Search results for 'First-in-human' (try it on Scholar)

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  1. Ronald K. F. Fung & Ian H. Kerridge (2013). Uncertain Translation, Uncertain Benefit and Uncertain Risk: Ethical Challenges Facing First-in-Human Trials of Induced Pluripotent Stem (Ips) Cells. Bioethics 27 (2):89-96.score: 720.0
    The discovery of induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells in 2006 was heralded as a major breakthrough in stem cell research. Since then, progress in iPS cell technology has paved the way towards clinical application, particularly cell replacement therapy, which has refueled debate on the ethics of stem cell research. However, much of the discourse has focused on questions of moral status and potentiality, overlooking the ethical issues which are introduced by the clinical testing of iPS cell replacement therapy. First-in-human (...)
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  2. Frederic Bretzner, Frederic Gilbert, Françoise Baylis & Robert M. Brownstone (2011). Target Populations for First-In-Human Embryonic Stem Cell Research in Spinal Cord Injury. Cell Stem Cell 8 (5):468-475.score: 720.0
    Geron recently announced that it had begun enrolling patients in the world's first-in-human clinical trial involving cells derived from human embryonic stem cells (hESCs). This trial raises important questions regarding the future of hESC-based therapies, especially in spinal cord injury (SCI) patients. We address some safety and efficacy concerns with this research, as well as the ethics of fair subject selection. We consider other populations that might be better for this research: chronic complete SCI patients for a safety trial, (...)
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  3. Audrey R. Chapman & Courtney C. Scala (2012). Evaluating the First-in-Human Clinical Trial of a Human Embryonic Stem Cell-Based Therapy. Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal 22 (3):243-261.score: 546.0
    The transition of novel and potentially promising medical therapies into their initial human clinical trials can engender conflicting pressures. On the one side, because Phase I trials raise greater ethical and human protection challenges than later stage clinical trials, there is a need to proceed cautiously. This is particularly the case for Phase I trials with a novel therapy being tested in humans for the first time, usually termed first-in-human (FIH) trials, especially if the FIH trial involves significant risks. (...)
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  4. Frederic Gilbert, Alexander R. Harris & Robert M. I. Kapsa (2012). Efficacy Testing as a Primary Purpose of Phase 1 Clinical Trials: Is It Applicable to First-in-Human Bionics and Optogenetics Trials? AJOB Neuroscience 3 (2):20-22.score: 540.0
    In her article, Pascale Hess raises the issue of whether her proposed model may be extrapolated and applied to clinical research fields other than stem cell-based interventions in the brain (SCBI-B) (Hess 2012). Broadly summarized, Hess’s model suggests prioritizing efficacy over safety in phase 1 trials involving irreversible interventions in the brain, when clinical criteria meet the appropriate population suffering from “degenerative brain diseases” (Hess 2012). Although there is a need to reconsider the traditional phase 1 model, especially with respect (...)
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  5. Nancy M. P. King (2012). Nanomedicine First-in-Human Research: Challenges for Informed Consent. Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 40 (4):823-830.score: 540.0
    Risks of harm, translational uncertainty, ambiguities in potential direct benefit, and long-term follow-up merit consideration in first-in-human research. Some nanomedical technologies have additional characteristics that should be addressed, including: defining and describing nanomedical interventions; bystander risks; the therapeutic misconception; and a decision-making context that includes both common use of nanomaterials outside medicine and persistent unknowns about the effects of nanosize. This paper considers how to address these issues in informed consent to first-in-human nanomedicine research.
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  6. Jonathan Kimmelman, Alex John London, Bernard Ravina, Tim Ramsay, Mark Bernstein, Alan Fine, Frank W. Stahnisch & Marina Elena Emborg, Launching Invasive, First-in-Human Trials Against Parkinson's Disease: Ethical Considerations.score: 540.0
    The decision to initiate invasive, first-in-human trials involving Parkinson’s disease presents a vexing ethical challenge. Such studies present significant surgical risks, and high degrees of uncertainty about intervention risks and biological effects. We argue that maintaining a favorable riskbenefit balance in such circumstances requires a higher than usual degree of confidence that protocols will lead to significant direct and/or social benefits. One critical way of promoting such confidence is through the application of stringent evidentiary standards for preclinical studies. We (...)
