
    Sustaining soil fertility is essential to the prosperity of many households in the mid-hills of Nepal, but there are concerns that the breakdown of the traditional linkages between forest, livestock, and cropping systems is adversely affecting fertility. This study used triangulated data from surveys of households, discussion groups, and key informants in 16 wards in eastern and western Nepal to determine the existing practices for soil fertility management, the extent of such practices, and the perception of the (...)
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  9.  8
    Timothy F. Murphy (2012). The Ethics of Fertility Preservation in Transgender Body Modifications. Journal of Bioethical Inquiry 9 (3):311-316.
    In some areas of clinical medicine, discussions about fertility preservation are routine, such as in the treatment of children and adolescents facing cancer treatments that will destroy their ability to produce gametes of their own. Certain professional organizations now offer guidelines for people who wish to modify their bodies and appearance in regard to sex traits, and these guidelines extend to recommendations about fertility preservation. Since the removal of testicles or ovaries will destroy the ability to (...)
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  10.  5
    Marcia Muchagata & Katrina Brown (2000). Colonist Farmers' Perceptions of Fertility and the Frontier Environment in Eastern Amazonia. Agriculture and Human Values 17 (4):371-384.
    Colonists, unlike indigenous peoples, are often assumed tohave little knowledge of their environment. However, their perceptions of the environment and their knowledgeof natural resource systems have a significant impact on their farming practices. Farmers in the frontier regionof Marabá, Eastern Amazonia, understand nutrient cycling and the links between different components in farmingsystems. Diagrams drawn by farmers show very diversified systems, and farmers' knowledge of soilcharacteristics, including sub-surface features, and distribution in their localities is very detailed in comparison to pedologicalclassifications. However, (...)
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  11.  2
    Lisa W. Smith (2010). Imagining Women's Fertility Before Technology. Journal of Medical Humanities 31 (1):69-79.
    In the modern world, technology has enabled us to understand the connections between the menstrual cycle and female fertility and to observe the reproductive process even from conception. Unable to see inside the living body, however, eighteenth-century people imagined reproduction and fertility holistically. Their understanding of fertility was inseparable from the way in which they imagined the inner-workings of the humoral body. Although menstruation was understood to be connected to reproduction, it was considered unreliable, a peripheral indicator (...)
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  12.  10
    Baruch Finkelstein (2003). The Third Key: A Jewish Couple's Guide to Fertility. Feldheim.
    This book takes couples down the obstacle-strewn path toward fertility, discussing all factors that encompass difficulty conceiving.
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  13.  27
    James Franklin (2004). Low Fertility Among Women Graduates. People and Place 12 (1):37-45.
    Australian women who are university graduates have fewer children than non-graduates. In most cases this appears to be the result of circumstantial pressures not preference. Long years of study fill the most fertile years of women students and new graduates need further time to establish their careers. The chance of medical infertility increases with age so, for some, this means that childbearing is not postponed but ruled out. Graduates who do make the transition from (...)
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  14.  4
    Brian Bocking (2013). Flagging Up Buddhism: Charles Pfoundes (Omoie Tetzunostzuke) Among the International Congresses and Expositions, 1893–1905. Contemporary Buddhism 14 (1):17-37.
    Charles James William Pfoundes (1840?1907), a young emigrant from Southeast Ireland, spent most of his adult life in Japan, received a Japanese name ?Omoie Tetzunostzuke?, first embraced and then turned against Theosophy and, from 1893, was ordained in several Japanese Buddhist traditions. Lacking independent means but educated, intellectually curious, entrepreneurial, fluent in Japanese and with a keen interest in Asian culture, Pfoundes subsisted as a cultural intermediary, explaining Japan and Asia to both Japanese and foreign audiences and actively seeking involvement (...)
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  15.  14
    Beverly I. Strassmann & Nikhil T. Kurapati (2010). Are Humans Cooperative Breeders?: Most Studies of Natural Fertility Populations Do Not Support the Grandmother Hypothesis. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 33 (1):35-39.
