Search results for 'Fetal' (try it on Scholar)

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  1. Sonia Meyers (2010). Invisible Waves of Technology: Ultrasound and the Making of Fetal Images. [REVIEW] Medicine Studies 2 (3):197-209.score: 24.0
    Since the introduction of ultrasound technology in the 1960s as a tool to visibly articulate the interiors of the pregnant body, feminist scholars across disciplines have provided extensive critique regarding the visual culture of fetal imagery. Central to this discourse is the position that fetal images occupy- as products of a visualizing technology that at once penetrates and severs pregnant and fetal bodies. This visual excision, feminist scholars describe, has led not only to an erasure of the (...)
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  2. Lisa Campo-Engelstein (2014). Paternal-Fetal Harm and Men's Moral Duty to Use Contraception: Applying the Principles of Nonmaleficence and Beneficence to Men's Reproductive Responsibility. Medicine Studies 4 (1-4):1-13.score: 24.0
    Discussions of reproductive responsibility generally draw heavily upon the principles of nonmaleficence and beneficence. However, these principles are typically only applied to women due to the incorrect belief that only women can cause fetal harm. The cultural perception that women are likely to cause fetal and child harm is reflected in numerous social norms, policies, and laws. Conversely, there is little public discussion of men and fetal and child harm, which implies that men do not (or cannot) (...)
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  3. Carla Meurk, Jayne Lucke & Wayne Hall (forthcoming). A Bio-Social and Ethical Framework for Understanding Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders. Neuroethics:1-8.score: 24.0
    The diagnosis of Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASDs) is embedded in a matrix of biological, social and ethical processes, making it an important topic for crossdisciplinary social and ethical research. This article reviews different branches of research relevant to understanding how FASD is identified and defined and outlines a framework for future social and ethical research in this area. We outline the character of scientific research into FASD, epidemiological discrepancies between reported patterns of maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy and (...)
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  4. Sam N. Pennington & Ivan A. Shibley (1998). Historical Misrepresentation in Science: The Case of Fetal Alcohol Syndrome. Science and Engineering Ethics 4 (4):427-435.score: 24.0
    The history of the fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) provides a microcosm in which to explore the larger ramifications of historical citations in biomedical publications. Though some historical references such as Biblical writings may hint at a rudimentary understanding of the relationship between maternal drinking and fetal development, no definitive case can be made for an understanding of FAS dating back hundreds of years. Authors who claim an impressive history for FAS misrepresent that history. The modern history of (...)
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  5. Anne Drapkin Lyerly & Mary Briody Mahowald (2001). Maternal-Fetal Surgery: The Fallacy of Abstraction and the Problem of Equipoise. [REVIEW] Health Care Analysis 9 (2):151-165.score: 24.0
    When surgery is performed on pregnant women forthe sake of the fetus (MFS or maternal fetalsurgery), it is often discussed in terms of thefetus alone. This usage exemplifies whatphilosophers call the fallacy of abstraction: considering a concept as if it were separablefrom another concept whose meaning isessentially related to it. In light of theirpotential separability, research on pregnantwomen raises the possibility of conflictsbetween the interests of the woman and those ofthe fetus. Such research should meet therequirement of equipoise, i.e., a (...)
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  6. Julie Vedder (2005). Constructing Prevention: Fetal Alcohol Syndrome and the Problem of Disability Models. [REVIEW] Journal of Medical Humanities 26 (2-3):107-120.score: 24.0
    Both the medical model and the social model of disability have substantial drawbacks for the project of creating better lives for people with disabilities; the first denies the value of difference and the effects of discrimination, and the second denies any place for prevention and cure. Using fictional and non-fictional parental narratives of Fetal Alcohol Syndrome, this article argues that a third model–a morphological model of disability–can best help us think about respectfully and effectively intervening in disability.
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  7. Katherine L. Waller, Anthony Volk & Vernon L. Quinsey (2004). The Effect of Infant Fetal Alcohol Syndrome Facial Features on Adoption Preference. Human Nature 15 (1):101-117.score: 24.0
    Infant facial characteristics may affect discriminative parental solicitude because they convey information about the health of the offspring. We examined the effect of Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS) infant facial characteristics on hypothetical adoption preferences, ratings of attractiveness, and ratings of health. As expected, potential parents were more likely to adopt “normal” infants, and they rated the FAS infants as less attractive and less healthy. Cuteness/attractiveness was the best predictor of adoption likelihood.
