Search results for 'Formal' (try it on Scholar)

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Bibliography: Formal Sciences
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  1. Giovanni Boniolo & Silvio Valentini (2012). Objects: A Study in Kantian Formal Epistemology. Notre Dame Journal of Formal Logic 53 (4):457-478.score: 21.0
    We propose a formal representation of objects , those being mathematical or empirical objects. The powerful framework inside which we represent them in a unique and coherent way is grounded, on the formal side, in a logical approach with a direct mathematical semantics in the well-established field of constructive topology, and, on the philosophical side, in a neo-Kantian perspective emphasizing the knowing subject’s role, which is constructive for the mathematical objects and constitutive for the empirical ones.
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  2. Horacio Banega (2012). Formal Ontology as an Operative Tool in the Theories of Objecs of the Life-World: Stumpf, Husserl and Ingarden. Symposium 16 (2):64-88.score: 18.0
    Formal ontology as it is presented in Husserl`s Third Logical Investigation can be interpreted as a fundamental tool to describe objects in a formal sense. It is presented one of the main sources: chapter five of Carl Stumpf`s Ûber den psycholoogischen Ursprung der Raumovorstellung (1873), and then it is described how Husserlian Formal Ontology is applied in Fifth Logical Investigation. Finally, it is applied to dramatic structures, in the spirit of Roman Ingarden.
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  3. John-Michael M. Kuczynski (2006). Formal Operations and Simulated Thought. Philosophical Explorations 9 (2):221-234.score: 18.0
    A series of representations must be semantics-driven if the members of that series are to combine into a single thought. Where semantics is not operative, there is at most a series of disjoint representations that add up to nothing true or false, and therefore do not constitute a thought at all. There is necessarily a gulf between simulating thought, on the one hand, and actually thinking, on the other. A related point is that a popular doctrine - the so-called 'computational (...)
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  4. Juan Barba (2007). Formal Semantics in the Age of Pragmatics. Linguistics and Philosophy 30 (6):637-668.score: 18.0
    This paper aims to argue for two related statements: first, that formal semantics should not be conceived of as interpreting natural language expressions in a single model (a very large one representing the world as a whole, or something like that) but as interpreting them in many different models (formal counterparts, say, of little fragments of reality); second, that accepting such a conception of formal semantics yields a better comprehension of the relation between semantics and pragmatics and (...)
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  5. Walter Carnielli & Rodrigues Abilio, On the Philosophical Motivations for the Logics of Formal Consistency and Inconsistency.score: 18.0
    We present a philosophical motivation for the logics of formal inconsistency (LFIs), a family of paraconsistent logics whose distinctive feature is that of having resources for expressing the notion of consistency (and inconsistency as well) within the object language. We shall defend the view according to which logics of formal inconsistency are theories of logical consequence of normative and epistemic character. This approach not only allows us to make inferences in the presence of contradictions, but offers a philosophically (...)
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  6. Fabrice Teroni (2007). Emotions and Formal Objects. Dialectica 61 (3):395-415.score: 18.0
    It is often claimed that emotions are linked to formal objects. But what are formal objects? What roles do they play? According to some philosophers, formal objects are axiological properties which individuate emotions, make them intelligible and give their correctness conditions. In this paper, I evaluate these claims in order to answer the above questions. I first give reasons to doubt the thesis that formal objects individuate emotions. Second, I distinguish different ways in which emotions are (...)
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  7. Daniel Steel (2009). Testability and Ockham's Razor: How Formal and Statistical Learning Theory Converge in the New Riddle of Induction. [REVIEW] Journal of Philosophical Logic 38 (5):471 - 489.score: 18.0
    Nelson Goodman’s new riddle of induction forcefully illustrates a challenge that must be confronted by any adequate theory of inductive inference: provide some basis for choosing among alternative hypotheses that fit past data but make divergent predictions. One response to this challenge is to distinguish among alternatives by means of some epistemically significant characteristic beyond fit with the data. Statistical learning theory takes this approach by showing how a concept similar to Popper’s notion of degrees of testability is linked to (...)