    In discussing the effects of grandparents on child survival in natural fertility populations, Coall & Hertwig (C&H) rely extensively on the review by Sear and Mace (2008). We conducted a more detailed summary of the same literature and found that the evidence in favor of beneficial associations between grandparenting and child survival is generally weak or absent. The present state of the data on human alloparenting supports a more restricted use of the term Human stem family situations with celibate (...)
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  16.  6
    Jan van Bavel (2006). The Effect of Fertility Limitation on Intergenerational Social Mobility: The Quality–Quantity Trade-Off During the Demographic Transition. Journal of Biosocial Science 38 (4):553-569.
    The hypothesis that family size limitation by parents enhances the upward mobility chances of their children in (post)industrial populations has a long-standing record in many disciplines, including sociology and economics, as well as evolutionary anthropology and social biology. Yet the empirical record supporting or contradicting the theory is surprisingly limited. The aim of this contribution is to develop a test of the effect of family size limitation on children’s intergenerational mobility. This test is applied to an urban population in Belgium (...)
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  17.  3
    Anika Mitzkat, Erica Haimes & Christoph Rehmann-Sutter (2010). How Reproductive and Regenerative Medicine Meet in a Chinese Fertility Clinic. Interviews with Women About the Donation of Embryos to Stem Cell Research. Journal of Medical Ethics 36 (12):754-757.
    The social interface between reproductive medicine and embryonic stem cell research has been investigated in a pilot study at a large IVF clinic in central China. Methods included observation, interviews with hospital personnel, and five in-depth qualitative interviews with women who underwent IVF and who were asked for their consent to the donation of embryos for use in medical (in fact human embryonic stem cell) research. This paper reports, and discusses from an ethical perspective, the results of an analysis of (...)
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  18.  6
    M. L. LaBonte (2012). An Analysis of US Fertility Centre Educational Materials Suggests That Informed Consent for Preimplantation Genetic Diagnosis May Be Inadequate. Journal of Medical Ethics 38 (8):479-484.
    The use of preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) has expanded both in number and scope over the past 2 decades. Initially carried out to avoid the birth of children with severe genetic disease, PGD is now used for a variety of medical and non-medical purposes. While some human studies have concluded that PGD is safe, animal studies and a recent human study suggest that the embryo biopsy procedure may result in neurological problems for the offspring. Given that the long-term safety of (...)
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  19.  29
    Daniel Nolan (1999). Is Fertility Virtuous in its Own Right? British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 50 (2):265-282.
    the virtues which are desirable for scientific theories to possess. In this paper I discuss the several species of theoretical virtues called 'fertility', and argue in each case that the desirability of 'fertility' can be explicated in terms of other, more fundamental theoretical virtues.
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  20.  33
    Robert Segall (2008). Fertility and Scientific Realism. British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 59 (2):237-246.
    It has been claimed that modern long-standing scientific theories are fertile, in the sense of having been progressively successfully modified to meet new experimental observations or theoretical developments in related areas, and that these modifications arise naturally from each preceding version of the theory. McMullin has advanced this form of fertility as a vindication of scientific realism, since if the theories did not approximate the real, the observation would be inexplicable. In response Nolan has denied the existence of (...) in this sense as an independent virtue. The present paper argues that the rebuttal is flawed. Introduction McMullin's P-fertility Fertility Explained Away as Novel Prediction Conclusion CiteULike Connotea Del.icio.us What's this? (shrink)
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  21.  4
    J. R. McMillan (2003). NICE, the Draft Fertility Guideline and Dodging the Big Question. Journal of Medical Ethics 29 (6):313-314.
    NICE, the draft fertility guideline and dodging the big question: should fertility treatment be provided by the NHS?In August of this year the National Institute for Clinical Excellence made its draft guideline on fertility treatment available for consultation.1 As has been widely reported in the media the draft guideline recommends that the National Health Service should provide publicly funded fertility treatment in a consistent way across England and Wales. The guideline recommends that (...)
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  22.  10
    B. C. Heng (2008). Should Fertility Doctors and Clinical Embryologists Be Involved in the Recruitment, Counselling and Reimbursement of Egg Donors? Journal of Medical Ethics 34 (5):414-414.