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  7. Rebecca Dresser (2012). Building an Ethical Foundation for First-in-Human Nanotrials. Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 40 (4):802-808.score: 531.0
    Novel nanomedical interventions require human testing to evaluate their safety and effectiveness. To establish a proper evidentiary basis for human trials, nanomedical innovations must first be subjected to animal and other laboratory testing. But it is uncertain whether the traditional laboratory approaches to safety evaluation will supply adequate information on nanotechnology risks to humans. This uncertainty, together with other features of nanomedical innovation, heightens the ethical challenges in conducting FIH nanotrials.
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  8. Denis Collins (2000). The Quest to Improve the Human Condition: The First 1 500 Articles Published in Journal of Business Ethics. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 26 (1):1 - 73.score: 486.0
    In 1999, the Journal of Business Ethics published its 1 500th article. This article commemorates the journal's quest "to improve the human condition" (Michalos, 1988, p. 1) with a summary and assessment of the first eighteen volumes. The first part provides an overview of JBE, highlighting the journal's growth, types of methodologies published, and the breadth of the field. The second part provides a detailed account of the quantitative research findings. Major research topics include (1) prevalence of ethical behavior, (2) (...)
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  9. Marian Annett (2003). Myths of First Cause and Asymmetries in Human Evolution. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 26 (2):208-209.score: 471.0
    The causes of asymmetries for handedness and cerebral speech are of scientific interest, but is it sensible to try to determine which of these came first? I argue that (1) first causes belong to mythology, not science; (2) much of the cited evidence is weak; and (3) the treatment of individual differences is inadequate in comparison with the right shift theory.
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  10. Daniela Corbetta (2003). Right-Handedness May Have Come First: Evidence From Studies in Human Infants and Nonhuman Primates. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 26 (2):217-218.score: 471.0
    Recent studies with human infants and nonhuman primates reveal that posture interacts with the expression and stability of handedness. Converging results demonstrate that quadrupedal locomotion hinders the expression of handedness, whereas bipedal posture enhances preferred hand use. From an evolutionary perspective, these findings suggest that right-handedness may have emerged first, following the adoption of bipedal locomotion, with speech emerging later.
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  11. Simon Bacon (2013). “We Can Rebuild Him!”: The Essentialisation of the Human/Cyborg Interface in the Twenty-First Century, or Whatever Happened to The Six Million Dollar Man? [REVIEW] AI and Society 28 (3):267-276.score: 459.0
    This paper aims to show how recent cinematic representations reveal a far more pessimistic and essentialised vision of Human/Cyborg hybridity in comparison with the more enunciative and optimistic ones seen at the end of the twentieth century. Donna Haraway’s still influential 1985 essay “A Cyborg Manifesto” saw the combination of the organic and the technological as offering new and exciting ways beyond the normalised culturally constructed categories of gender and identity formation. However, more recently critics see her later writings as (...)
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  12. David B. Resnik (2011). Review of Gene Transfer and the Ethics of First-in-Human Research. [REVIEW] Studies in Ethics, Law, and Technology 5 (1).score: 459.0
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  13. A. S. Franklin (2007). Human-Nonhuman Animal Relationships in Australia: An Overview of Results From the First National Survey and Follow-Up Case Studies 2000-2004. Society and Animals 15 (1):7-27.score: 459.0
    This paper provides an overview of results from an Australian Research Council-funded project "Sentiments and Risks: The Changing Nature of Human-Animal Relations in Australia." The data discussed come from a survey of 2000 representative Australians at the capital city, state, and rural regional level. It provides both a snapshot of the state of involvement of Australians with nonhuman animals and their views on critical issues: ethics, rights, animals as food, risk from animals, native versus introduced animals, hunting, fishing, and companionate (...)