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  8. Giovanni Boniolo & Silvio Valentini (2008). Vagueness, Kant and Topology: A Study of Formal Epistemology. Journal of Philosophical Logic 37 (2):141 - 168.score: 18.0
    In this paper we propose an approach to vagueness characterised by two features. The first one is philosophical: we move along a Kantian path emphasizing the knowing subject’s conceptual apparatus. The second one is formal: to face vagueness, and our philosophical view on it, we propose to use topology and formal topology. We show that the Kantian and the topological features joined together allow us an atypical, but promising, way of considering vagueness.
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  9. Ralph H. Johnson (1999). The Relation Between Formal and Informal Logic. Argumentation 13 (3):265-274.score: 18.0
    The issue of the relationship between formal and informal logic depends strongly on how one understands these two designations. While there is very little disagreement about the nature of formal logic, the same is not true regarding informal logic, which is understood in various (often incompatible) ways by various thinkers. After reviewing some of the more prominent conceptions of informal logic, I will present my own, defend it and then show how informal logic, so understood, is complementary to (...)
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  10. Paul Thom (2010). Three Conceptions of Formal Logic. Vivarium 48 (1-2):228-242.score: 18.0
    Aristotle's logical and metaphysical works contain elements of three distinct types of formal theory: an ontology, a theory of consequences, and a theory of reasoning. His formal ontology (unlike that of certain later thinkers) does not require all propositions of a given logical form to be true. His formal syllogistic (unlike medieval theories of consequences) was guided primarily by a conception of logic as a theory of reasoning; and his fragmentary theory of consequences exists merely as an (...)
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  11. Robert S. Summers (1999). Formal Legal Truth and Substantive Truth in Judicial Fact-Finding -- Their Justified Divergence in Some Particular Cases. Law and Philosophy 18 (5):497 - 511.score: 18.0
    Truth is a fundamental objective of adjudicative processes; ideally, substantive as distinct from formal legal truth. But problems of evidence, for example, may frustrate finding of substantive truth; other values may lead to exclusions of probative evidence, e.g., for the sake of fairness. Jury nullification and jury equity. Limits of time, and definitiveness of decision, require allocation of burden of proof. Degree of truth-formality is variable within a system and across systems.
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  12. Marcello Frixione & Antonio Lieto (2012). Representing Concepts in Formal Ontologies: Compositionality Vs. Typicality Effects&Quot;,. Logic and Logical Philosophy 21 ( Logic, Reasoning and Rationalit):391-414.score: 18.0
    The problem of concept representation is relevant for many sub-fields of cognitive research, including psychology and philosophy, as well as artificial intelligence. In particular, in recent years it has received a great deal of attention within the field of knowledge representation, due to its relevance for both knowledge engineering as well as ontology-based technologies. However, the notion of a concept itself turns out to be highly disputed and problematic. In our opinion, one of the causes of this state of affairs (...)
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  13. Samir Okasha & Cedric Paternotte (2012). Group Adaptation, Formal Darwinism and Contextual Analysis. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 25 (6):1127–1139.score: 18.0
    We consider the question: under what circumstances can the concept of adaptation be applied to groups, rather than individuals? Gardner and Grafen (2009, J. Evol. Biol.22: 659–671) develop a novel approach to this question, building on Grafen's ‘formal Darwinism’ project, which defines adaptation in terms of links between evolutionary dynamics and optimization. They conclude that only clonal groups, and to a lesser extent groups in which reproductive competition is repressed, can be considered as adaptive units. We re-examine the conditions (...)