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  8. S. Derbyshire (2001). Fetal Pain: An Infantile Debate. Bioethics 15 (1):77-84.score: 21.0
  9. H. C. M. L. Rodrigues & P. P. van den Berg (2012). Randomized Controlled Trials of Maternal-Fetal Surgery: A Challenge to Clinical Equipoise. Bioethics.score: 21.0
  10. Marybeth Grant-Beuttler, Laura M. Glynn, Amy L. Salisbury, Elysia Poggi Davis, Carol Holliday & Curt A. Sandman (2011). Development of Fetal Movement Between 26 and 36-Weeks' Gestation in Response to Vibro-Acoustic Stimulation. Frontiers in Psychology 2:350-350.score: 21.0
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  11. Jörg‐Detlef Drenckhahn (2009). Growth Plasticity of the Embryonic and Fetal Heart. Bioessays 31 (12):1288-1298.score: 21.0
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  12. A. F. Rawdon-Smith, L. Carmichael & B. Wellman (1938). Electrical Responses From the Cochlea of the Fetal Guinea Pig. Journal of Experimental Psychology 23 (5):531.score: 21.0
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  13. Aaron S. Kesselheim, Martin T. November, Karen L. Lifford, Thomas F. McElrath, Ann L. Puopolo, E. John Orav & David M. Studdert (2010). Using Malpractice Claims to Identify Risk Factors for Neurological Impairment Among Infants Following Non‐Reassuring Fetal Heart Rate Patterns During Labour. Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 16 (3):476-483.score: 21.0
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  14. E. Christian Brugger (2012). The Problem of Fetal Pain and Abortion: Toward an Ethical Consensus for Appropriate Behavior. Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal 22 (3):263-287.score: 18.0
    This essay concerns what people should do in conflict situations when a doubt of fact bears on settling whether an alternative under consideration is legitimate or not. Its principal audience are those who believe that abortion can be legitimate when not having an abortion gives rise to serious harms that can be avoided by having one, but who are concerned that fetuses might feel pain when being aborted, and who believe that causing unnecessary pain should be avoided when doing so (...)
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  15. Roland R. Brusseau & George A. Mashour (2007). Subcortical Consciousness: Implications for Fetal Anesthesia and Analgesia. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 30 (1):86-87.score: 18.0
    In this commentary we discuss the possibility of subcortical consciousness and its implications for fetal anesthesia and analgesia. We review the neural development of structural and functional elements that may participate in conscious representation, with a particular focus on the experience of pain. (Published Online May 1 2007).
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  16. I. Glenn Cohen & Sadath Sayeed (2011). Fetal Pain, Abortion, Viability, and the Constitution. Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 39 (2):235-242.score: 18.0
    In early 2010, the Nebraska state legislature passed a new abortion restricting law asserting a new, compelling state interest in preventing fetal pain. In this article, we review existing constitutional abortion doctrine and note difficulties presented by persistent legal attention to a socially derived viability construct. We then offer a substantive biological, ethical, and legal critique of the new fetal pain rationale.
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  17. Lynn M. Morgan (1996). Fetal Relationality in Feminist Philosophy: An Anthropological Critique. Hypatia 11 (3):47 - 70.score: 18.0
    This essay critiques feminist treatments of maternal-fetal "relationality" that unwittingly replicate features of Western individualism (for example, the Cartesian division between the asocial body and the social-cognitive person, or the conflation of social and biological birth). I argue for a more reflexive perspective on relationality that would acknowledge how we produce persons through our actions and rhetoric. Personhood and relationality can be better analyzed as dynamic, negotiated qualities realized through social practice.
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  18. R. M. McMillen (1998). Antenatal Screening and Abortion for Fetal Abnormality: Medical and Ethical Issues. Journal of Medical Ethics 24 (2):136-137.score: 18.0
    Proceedings of a one day symposium for medical professionals with an interest in, or with a responsibility for, the development of ante-natal screening, fetal medicine and the provision of termination of pregnancy, held on 26 September 1996 at the Royal Society of Medicine, London. The objectives of the symposium were: to provide an occasion for the discussion of the clinical and ethical issues involved in screening for fetal abnormality and in providing the options of continuing the pregnancy or (...)