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  14. Rebecca Dresser (2009). First-in-Human Trial Participants: Not a Vulnerable Population, but Vulnerable Nonetheless. Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 37 (1):38-50.score: 450.0
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  15. Kristina Hug & Göran Hermerén (2011). Which Patient Groups Should Be Asked to Participate in First-in-Human Trials of Stem-Cell-Based Therapies? Journal of Clinical Ethics 23 (3):256-271.score: 450.0
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  16. Audrey R. Chapman (2011). Addressing the Ethical Challenges of First in-Human Trials. Journal of Clinical Research and Bioethics 2 (4).score: 450.0
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  17. Dr Katharina Beier (2009). First International Workshop of the Tiss.EU Project: Rights and Entitlements in Human Tissue and Cells. [REVIEW] Ethik in der Medizin 21 (2):153-155.score: 444.0
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  18. Katharina Beier (2009). First International Workshop of the Tiss. EU Project: Rights and Entitlements in Human Tissue and Cells. Ethik in der Medizin 21 (2):153-155.score: 444.0
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  19. Julianne H. Newton & Rick Williams (2010). Twenty-First-Century Journalism Juxtaposes Words with Still Photographs, Graphics, Cartoons, Video, Sound, and Animation in Seamless Presentations Intended to Be Understood as Real. As Images Work with Words and Music in Short-and Long-Form Journalistic Presentations Alongside Advertising and Entertainment Media, Fact and Fantasy Merge, Dancing Together in Human Memory as If All Are Real. These Increasingly Sophisticated Messages, Conveyed by Media of Every Function and Form, Deserve Careful Attention ... [REVIEW] In Christopher Meyers (ed.), Journalism Ethics: A Philosophical Approach. Oxford University Press. 331.score: 435.0
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  20. Chris Code (2005). First in, Last Out?: The Evolution of Aphasic Lexical Speech Automatisms to Agrammatism and the Evolution of Human Communication. Interaction Studies 6 (2):311-334.score: 435.0
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  21. Jean-Philippe Lachaux (2011). If No Control, Then What? Making Sense of Neural Noise in Human Brain Mapping Experiments Using First-Person Reports. Journal of Consciousness Studies 18 (2):162-166.score: 435.0
     
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  22. Mary E. Clark (1998). Human Nature: What We Need to Know About Ourselves in the Twenty-First Century. Zygon 33 (4):645-659.score: 423.0
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  23. James Griffin (2001). First Steps in an Account of Human Rights. European Journal of Philosophy 9 (3):306–327.score: 405.0
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  24. Katherine C. Jansen, Joanna Drell & Frances Andrews (2010). Alain Badiou. The Theory of the Subject. Translated by Bruno Bosteels (London: Continuum, 2009), Xliv+ 367 Pp.£ 22.99 Cloth. Colette Balmain and Lois Drawmer, Eds. Something Wicked This Way Comes: Essays on Evil and Human Wickedness (Amsterdam: Rodopi, 2009), 209 Pp. E44. 00 Paper. Aurel Braun. Nato–Russia Relations in the Twenty-First Century (London: Routledge. [REVIEW] The European Legacy 15 (3):405-407.score: 405.0
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  25. Yang Qingzhong (2008). Possible Inspiration Offered by the Yin-Yang Theory of The Book of Changes (Yi Jing) Regarding the Course of Human Culture in the Twenty-First Century. Contemporary Chinese Thought 39 (3):23-38.score: 405.0
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  26. Matthew R. Goodrum (2002). Atomism, Atheism, and the Spontaneous Generation of Human Beings: The Debate Over a Natural Origin of the First Humans in Seventeenth-Century Britain. Journal of the History of Ideas 63 (2):207-224.score: 405.0
  27. Peter Byrne (1992). David A. Pailin. A Gentle Touch: From a Theology of Handicap to a Theology of Being Human. London. S.P.C.K. 1992 X + 192.Robert L. Fastiggi. The Natural Theology of Yves de Paris. Atlanta Ga. Scholars Press. 1992. Pp 281. $19.95 Pbk.Merold Westphal. Hegel, Freedom and Modernity New York. State University Press of New York. 1992. Pp Xviii + 295.Paul Davies. The Mind of God: The Scientific Basis for a Rational World. New York. Simon and Schuster. Pp 245.Hiroshi Obayashi Ed. Death and Afterlife. New York. Greenwood Press. 1992. Pp Xxii + 209.B. M. Marshall. Theology and Dialogue: Essays in Conversation with George Lindbeck. Notre Dame Ind. University of Notre Dame. 1990. Pp 288. $29.95.Raymond I. Weiss. Maimonides' Ethics: The Encounter of Philosophic and Religious Morality. Chicago. University of Chicago Press. 1991. Pp 224. $23.95.David Ross Scully. Alfred North Whitehead: A First Look. New York. Vantage Press. 1991. Pp 96.Daniel A. Dombrowski. St John of the Cross: An Appreciation. Alb. [REVIEW] Religious Studies 28 (4):583.score: 405.0