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  14. Ard Van Moer (2006). The Intentionality of Formal Systems. Foundations of Science 11 (1-2):81-119.score: 18.0
    One of the most interesting and entertaining philosophical discussions of the last few decades is the discussion between Daniel Dennett and John Searle on the existence of intrinsic intentionality. Dennett denies the existence of phenomena with intrinsic intentionality. Searle, however, is convinced that some mental phenomena exhibit intrinsic intentionality. According to me, this discussion has been obscured by some serious misunderstandings with regard to the concept ‘intrinsic intentionality’. For instance, most philosophers fail to realize that it is possible that the (...)
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  15. Patrick Allo (2008). Vincent Hendricks, Mainstream and Formal Epistemology. [REVIEW] Erkenntnis 69 (3):427-432.score: 18.0
    As Vincent Hendricks remarks early on in this book, the formal and mainstream traditions of epistemic theorising have mostly evolved independently of each other. This initial impression is confirmed by a comparison of the main problems and methods practitioners in each tradition are concerned with. Mainstream epistemol- ogy engages in a dialectical game of proposing and challenging definitions of knowledge. Formal epistemologists proceed differently, as they design a wide variety of axiomatic and model-theoretic methods whose consequences they investigate (...)
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  16. Mariusz Tabaczek (2013). The Metaphysics of Downward Causation: Rediscovering the Formal Cause. Zygon 48 (2):380-404.score: 18.0
    The methodological nonreductionism of contemporary biology opens an interesting discussion on the level of ontology and the philosophy of nature. The theory of emergence (EM), and downward causation (DC) in particular, bring a new set of arguments challenging not only methodological, but also ontological and causal reductionism. This argumentation provides a crucial philosophical foundation for the science/theology dialogue. However, a closer examination shows that proponents of EM do not present a unified and consistent definition of DC. Moreover, they find it (...)
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  17. Jörgen Sjögren (2010). A Note on the Relation Between Formal and Informal Proof. Acta Analytica 25 (4):447-458.score: 18.0
    Using Carnap’s concept explication, we propose a theory of concept formation in mathematics. This theory is then applied to the problem of how to understand the relation between the concepts formal proof (deduction) and informal, mathematical proof.
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  18. Elin Palm (2013). Who Cares? Moral Obligations in Formal and Informal Care Provision in the Light of ICT-Based Home Care. Health Care Analysis 21 (2):171-188.score: 18.0
    An aging population is often taken to require a profound reorganization of the prevailing health care system. In particular, a more cost-effective care system is warranted and ICT-based home care is often considered a promising alternative. Modern health care devices admit a transfer of patients with rather complex care needs from institutions to the home care setting. With care recipients set up with health monitoring technologies at home, spouses and children are likely to become involved in the caring process and (...)
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  19. Susan Haack (2005). Formal Philosophy? A Plea for Pluralism. In John Symonds Vincent Henricks (ed.), Formal Philosophy. 77--98.score: 18.0
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  20. Pablo Zoghbi-Manrique-de-Lara (2010). Do Unfair Procedures Predict Employees' Ethical Behavior by Deactivating Formal Regulations? Journal of Business Ethics 94 (3):411 - 425.score: 18.0
    The purpose of this study was to extend the knowledge about why procedural justice (PJ) has behavioral implications within organizations. Since prior studies show that PJ leads to legitimacy, the author suggests that, when formal regulations are unfairly implemented, they lose their validity or efficacy (becoming deactivated even if they are formally still in force). This "rule deactivation," in turn, leads to two proposed destructive work behaviors, namely, workplace deviance and decreased citizenship behaviors (OCBs). The results support this mediating (...)
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  21. James Franklin (1999). Structure and Domain-Independence in the Formal Sciences. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science 30:721-723.score: 18.0
    Replies to Kevin de Laplante’s ‘Certainty and Domain-Independence in the Sciences of Complexity’ (de Laplante, 1999), defending the thesis of J. Franklin, ‘The formal sciences discover the philosophers’ stone’, Studies in History and Philosophy of Science, 25 (1994), 513-33, that the sciences of complexity can combine certain knowledge with direct applicability to reality.