    An ethical issue that has largely been overlooked and neglected is the potential conflict of interests faced by medical professionals in the recruitment, counselling and reimbursement of egg donors. It must be noted that fertility treatment in private practice is an overwhelmingly profit-driven enterprise. To attract more patients and generate more income, there is a strong incentive for fertility clinics and doctors to actively and aggressively recruit women for their egg donation programme. In some countries where substantial financial (...)
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  23.  14
    Robert Segall, The Fertility of Theories.
    In addition to empirical adequacy and compatibility with other current theories, scientific theories are commonly judged on three criteria â simplicity, elegance, and fertility. Fertility has received comparatively little attention in the philosophical literature. A definition of a certain sort of fertility, called P-fertility, proposed by Ernan McMullin, is that it consists in the capacity of a theory to be successfully modified over time to explain new experimental data or theoretical insights. McMullin made the major claim (...)
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  24.  5
    Helen Allan & Debbie Barber (2005). Emotional Boundary Work in Advanced Fertility Nursing Roles. Nursing Ethics 12 (4):391-400.
    In this article we examine the nature of intimacy and knowing in the nurse-patient relationship in the context of advanced nursing roles in fertility care. We suggest that psychoanalytical approaches to emotions may contribute to an increased understanding of how emotions are managed in advanced nursing roles. These roles include nurses undertaking tasks that were formerly performed by doctors. Rather than limiting the potential for intimacy between nurses and fertility patients, we argue that such roles allow nurses to (...)
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  25.  8
    Victor S. Johnston (2000). Female Facial Beauty: The Fertility Hypothesis. Pragmatics and Cognition 8 (1):107-122.
    Prior research on facial beauty has suggested that the average female face in a population is perceived to be the most attractive face. This finding, however, is based on an image processing methodology that appears to be flawed. An alternative method for generating attractive faces is described and the findings using this procedure are compared with the reports of other experimenters. The results suggest that (1) beautiful female faces are not average, but vary from the average in a systematic manner, (...)
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  26. B. C. Heng (2008). Should Fertility Doctors and Clinical Embryologists Be Involved in the Recruitment, Counselling and Reimbursement of Egg Donors? Journal of Medical Ethics 34 (5):414-414.
    An ethical issue that has largely been overlooked and neglected is the potential conflict of interests faced by medical professionals in the recruitment, counselling and reimbursement of egg donors. It must be noted that fertility treatment in private practice is an overwhelmingly profit-driven enterprise. To attract more patients and generate more income, there is a strong incentive for fertility clinics and doctors to actively and aggressively recruit women for their egg donation programme. In some countries where substantial financial (...)
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  27.  1
    John Clarke (2007). The History of Three Scientific Societies: The Society for the Study of Fertility (Now the Society for Reproduction and Fertility) (Britain), the Société Française Pour l'Étude de la Fertilité, and the Society for the Study of Reproduction (USA). Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C 38 (2):340-357.
    Three scientific societies devoted to the study of reproduction were established in Britain, France and USA in the middle of the twentieth century by clinical, veterinary and agricultural scientists. The principal motivation for their establishment had been the study of sterility and fertility of people and livestock. There was also a wider perspective embracing other biologists interested in reproduction more generally. Knowledge disseminated through the societies’ scientific meetings and publications would bear upon human and animal population problems as well (...)
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  28.  6
    Emily McTernan (2015). Should Fertility Treatment Be State Funded? Journal of Applied Philosophy 32 (3):227-240.
    Many states offer generous provision of fertility treatment, but this article asks whether and how such state funding can be justified. I argue that, at most, there is limited justification for state funding of fertility treatment as one good among many that could enable citizens to pursue valuable life projects, but not one that should have the privileged access to funding it is currently given. I then consider and reject reasons one might think that fertility treatment has (...)
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  29.  6
    K. G. Basavarajappa (1969). Recent Trends and Patterns of Non-Maori Fertility in New Zealand. Journal of Biosocial Science 1 (2):101-108.
    The birth rates per 1000 married females of specified ages and durations of marriage generally attained their post-war maxima in 19463000 and (b) the cumulative fertility up to 5 or 10 years of marriage duration of later cohorts was considerably higher (13–40% higher) than that of earlier cohorts. These facts, and similar ones for Australia covering a wider period (Basavarajappa, 1964), are thought to suggest that the total fertility of cohorts who have not yet completed their childbearing might (...)