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  19. H. C. M. L. Rodrigues, P. P. van den Berg & M. Duwell (2013). Dotting the I's and Crossing the T's: Autonomy and/or Beneficence? The 'Fetus as a Patient' in Maternal–Fetal Surgery. Journal of Medical Ethics 39 (4):219-223.score: 18.0
    Chervenak and McCullough, authors of the most acknowledged ethical framework for maternal–fetal surgery, rely on the ‘ethical–obstetrical’ concept of the fetus as a patient in order to determine what is morally owed to fetuses by both physicians and the women who gestate them in the context of prenatal surgery. In this article, we reconstruct the argumentative structure of their framework and present an internal criticism. First, we analyse the justificatory arguments put forward by the authors regarding the moral status (...)
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  20. Richard B. Miller (1989). On Transplanting Human Fetal Tissue: Presumptive Duties and the Task of Casuistry. Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 14 (6):617-640.score: 18.0
    The procurement of fetal tissue for transplantation may promise great benefit to those suffering from various pathologies, e.g., neural disorders, diabetes, renal problems, and radiation sickness. However, debates about the use of fetal tissue have proceeded without much attention to ethical theory and application. Two broad moral questions are addressed here, the first formal, the second substantive: Is there a framework from other moral paradigms to assist in ethical debates about the transplantation of fetal tissue? Does the (...)
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  21. Ira Sprotzer & Ilene V. Goldberg (1992). Fetal Protection: Law, Ethics and Corporate Policy. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 11 (10):731 - 735.score: 18.0
    Corporate fetal protection policies are designed to protect unborn children from exposure to harmful substances in the workplace. In recent years, a number of corporations have instituted fetal protection policies which excluded all fertile female employees from jobs which exposed them to hazardous substances. Critics argued that these policies discriminated against women, and several lawsuits were filed.The United States Supreme Court recently decided a case involving the fetal protection policy of Johnson Controls, Inc. This article will (...)
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  22. M. S. Raucher (2009). What They Mean by "Good Science': The Medical Community's Response to Boutique Fetal Ultrasounds. Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 34 (5):528-544.score: 18.0
    Since 1994, when the first fetal imaging boutique appeared in Texas, many sites have been established around the country for parents to receive nonmedical fetal imaging using three- and four-dimensional ultrasound machines. These businesses boast the benefits they offer to parental-fetal bonding, but the medical community objects to the use of ultrasound machines for nonmedical purposes. In this article, I present the statements released by the medical community, highlighting the alarmist strategies used to paint boutique ultrasounds as (...)
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  23. M. C. Reid & G. Gillett (1997). The Case of Medea--A View of Fetal-Maternal Conflict. Journal of Medical Ethics 23 (1):19-25.score: 18.0
    Medea killed her children to take away the smile from her husband's face, according to Euripides, an offence against nature and morality. What if Medea had still been carrying her two children, perhaps due to give birth within a week or so, and had done the same? If this would also have been morally reprehensible, would that be a judgment based on her motives or on her action? We argue that the act has multiple and holistic moral features and that, (...)
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  24. C. Strong (1991). Fetal Tissue Transplantation: Can It Be Morally Insulated From Abortion? Journal of Medical Ethics 17 (2):70-76.score: 18.0
    Ethical controversy over transplantation of human fetal tissue has arisen because the source of tissue is induced abortions. Opposition to such transplants has been based on various arguments, including the following: rightful informed consent cannot be obtained for use of fetal tissue from induced abortions, and fetal tissue transplantation might result in an increase in the number of abortions. These arguments were not accepted by the National Institutes of Health (NIH) Human Fetal Tissue Transplantation Research Panel. (...)
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  25. H. Tristram Engelhardt Jr (1989). The Use of Fetal and Anencephalic Tissue for Transplantation. Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 14 (1):25-43.score: 18.0
    Advances in transplantation have extended the life and relieved the suffering of thousands of individuals. The prospect of being able to use tissues from embryos, as well as from anencephalic newborns, offers the promise of further relief of suffering. However, these possibilities raise significant moral and public policy issues. The question arises of the extent to which those who disapprove of abortion may make use of tissues derived from abortion in order to treat serious diseases. This essay argues that, with (...)
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  26. C. C. Heuser, A. G. Eller & J. L. Byrne (2012). Survey of Physicians' Approach to Severe Fetal Anomalies. Journal of Medical Ethics 38 (7):391-395.score: 18.0
    Objective Standards of care regarding obstetric management of life-threatening anomalies are not defined. It is hypothesised that physicians' management of these pregnancies is variable and influenced by demographic factors. Design A questionnaire was mailed to members of the Society of Maternal–Fetal Medicine with valid US addresses assessing obstetric management of both ‘uniformly lethal’ (eg, anencephaly, renal agenesis) and ‘uniformly severe, commonly lethal’ (eg, trisomy 13 and 18) anomalies. Respondents were asked to answer as if not limited by state/institutional restrictions. (...)