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  22. Niki Pfeifer & Igor Douven (2013). Formal Epistemology and the New Paradigm Psychology of Reasoning. Review of Philosophy and Psychology (2):1-23.score: 18.0
    This position paper advocates combining formal epistemology and the new paradigm psychology of reasoning in the studies of conditionals and reasoning with uncertainty. The new paradigm psychology of reasoning is characterized by the use of probability theory as a rationality framework instead of classical logic, used by more traditional approaches to the psychology of reasoning. This paper presents a new interdisciplinary research program which involves both formal and experimental work. To illustrate the program, the paper discusses recent work (...)
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  23. Carlo Vercellone (2007). From Formal Subsumption to General Intellect: Elements for a Marxist Reading of the Thesis of Cognitive Capitalism. Historical Materialism 15 (1):13-36.score: 18.0
    Since the crisis of Fordism, capitalism has been characterised by the ever more central role of knowledge and the rise of the cognitive dimensions of labour. This is not to say that the centrality of knowledge to capitalism is new per se. Rather, the question we must ask is to what extent we can speak of a new role for knowledge and, more importantly, its relationship with transformations in the capital/labour relation. From this perspective, the paper highlights the continuing validity (...)
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  24. James Franklin (1994). The Formal Sciences Discover the Philosophers' Stone. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science 25 (4):513-533.score: 18.0
    The last fifty years have seen the creation of a number of new "formal" or "mathematical" sciences, or "sciences of complexity". Examples are operations research, theoretical computer science, information theory, descriptive statistics, mathematical ecology and control theory. Theorists of science have almost ignored them, despite the remarkable fact that (from the way the practitioners speak) they seem to have come upon the "philosophers' stone": a way of converting knowledge about the real world into certainty, merely by thinking.
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  25. Ahti-Veikko Pietarinen (2003). Games as Formal Tools Versus Games as Explanations in Logic and Science. Foundations of Science 8 (4):317-364.score: 18.0
    This paper addresses the theoretical notion of a game as it arisesacross scientific inquiries, exploring its uses as a technical andformal asset in logic and science versus an explanatory mechanism. Whilegames comprise a widely used method in a broad intellectual realm(including, but not limited to, philosophy, logic, mathematics,cognitive science, artificial intelligence, computation, linguistics,physics, economics), each discipline advocates its own methodology and aunified understanding is lacking. In the first part of this paper, anumber of game theories in formal studies are (...)
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  26. Alan Grafen (2014). The Formal Darwinism Project in Outline. Biology and Philosophy 29 (2):155-174.score: 18.0
    The broader context for the formal darwinism project established by two of the commentators, in terms of reconciling the Modern Synthesis with Darwinian arguments over design and in terms of links to other types of selection and design, is discussed and welcomed. Some overselling of the project is admitted, in particular of whether it claims to consider all organic design. One important fundamental question raised in two commentaries is flagged but not answered of whether design is rightly represented by (...)
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  27. Zhaohui Luo (2012). Formal Semantics in Modern Type Theories with Coercive Subtyping. Linguistics and Philosophy 35 (6):491-513.score: 18.0
    In the formal semantics based on modern type theories, common nouns are interpreted as types, rather than as predicates of entities as in Montague’s semantics. This brings about important advantages in linguistic interpretations but also leads to a limitation of expressive power because there are fewer operations on types as compared with those on predicates. The theory of coercive subtyping adequately extends the modern type theories and, as shown in this paper, plays a very useful role in making type (...)
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  28. Thom Paul (2010). Three Conceptions of Formal Logic. Vivarium 48 (1-2):228-242.score: 18.0
    Aristotle's logical and metaphysical works contain elements of three distinct types of formal theory: an ontology, a theory of consequences, and a theory of reasoning. His formal ontology (unlike that of certain later thinkers) does not require all propositions of a given logical form to be true. His formal syllogistic (unlike medieval theories of consequences) was guided primarily by a conception of logic as a theory of reasoning; and his fragmentary theory of consequences exists merely as an (...)