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  30.  7
    Uche C. Isiugo-Abanihe (1998). Stability of Marital Unions and Fertility in Nigeria. Journal of Biosocial Science 30 (1):33-41.
    Using nationally representative data, it is shown that marital unions are relatively stable in Nigeria. Remarriage rates are high so little time is lost between unions. Consequently, the fertility of women who have experienced marital disruption is only slightly lower than for those in stable unions. Their slightly lower parity may be a function of a high incidence of reproductive impairment, which is a major reason for divorce and separation in Nigeria.
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  31.  9
    Doris J. Baker & Mary A. Paterson (1994). Distributive Justice and the Regulation of Fertility Centers: An Analysis of the Fertility Clinic Success Rate and Certification Act. Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 3 (3):383.
    The right to conceive and bear children has been protected both in law and in policy. Human society has from its earliest time valued children and defended procreation as a basic right.Modern health technology offers the possibility of conception to the estimated 2.5 million infertile couples who may wish to have children. For these persons, infertility treatment offers the hope of having children, an activity deemed basic and essential in human society.In general, the state has been reluctant to directly interfere (...)
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  32.  12
    Frank W. Derringh (2001). Is Coerced Fertility Reduction to Preserve Nature Justifiable? Philosophy in the Contemporary World 8 (1):21-30.
    Human population growth must end, and the sooner the better, for both nature and a humanity that pursues boundlessly increasing affluence. Poisoning of organisms and massive extinctions result, exacerbated by population momentum. Infliction of pain and death largely for trivial reasons constitutes the ignoble dénouement of our history. Reducing human numbers would be only one fitting response to recognition of this situation. Reliance on voluntary socio-economic reforms, including even the empowennent of women, appears unlikely to lead to below-replacement-level fertility, (...)
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  33.  5
    Robert D. Retherford & Shyam Thapa (2004). Recent Trends and Components of Change in Fertility in Nepal. Journal of Biosocial Science 36 (6):709-734.
    The objectives of this article are, first, to provide improved estimates of recent fertility levels and trends in Nepal and, second, to analyse the components of fertility change. The analysis is based on data from Nepals education. The own-children estimates for the whole country indicate that the TFR declined from 4·96 to 4·69 births per woman between the 3-year period preceding the 1996 survey and the 3-year period preceding the 2001 survey. About three-quarters of the decline stems from (...)
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  34.  4
    Michael Domjan, Michael J. Mahometa & R. Nicolle Matthews (2012). Learning in Intimate Connections: Conditioned Fertility and its Role in Sexual Competition. Socioaffective Neuroscience and Psychology 2.
    Background: Studies of sexual conditioning typically focus on the development of conditioned responses to a stimulus that precedes and has become associated with a sexual unconditioned stimulus (US). Such a sexually conditioned stimulus (CS) provides the opportunity for feed-forward regulation of sexual behavior, which improves the efficiency and effectiveness of the sexual activity. Objective and Design: The present experiments were conducted to provide evidence of such feed-forward regulation of sexual behavior in laboratory studies with domesticated quail by measuring how many (...)
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  35.  12
    Daniel Basco, Lisa Campo-Engelstein & Sarah Rodriguez (2010). Insuring Against Infertility: Expanding State Infertility Mandates to Include Fertility Preservation Technology for Cancer Patients. Journal of Law, Medicine & Ethics 38 (4):832-839.
    In this paper, we recommend expanding infertility insurance mandates to people who may become infertile because of cancer treatments. Such an expansion would ensure cancer patients can receive fertility preservation technology (FPT) prior to commencing treatment. We base our proposal for extending coverage to cancer patients on the infertility mandate in Massachusetts because it is one of the most inclusive. While we use Massachusetts as a model, our arguments and analysis of possible routes to coverage can be applied to (...)
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  36.  2
    Susan Scott & C. J. Duncan (1999). Nutrition, Fertility and Steady-State Population Dynamics in a Pre-Industrial Community in Penrith, Northern England. Journal of Biosocial Science 31 (4):505-523.