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  27. S. Squier (1996). Fetal Subjects and Maternal Objects: Reproductive Technology and the New Fetal/Maternal Relation. Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 21 (5):515-535.score: 18.0
    This essay examines three tendencies nurtured in the practices of reproductive technology – tendencies with profoundly disturbing implications for us as individuals and as social beings. They are: 1) the increasing subjectification of the fetus (that is, the increasing tendency to posit a fetal subject), 2) the increasing objectification of the gestating woman, leading to her representation as interchangeable object rather than unique subject, and 3) the increasing tendency to conceive of the fetus and the mother as social, medical, (...)
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  28. S. Woods & K. Taylor (2008). Ethical and Governance Challenges in Human Fetal Tissue Research. Clinical Ethics 3 (1):14-19.score: 18.0
    Genetics holds the key to understanding normal human biology and possibly many of the major causes of human disease and impairment. Research into human developmental genetics seems, therefore, to be both necessary and justified. However, such research requires the use of embryonic and fetal tissue obtained from spontaneous abortions and elective termination of pregnancy. This paper examines the arguments in favour of using tissue from elective terminations and the evolution of regulatory frameworks for this research. The paper argues that (...)
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  29. F. Anderson, A. Glasier, J. Ross & D. T. Baird (1994). Attitudes of Women to Fetal Tissue Research. Journal of Medical Ethics 20 (1):36-40.score: 18.0
    The use of human fetal tissue for scientific research has enormous potential but is subject to government legislation. In the United Kingdom the Polkinghorne Committee's guidelines were accepted by the Department of Health in 1990. These guidelines set out to protect women undergoing termination of pregnancy from exploitation but in so doing may significantly restrict potential research. Although the committee took evidence from a wide variety of experts they did not seek the views of the general public. We asked (...)
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  30. J. M. Berkowitz (1995). Mummy Was a Fetus: Motherhood and Fetal Ovarian Transplantation. Journal of Medical Ethics 21 (5):298-304.score: 18.0
    Infertility affects 15 per cent of the world's couples. Research at Edinburgh University has been directed at transplanting fetal ovarian tissue into infertile women, thus enabling them to bear children. Fetal ovary transplantation (FOT) has generated substantial controversy; in fact, one ethicist deemed the procedure 'so grotesque as to be unbelievable' (1). Some have suggested that fetal eggs may harbour unknown chromosomal abnormalities: however, there is no evidence that these eggs possess a higher incidence of genetic anomaly (...)
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  31. Lynn Gillam (1998). The 'More-Abortions' Objection to Fetal Tissue Transplantation. Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 23 (4):411 – 427.score: 18.0
    One common objection to fetal tissue transplantation (FTT) is that, if it were to become a standard form of treatment, it would encourage or entrench the practice of abortion. This claim is at least factually plausible, although it cannot be definitively established. However, even if true, it does not constitute a compelling ethical argument against FTT. The harm allegedly brought about by FTT, when assessed by widely accepted non-consequentialist criteria, has limited moral significance. Even if FTT would cause more (...)
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  32. D. Wilkinson (2012). Fatal Fetal Paternalism. Journal of Medical Ethics 38 (7):396-397.score: 18.0
    Heuser and colleagues' survey of obstetricians provides a valuable insight into the current management of severe fetal anomalies in the United States. Their survey reveals two striking features - that counselling for these anomalies is far from neutral, and that there is significant variability between clinicians in their approach to management. In this commentary I outline the reasons to be concerned about both of these. Directiveness in counselling arguably represents a form of paternalism, and the evident variability in practice (...)
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  33. F. Chervenak & L. B. McCullough (2012). Responsibly Counselling Women About the Clinical Management of Pregnancies Complicated by Severe Fetal Anomalies. Journal of Medical Ethics 38 (7):397-398.score: 18.0
    Heuser, Eller and Byrne provide important descriptive ethics data about how physicians counsel women on the clinical management of pregnancies complicated by severe fetal anomalies. The authors present an account of what such counselling ought to be based on, the ethical concept of the fetus as a patient and the professional responsibility model of obstetric ethics. When there is certainty about the diagnosis and either a very high probability of either death as the outcome of the anomaly or survival (...)