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  28. G. R. Dunstan (1984). Human Conception in Vitro: Proceedings of the First Bourn Hall Meeting. Journal of Medical Ethics 10 (2):99-99.score: 405.0
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  29. Jeffrey A. McNeely (2009). Does Nature Stand a Chance in a Human-Dominated World?:The World's Protected Areas: Status, Values, and Prospects in the Twenty-First Century. Stuart Chape , Mark D. Spalding , and Martin D. Jenkins , Eds. University of California Press, 2008. 376 Pp., Illus. $54.95 (ISBN 9780520246607 Cloth). [REVIEW] BioScience 59 (7):623-624.score: 405.0
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  30. Linda Ogilvie, Judy E. Mill, Barbara Astle, Anne Fanning & Mary Opare (2007). The Exodus of Health Professionals From Sub-Saharan Africa: Balancing Human Rights and Societal Needs in the Twenty-First Century. Nursing Inquiry 14 (2):114-124.score: 405.0
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  31. Kurt W. Fischer (1982). Human Cognitive Development in the First Four Years. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 5 (2):282.score: 405.0
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  32. D. F. Pears (1976). Naturalism in the First Book of Hume's Treatise of Human Nature. Proceedings of the British Academy 62 62.score: 405.0
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  33. Paulina Sztabińska (2005). Human Reification in the Figurative Painting and Sculpture of the First Half of the 20th Century. Art Inquiry. Recherches Sur les Arts 7:217-230.score: 405.0
     
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  34. A. -T. Tymieniecka (1986). First Principles of the Metaphysics of Life Charting the Human Condition. Man's Creative Act and the Origin of Rationalities in The Phenomenology of Man and of the Human Condition. II. The Meeting Point Between Occidental and Oriental Philosophies. [REVIEW] Analecta Husserliana 21:3-73.score: 405.0
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  35. [deleted]Shane Lee & Stephanie R. Jones (2013). Distinguishing Mechanisms of Gamma Frequency Oscillations in Human Current Source Signals Using a Computational Model of a Laminar Neocortical Network. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 7:869.score: 339.0
    Gamma frequency rhythms have been implicated in numerous studies for their role in healthy and abnormal brain function. The frequency band has been described to encompass as broad a range as 30–150 Hz. Crucial to understanding the role of gamma in brain function is an identification of the underlying neural mechanisms, which is particularly difficult in the absence of invasive recordings in macroscopic human signals such as those from magnetoencephalography (MEG) and electroencephalography (EEG). Here, we studied features of current dipole (...)
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  36. Pavel Gregorić (2012). The First Humans in Plato's Timaeus. Croatian Journal of Philosophy 12 (2):183-198.score: 336.0
    Plato’s Timaeus gives an account of the creation of the world and of human race. The text suggests that there was a first generation of human beings, and that they were all men. The paper raises difficulties for this traditional view, and considers an alternative, suggested in more recent literature, according to which humans of the first generation were sexually undifferentiated. The paper raises difficulties for the alternative view as well, and examines the third possibility, advocated by some ancient as (...)
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  37. Maurizio Tirassa, Francesca M. Bosco & Livia Colle (2006). Sharedness and Privateness in Human Early Social Life. Tirassa, Maurizio and Bosco, Francesca M. And Colle, Livia (2006) Sharedness and Privateness in Human Early Social Life. [Journal (Paginated)].score: 333.0
    This research is concerned with the innate predispositions underlying human intentional communication. Human communication is currently defined as a circular and overt attempt to modify a partner's mental states. This requires each party involved to posse ss the ability to represent and understand the other's mental states, a capability which is commonly referred to as mindreading, or theory of mind (ToM). The relevant experimental literature agrees that no such capability is to be found in the human speci es at least (...)
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  38. Indrė Pukanasytė (2009). Some Aspects Related to the Interpretation of the Right to Free Elections in the Case-Law of the European Court of Human Rights. Jurisprudence 115 (1):155-182.score: 333.0
    The paper focuses on the general principles established in the caselaw of the European Court of Human Rights while applying and interpreting the Article 3 of the First Protocol of the Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms which provides: „The High Contracting Parties undertake to hold free elections at reasonable intervals by secret ballot, under conditions which will ensure the free expression of the opinion of the people in the choice of the legislature.“ Article 3 of (...)