    The effect of nutrition on fertility and its contribution thereby to population dynamics are assessed in three social groups (elite, tradesmen and subsistence) in a marginal, pre-industrial population in northern England. This community was particularly susceptible to fluctuations in the price of grains, which formed their basic foodstuff. The subsistence class, who formed the largest part of the population, had low levels of fertility and small family sizes, but women from all social groups had a characteristic and marked (...)
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  37.  13
    John T. Manning & Alex R. Gage (2000). Low Fluctuating Asymmetry (FA) and Short-Term Benefits in Fertility? Behavioral and Brain Sciences 23 (4):610-611.
    Preference for partners with low fluctuating asymmetry (FA) may produce “good gene” benefits. However, Gangestad & Simpson's analysis does not exclude immediate benefits of fertility. Low FA is related to fertility in men and women. Short-term changes in FA are correlated with fertility in women. It is not known whether temporal fluctuations in the FA of men are related to short-term fertility status.
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  38.  3
    Laura Mamo (2013). Queering the Fertility Clinic. Journal of Medical Humanities 34 (2):227-239.
    A sociologist examines contemporary engagements of queer bodies and identities with fertility biomedicine. Drawing on social science, media culture, and the author’s own empirical research, three questions frame the analysis: 1. In what ways have queers on the gendered margins moved into the center and become implicated or central users of biomedicine’s fertility offerings? 2. In what ways is Fertility Inc. transformed by its own incorporation of various gendered and queered bodies and identities? And 3. What are (...)
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  39.  1
    Ram Hari Aryal (1991). Socioeconomic and Cultural Differentials in Age at Marriage and the Effect on Fertility in Nepal. Journal of Biosocial Science 23 (2):167-178.
    Age at marriage is one of the factors that influence the fertility behaviour of women, particularly in a society like Nepal where contraceptive use is low. Socioeconomic and cultural factors, particularly religion and ethnicity, are important variables in determining age at marriage in Nepal. Fertility was negatively related with age at marriage. Marriage duration had a greater influence on fertility than age at marriage, although these were strongly correlated.
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  40.  3
    David Lester & Bijou Yang (1992). Fertility and Suicide Rates: A Time Series Analysis in the United States. Journal of Biosocial Science 24 (1):97-102.
    In a time series study of the USA from 1933 to 1984, fertility rates were associated with the suicide rates of those aged 15–44. The higher the fertility rate the lower the suicide rate for these age groups, for both whites and non-whites, and for both men and women. The results were seen as supporting Durkheim's theory of suicide.
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  41.  3
    Radek Chlup (2007). The Semantics of Fertility. Kernos 20.
    During the last 100 years, several interpretations of the Thesmophoria have been advanced. Following the typology of H.S. Versnel, we can classify these interpretations as substantive, functionalist and cosmological. The three approaches can be seen as comple­mentary, but in practice they are hardly ever pursued simultaneously. This article examines how they fit together. In particular, it re-examines the subject of fertility, asking how it fits in with the wider social and ideological issues to which Detienne and others have drawn (...)
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  42.  2
    Kuldip Singh, Yoke Fai Fong & S. S. Ratnam (1991). A Reversal of Fertility Trends in Singapore. Journal of Biosocial Science 23 (1):73-78.
    Free access to contraception and effective legislation measures, have resulted in a decline in fertility in Singapore. A new population policy of ‘three children or more if you can afford it’ was therefore introduced in 1986. This paper discusses the new population policies and measures their effect on fertility in Singapore.
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  43.  1
    C. G. N. Mascie-Taylor (1992). Endemic Disease, Nutrition and Fertility in Developing Countries. Journal of Biosocial Science 24 (3):355-365.
    The two main ways in which disease and nutrition can influence fertility are by reducing fecundity or by extending the birth interval. Fecundity refers to reproductive ability, that is the potential to breed, as compared to fertility which denotes actual childbearing . Reduced fecundity, which is usually referred to as subfecundity, results from impairment of any of the biological aspects of reproduction, including coital inability, conceptive failure as well as pregnancy loss. Subfecundity is only one factor operating to (...)