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  34. J. Keown (1993). The Polkinghorne Report on Fetal Research: Nice Recommendations, Shame About the Reasoning. Journal of Medical Ethics 19 (2):114-120.score: 18.0
    In 1989, in the wake of the first operations to transplant fetal tissue into the brains of sufferers from Parkinson's Disease, the UK Code of Practice governing the use of the fetus for research was overhauled by an eminent committee under the chairmanship of the Reverend Dr John Polkinghorne. The Polkinghorne Report has, however, attracted remarkably little comment or analysis. This paper is believed to be the first to subject it to sustained ethical and legal scrutiny. The author concludes (...)
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  35. G. de Wert, R. L. P. Berghmans, G. J. Boer, S. Andersen, B. Brambati, A. S. Carvalho, K. Dierickx, S. Elliston, P. Nunez, W. Osswald & M. Vicari (2002). Ethical Guidance on Human Embryonic and Fetal Tissue Transplantation: A European Overview. Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 5 (1):79-90.score: 18.0
    This article presents an overview ofregulations, guidelines and societal debates ineight member states of the EC about a)embryonic and fetal tissue transplantation(EFTT), and b) the use of human embryonic stemcells (hES cells) for research into celltherapy, including `therapeutic' cloning. Thereappears to be a broad acceptance of EFTT inthese countries. In most countries guidance hasbeen developed. There is a `strong' consensusabout some of the central conditions for `goodclinical practice' regarding EFTT.International differences concern, amongstothers, some of the informed consent issuesinvolved, and (...)
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  36. Paul Ramsey (1975). The Ethics of Fetal Research. Yale University Press.score: 18.0
    "The Ethics of Fetal Research" distinguishes between the legal and ethical questions raised by experimentation on still-living human fetuses.
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  37. T. A. Shannon (1997). Fetal Status: Sources and Implications. Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 22 (5):415-422.score: 18.0
    This essay considers the ways in which the various contexts – abortion, prenatal diagnosis, fetal research, and the use of fetuses in transplantation – shape the American debate on the moral standing of the fetus. This discussion gives rise to several philosophical debates on the status of the preimplantation embryo, particularly the debate over when the preimplantation embryo becomes individuated. How that question is resolved has critical ethical and policy implications.
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  38. Anna Smajdor (2011). Ethical Challenges in Fetal Surgery. Journal of Medical Ethics 37 (2):88-91.score: 18.0
    Fetal surgery has been practised for some decades now. However, it remains a highly complex area, both medically and ethically. This paper shows how the routine use of ultrasound has been a catalyst for fetal surgery, in creating new needs and new incentives for intervention. Some of the needs met by fetal surgery are those of parents and clinicians who experience stress while waiting for the birth of a fetus with known anomalies. The paper suggests that the (...)
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  39. Troy D. Abell (1994). Methodological Challenges in the Study of Fetal Growth. Human Nature 5 (1):23-67.score: 18.0
    Several conceptual and methodological challenges must be solved in order to create knowledge that can be useful to pregnant women, their families, and any clinicians who serve them: (1) going beyond nominal and ordinal hypotheses and presenting estimates of conditional probabilities; (2) focusing on clearly defined outcomes; (3) modeling the relationship of fetal growth and length of gestation; (4) understanding the process of fetal growth even though most of our data is cross-sectional; (5) estimating the independent effects of (...)
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  40. Keith A. Crutcher (1995). The Ethics of Fetal Tissue Grafting Should Be Considered Along with the Science. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 18 (1):53-54.score: 18.0
    In addition to the scientific and medical issues surrounding the use of fetal tissue transplants, the ethical implications should be considered. Two major ethical issues are relevant. The first of these is whether this experimental procedure can be justified on the basis of potential benefit to the patient. The second is whether the use of tissue obtained from intentionally aborted fetuses can be justified in the context of historical and existing guidelines for the protection of human subjects. The separation (...)
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  41. Donna L. Dickenson (ed.) (2002). Ethical Issues in Maternal-Fetal Medicine. Cambridge University Press.score: 18.0
    This book addresses the ethical problems in maternal-fetal medicine which impact directly on clinical practice.