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  39. [deleted]Kai J. Miller, Dora Hermes, Christopher J. Honey, Mohit Sharma, Rajesh P. N. Rao, Marcel Den Nijs, Eberhard E. Fetz, Terrence J. Sejnowski, Adam O. Hebb, Jeffrey G. Ojemann, Scott Makeig & Eric C. Leuthardt (2010). Dynamic Modulation of Local Population Activity by Rhythm Phase in Human Occipital Cortex During a Visual Search Task. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 4:197.score: 333.0
    Brain rhythms are more than just passive phenomena in visual cortex. For the first time, we show that the physiology underlying brain rhythms actively suppresses and releases cortical areas on a second-to-second basis during visual processing. Furthermore, their influence is specific at the scale of individual gyri. We quantified the interaction between broadband spectral change and brain rhythms on a second-to-second basis in electrocorticographic (ECoG) measurement of brain surface potentials in five human subjects during a visual search task. Comparison of (...)
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  40. Marius Jonaitis & Albertas Milinis (2011). Human Life as Legal Value and its Protection in the Roman Law (article in Lithuanian). Jurisprudence 18 (3):821-840.score: 333.0
    Right to life is an essential natural right protected and defended by law. The aim of this publication is to discuss the main issues regarding human right to life and its protection in the Roman law. Article deals with the problems of beginning and end of the human life and legal capacity in Rome, elements of legal protection of slaves and family members subject to pater familias life as well as the principle crimes attempting to human life. First of all, (...)
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  41. [deleted]Florian Lanz, Véronique Moret, Eric Michel Rouiller & Gérard Loquet (2013). Multisensory Integration in Non-Human Primates During a Sensory-Motor Task. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 7.score: 321.0
    Daily our central nervous system receives inputs via several sensory modalities, processes them and integrates information in order to produce a suitable behaviour. The amazing part is that such a multisensory integration brings all information into a unified percept. An approach to start investigating this property is to show that perception is better and faster when multimodal stimuli are used as compared to unimodal stimuli. This forms the first part of the present study conducted in a non-human primate’s model (n=2) (...)
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  42. Stephen M. Fiore, Travis J. Wiltshire, Emilio J. C. Lobato, Florian G. Jentsch, Wesley H. Huang & Benjamin Axelrod (2013). Towards Understanding Social Cues and Signals in Human-Robot Interaction: Effects of Robot Gaze and Proxemic Behavior. Frontiers in Psychology 4:859.score: 320.0
    As robots are increasingly deployed in settings requiring social interaction, research is needed to examine the social signals perceived by humans when robots display certain social cues. In this paper, we report a study designed to examine how humans interpret social cues exhibited by robots. We first provide a brief overview of perspectives from social cognition in humans and how these processes are applicable to human-robot interaction (HRI). We then discuss the need to examine the relationship between social cues and (...)
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  43. Mark V. Flinn, Davide Ponzi & Michael P. Muehlenbein (2012). Hormonal Mechanisms for Regulation of Aggression in Human Coalitions. Human Nature 23 (1):68-88.score: 318.0
    Coalitions and alliances are core aspects of human behavior. All societies recognize alliances among communities, usually based in part on kinship and marriage. Aggression between groups is ubiquitous, often deadly, fueled by revenge, and can have devastating effects on general human welfare. Given its significance, it is surprising how little we know about the neurobiological and hormonal mechanisms that underpin human coalitionary behavior. Here we first briefly review a model of human coalitionary behavior based on a process of runaway social (...)
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  44. Kazuo Okanoya Shigeru Miyagawa, Robert C. Berwick (2013). The Emergence of Hierarchical Structure in Human Language. Frontiers in Psychology 4.score: 318.0
    We propose a novel account for the emergence of human language syntax. Like many evolutionary innovations, language arose from the adventitious combination of two pre-existing, simpler systems that had been evolved for other functional tasks. The first system, Type E(xpression), is found in birdsong, where it marks territory, mating availability, and similar ‘expressive’ functions. The second system, Type L(exical), has been suggestively found in non-human primate calls and in honeybee waggle dances, where it demarcates predicates with one or more ‘arguments,’ (...)