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  44.  1
    Assefa Hailemariam (1991). Fertility Levels and Trends in Arsi and Shoa Regions of Central Ethiopia. Journal of Biosocial Science 23 (4):387-400.
    Levels and trends of fertility in the Arsi and Shoa regions of Central Ethiopia are examined, using data from the 1986 Population, Health and Nutrition baseline survey of the Ministry of Health of Ethiopia. The population has high fertility. Total fertility of six children per woman in the late 1960s increased to eight children per woman in the early 1980s, then declined to seven children per woman in the mid-1980s. Urban fertility declined by a substantial amount (...)
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  45.  1
    Richard S. Monteith, Charles W. Warren, Jose Mario Caceres & Howard I. Goldberg (1991). Changes in Contraceptive Use and Fertility: El Salvador, 1978–88. Journal of Biosocial Science 23 (1):79-89.
    In El Salvador from 1978 to 1988, contraceptive use among married women 15–44 years of age increased from 34% to 47%, and the total fertility rate declined from 6·3 to 4·6 children per woman. Most of this change took place from 1978 to 1985. Sterilization is the most prevalent method used, but nearly one-half of the women who are sterilized did not use any contraception before their operation. Few young couples use reversible methods of contraception to space births or (...)
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  46.  1
    J. M. Naidu, Yasmin & C. G. N. Mascie-Taylor (1997). Consanguinity and its Relationship to Differential Fertility and Mortality in the Kotia: A Tribal Population of Andhra Pradesh, India. Journal of Biosocial Science 29 (2):171-180.
    Data on patterns of marriage, differential fertility and mortality were collected from 211 Kotia women residing in Visakhapatnam district of Andhra Pradesh, India. Consanguineous marriages made up just over a quarter of the total, and of these, father's sister's daughter (FSD) were more common than mother's brother's daughter (MBD). The mean inbreeding coefficient for the sample (F) was 0·0172. Women in consanguineous marriages had a lower mean number of total conceptions, live births and living offspring (net fertility) than (...)
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  47. R. L. Cliquet, R. Schoenmaeckers & L. Klinkenborg (1977). Effectiveness of Contraception in Belgium: Results of the Second National Fertility Survey, 1971 (NEGO II). Journal of Biosocial Science 9 (4):403-416.
    The percentage of accidental pregnancies, the Pearl pregnancy rate and the life-table method have all been used to study the effectiveness of contraception in Belgium, using data from the Second National Fertility Survey (1971), which covered 3397 Belgian women in the age group 30–34 years. Though all three methods yield generally similar results, it is only by using the third method that we can obtain in an optimum way changes in contraceptive effectiveness by birth order and birth interval.
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  48. JosephineGusmano Johnston Michael K. (2013). Why We Should All Pay for Fertility Treatment: An Argument From Ethics and Policy. Hastings Center Report 43 (2):18-21.
    Since 1980, the number of twin births in the United States has increased 76 percent, and the number of triplets or higher-order multiples has increased over 400 percent. These increases are due in part to increased maternal age, which is associated with spontaneous twinning. But the primary reason for these increases is that more and more people are undergoing fertility treatment. Despite an emerging (but not absolute) consensus in the medical literature that multiples, including twins, should be a far (...)
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  49. Kolawole Azeez Oyediran (2006). Fertility Desires of Yoruba Couples of South-Western Nigeria. Journal of Biosocial Science 38 (5):605-624.
    Using the matched wife fertility intention. The analysis used logistic regression models for predicting the effects of selected socioeconomic background characteristics on a couples fertility intention was associated with age, education, place of residence, frequency of television-watching and number of living children. Therefore, programme interventions aimed at promoting fertility reduction in Nigeria should convey fertility regulation messages to both husbands and wives.
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  50. K. B. Piepmeier & T. S. Adkins (1973). The Status of Women and Fertility. Journal of Biosocial Science 5 (4):507-520.
    There is a great deal of interest in the relation between the status of women and fertility—by humanists, academics and policy-makers concerned with bringing about fertility declines. The three aspects of women's status most frequently linked to fertility are their education, employment and type of husband-wife interaction. Research to date has not given us a clear and consistent explanation of these relationships and has not confirmed causality. The effects of these three factors on fertility vary considerably (...)
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