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  42. Robert William Fischer (forthcoming). Disgust and the Collection of Bovine Fetal Blood. In Elisa Aaltola & John Hadley (eds.), Animal Ethics and Philosophy: Questioning the Orthodoxy. Rowman & Littlefield International.score: 18.0
    At many slaughterhouses, if a pregnant cow is killed, then medical companies pay to harvest the fetus's blood. When you communicate the details of this process to people, many of them are disgusted. I submit that those who are repulsed thereby acquire a reason to believe that this practice is morally wrong. However, it is controversial to maintain that disgust can provide moral guidance. So, I develop a theory of disgust’s moral salience that fits with the empirical work that’s been (...)
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  43. Rida Usman Khalafzai (2008). Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders. Chisholm Health Ethics Bulletin 14 (2):9.score: 18.0
    Khalafzai, Rida Usman Harms of alcohol consumption are not limited to the consumer. For women, it poses a significant threat to their unborn child. This article discusses one type of alcohol-related harm to the fetus: the fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD).
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  44. I. R. McFadyen (1978). Fetal Survival--Who Decides? Journal of Medical Ethics 4 (1):30-31.score: 18.0
    In this paper Iain McFadyen highlights a modern ethical dilemma. In each case the fetus was recognised to be in danger, but in both cases the advice given in the fetal interest was refused by the mothers. Both the mother and the physician were concerned for the fetus, but their differing actions and reasons pose the dilemma--who decides?
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  45. Virginia Ashby Sharpe (2002). Review of Cynthia R. Daniels, At Women's Expense: State Power and the Politics of Fetal Rights. [REVIEW] American Journal of Bioethics 2 (1):65-66.score: 18.0
    (2002). Review of Cynthia R. Daniels, At Women's Expense: State Power and the Politics of Fetal Rights. The American Journal of Bioethics: Vol. 2, No. 1, pp. 65-66.
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  46. Donald G. Stein & Marylou M. Glasier (1995). Are Fetal Brain Tissue Grafts Necessary for the Treatment of Brain Damage? Behavioral and Brain Sciences 18 (1):86-107.score: 18.0
    Despite some clinical promise, using fetal transplants for degenerative and traumatic brain injury remains controversial and a number of issues need further attention. This response reexamines a number of questions. Issues addressed include: temporal factors relating to neural grafting, the role of behavioral experience in graft outcome, and the relationship of rebuilding of neural circuitry to functional recovery. Also discussed are organization and type of transplanted tissue, the of transplant viability, and whether transplants are really needed to obtain functional (...)
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  47. Luigi Matturri Anna M. Lavezzi (2012). Neuroanatomical Dysmorphology of the Medial Superior Olivary Nucleus in Sudden Fetal and Infant Death. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 6.score: 18.0
    This study expands our understanding of the organization of the human caudal pons, providing a morphologic characterization of the medial superior olivary nucleus, component of the superior olivary complex, that plays an important role in the processing of acoustic information. We examined victims of sudden unexplained fetal and infant death and controls (n=75), from 25 gestational weeks to 8 months of postnatal age, by complete autopsy and in-depth autonomic nervous system histological examination, particularly of the medial superior olivary nucleus, (...)
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  48. Lynn Gillam (1997). Arguing by Analogy in the Fetal Tissue Debate. Bioethics 11 (5):397-412.score: 18.0
    In the debate over fetal tissue use, an analogy is often drawn between removing organs from the body of a person who has been murdered to use for transplantation, and collecting tissue from an aborted fetus to use for the same purpose. The murder victim analogy is taken by its proponents to show that even if abortion is the moral equivalent of murder, there is still no good reason to refrain from using the fetal tissue, since as a (...)
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  49. John Lai Yin Leung & Samantha Mei Che Pang (2009). Ethical Analysis of Non-Medical Fetal Ultrasound. Nursing Ethics 16 (5):637-646.score: 18.0
    Obstetric ultrasound is the well-recognized prenatal test used to visualize and determine the condition of a pregnant woman and her fetus. Apart from the clinical application, some businesses have started promoting the use of fetal ultrasound machines for nonmedical reasons. Non-medical fetal ultrasound (also known as ‘keepsake’ ultrasound) is defined as using ultrasound to view, take a picture, or determine the sex of a fetus without a medical indication. Notwithstanding the guidelines and warnings regarding ultrasound safety issued by (...)
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  50. Laura M. Purdy (1990). Are Pregnant Women Fetal Containers? Bioethics 4 (4):273–291.score: 15.0
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