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  29. Louise Cummings (2003). Formal Dialectic in Fallacy Inquiry: An Unintelligible Circumscription of Argumentative Rationality? [REVIEW] Argumentation 17 (2):161-183.score: 18.0
    Since its inception in the work on fallacies of Charles Hamblin, formal dialectic has been the object of an unparalleled level of optimism concerning the potential of its analytical contribution to fallacy inquiry. This optimism has taken the form of a rapid proliferation of formal dialectical studies of arguments in general and fallacious arguments in particular under the auspices of theorists such as Jim Mackenzie and John Woods and Douglas Walton, to name but a few. Notwithstanding the interest (...)
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  30. Michael Fowler (2013). The Taxonomy of a Japanese Stroll Garden: An Ontological Investigation Using Formal Concept Analysis. [REVIEW] Axiomathes 23 (1):43-59.score: 18.0
    This paper introduces current acoustic theories relating to the phenomenology of sound as a framework for interrogating concepts relating to the ecologies of acoustic and landscape phenomena in a Japanese stroll garden. By applying the technique of Formal Concept Analysis, a partially ordered lattice of garden objects and attributes is visualized as a means to investigate the relationship between elements of the taxonomy.
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  31. Sean Fulop & Nick Chater (2013). Editors' Introduction: Why Formal Learning Theory Matters for Cognitive Science. Topics in Cognitive Science 5 (1):3-12.score: 18.0
    This article reviews a number of different areas in the foundations of formal learning theory. After outlining the general framework for formal models of learning, the Bayesian approach to learning is summarized. This leads to a discussion of Solomonoff's Universal Prior Distribution for Bayesian learning. Gold's model of identification in the limit is also outlined. We next discuss a number of aspects of learning theory raised in contributed papers, related to both computational and representational complexity. The article concludes (...)
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  32. Erik C. W. Krabbe (2013). Topical Roots of Formal Dialectic. Argumentation 27 (1):71-87.score: 18.0
    Formal dialectic has its roots in ancient dialectic. We can trace this influence in Charles Hamblin’s book on fallacies, in which he introduced his first formal dialectical systems. Earlier, Paul Lorenzen proposed systems of dialogical logic, which were in fact formal dialectical systems avant la lettre, with roles similar to those of the Greek Questioner and Answerer. In order to make a comparison between ancient dialectic and contemporary formal dialectic, I shall formalize part of the Aristotelian (...)
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  33. Gerhard Jäger (2002). Some Notes on the Formal Properties of Bidirectional Optimality Theory. Journal of Logic, Language and Information 11 (4):427-451.score: 18.0
    In this paper, we discuss some formal properties of the model ofbidirectional Optimality Theory that was developed inBlutner (2000). We investigate the conditions under whichbidirectional optimization is a well-defined notion, and we give aconceptually simpler reformulation of Blutner's definition. In thesecond part of the paper, we show that bidirectional optimization can bemodeled by means of finite state techniques. There we rely heavily onthe related work of Frank and Satta (1998) about unidirectionaloptimization.
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  34. Didier Dubois & Henri Prade (2012). From Blanché's Hexagonal Organization of Concepts to Formal Concept Analysis and Possibility Theory. Logica Universalis 6 (1-2):149-169.score: 18.0
    The paper first introduces a cube of opposition that associates the traditional square of opposition with the dual square obtained by Piaget’s reciprocation. It is then pointed out that Blanché’s extension of the square-of-opposition structure into an conceptual hexagonal structure always relies on an abstract tripartition. Considering quadripartitions leads to organize the 16 binary connectives into a regular tetrahedron. Lastly, the cube of opposition, once interpreted in modal terms, is shown to account for a recent generalization of formal concept (...)