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  45. Desh Raj Sirswal (2014). THE DEVELOPMENT OF MORALITY IN HUMAN LIFE: AN OVERVIEW. Milestone Education Review 5 (01):25-35.score: 315.0
    Presently philosophers, social theorists, educationists and legal scholars are busy with issues of contemporary importance such as affirmative actions, animal’s rights, capital punishment, cloning, euthanasia, immigration, pornography, privacy in civil society, values in nature, human rights, cultural values and world hunger etc. Since ancient time ethics is one of the most important part of philosophical speculations and human development. The development of morality comes under three stages viz. intrinsic morality, customary morality and reflective morality. Intrinsic morality has traditionally been thought (...)
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  46. Amy Bruckman (2002). Studying the Amateur Artist: A Perspective on Disguising Data Collected in Human Subjects Research on the Internet. Ethics and Information Technology 4 (3):217-231.score: 309.0
    In the mid-1990s, the Internet rapidly changedfrom a venue used by a small number ofscientists to a popular phenomena affecting allaspects of life in industrialized nations. Scholars from diverse disciplines have taken aninterest in trying to understand the Internetand Internet users. However, as a variety ofresearchers have noted, guidelines for ethicalresearch on human subjects written before theInternet's growth can be difficult to extend toresearch on Internet users.In this paper, I focus on one ethicalissue: whether and to what extent to disguisematerial (...)
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  47. J. Obleser, A. M. Leaver, J. Vanmeter & J. P. Rauschecker (2009). Segregation of Vowels and Consonants in Human Auditory Cortex: Evidence for Distributed Hierarchical Organization. Frontiers in Psychology 1:232-232.score: 306.0
    The speech signal consists of a continuous stream of consonants and vowels, which must be de– and encoded in human auditory cortex to ensure the robust recognition and categorization of speech sounds. We used small-voxel functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to study information encoded in local brain activation patterns elicited by consonant-vowel syllables, and by a control set of noise bursts. First, activation of anterior–lateral superior temporal cortex was seen when controlling for unspecific acoustic processing (syllables versus band-passed noises, in (...)
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  48. [deleted]Ulf Ziemann Ming-Kuei Lu, Chon-Haw Tsai (2012). Cerebellum to Motor Cortex Paired Associative Stimulation Induces Bidirectional STDP-Like Plasticity in Human Motor Cortex. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 6.score: 306.0
    The cerebellum is crucially important for motor control and motor adaptation. Recent non-invasive brain stimulation studies have indicated the possibility to alter the excitability of the cerebellum and its projections to the contralateral motor cortex, with behavioral consequences on motor control and motor adaptation. Here we sought to induce bidirectional spike-timing dependent plasticity (STDP)-like modifications of motor cortex (M1) excitability by application of paired associative stimulation (PAS) in healthy subjects. Conditioning stimulation over the right lateral cerebellum (CB) preceded focal TMS (...)
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  49. [deleted]Ranee A. Flores Rex E. Jung, Brittany S. Mead, Jessica Carrasco (2013). The Structure of Creative Cognition in the Human Brain. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 7.score: 303.0
    Creativity is a vast construct, seemingly intractable to scientific inquiry – perhaps due to the vague concepts applied to the field of research. One attempt to limit the purview of creative cognition formulates the construct in terms of evolutionary constraints, namely that of blind variation and selective retention (BVSR). Behaviorally, one can limit the “blind variation” component to idea generation tests as manifested by measures of divergent thinking. The “selective retention” component can be represented by measures of convergent thinking, as (...)
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  50. [deleted]Cathy J. Price Roi Cohen Kadosh, Bahador Bahrami, Vincent Walsh, Brian Butterworth, Tudor Popescu (2011). Specialization in the Human Brain: The Case of Numbers. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 5.score: 303.0
    How numerical representation is encoded in the adult human brain is important for a basic understanding of human brain organization, its typical and atypical development, its evolutionary precursors, cognitive architectures, education and rehabilitation. Previous studies have shown that numerical processing activates the same intraparietal regions irrespective of the presentation format (e.g. symbolic digits or non-symbolic dot arrays). This has led to claims that there is a single format independent, numerical representation. In the current study we used a functional magnetic resonance (...)
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