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  35. Donald L. Hatcher (1999). Why Formal Logic is Essential for Critical Thinking. Informal Logic 19 (1).score: 18.0
    After critiquing the arguments against using formal logic to teach critical thinking, this paper argues that for theoretical, practical, and empirical reasons, instruction in the fundamentals of formal logic is essential for critical thinking, and so should be included in every class that purports to teach critical thinking.
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  36. Barry Smith & Christopher Welty (eds.) (2001). Formal Ontology in Information Systems (FOIS). ACM Press.score: 18.0
    Researchers in areas such as artificial intelligence, formal and computational linguistics, biomedical informatics, conceptual modeling, knowledge engineering and information retrieval have come to realise that a solid foundation for their research calls for serious work in ontology, understood as a general theory of the types of entities and relations that make up their respective domains of inquiry. In all these areas, attention is now being focused on the content of information rather than on just the formats and languages used (...)
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  37. Adrián Bertorello (2006). El discurso sobre el origen en las Frühe Freiburger Vorlesugen de M. Heidegger (1919-1923): el problema de la indicación formal. [REVIEW] Revista de Filosofía (Madrid) 30 (2):119-141.score: 18.0
    El texto aborda una de las cuestiones metodológicas fundamentales que Heidegger se planteaba en las Frühe Freiburger Vorlesungen (1919-1923), a saber, el problema de la indicación formal. En efecto, si la vida misma (Dasein) es un acontecimiento de sentido cerrado en sí mismo es necesario establecer un punto de vista que exprese conceptualmente la vida sin objetivarla. El gran problema con el que Heidegger se enfrenta es encontrar un metalenguaje no objetivante. El concepto de indicación formal es lo (...)
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  38. Andrew F. G. Bourke (2014). The Gene's-Eye View, Major Transitions and the Formal Darwinism Project. Biology and Philosophy 29 (2):241-248.score: 18.0
    I argue that Grafen’s formal darwinism project could profitably incorporate a gene’s-eye view, as informed by the major transitions framework. In this, instead of the individual being assumed to maximise its inclusive fitness, genes are assumed to maximise their inclusive fitness. Maximisation of fitness at the individual level is not a straightforward concept because the major transitions framework shows that there are several kinds of biological individual. In addition, individuals have a definable fitness, exhibit individual-level adaptations and arise in (...)
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  39. Fairouz Kamareddine & Rob Nederpelt (2004). A Refinement of de Bruijn's Formal Language of Mathematics. Journal of Logic, Language and Information 13 (3):287-340.score: 18.0
    We provide a syntax and a derivation system fora formal language of mathematics called Weak Type Theory (WTT). We give the metatheory of WTT and a number of illustrative examples.WTT is a refinement of de Bruijn''s Mathematical Vernacular (MV) and hence:– WTT is faithful to the mathematician''s language yet isformal and avoids ambiguities.
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  40. Min-Joo Kim (2007). Formal Linking in Internally Headed Relatives. Natural Language Semantics 15 (4):279-315.score: 18.0
    This paper aims to clarify and resolve issues surrounding the so-called formal linking problem in interpreting the Internally Headed Relative Clause construction in Korean and Japanese, a problem that has been identified in recent E-type pronominal treatments of the construction (e.g., Hoshi, K. (1995). Structural and interpretive aspects of head-internal and head-external relative clauses. PhD dissertation, University of Rochester; Shimoyama, J. (2001). Wh-constructions in Japanese. PhD dissertation, University of Massachusetts at Amherst). In the literature, this problem refers to the (...)
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  41. Deborah E. Shelton & Richard E. Michod (2014). Levels of Selection and the Formal Darwinism Project. Biology and Philosophy 29 (2):217-224.score: 18.0
    Understanding good design requires addressing the question of what units undergo natural selection, thereby becoming adapted. There is, therefore, a natural connection between the formal Darwinism project (which aims to connect population genetics with the evolution of design and fitness maximization) and levels of selection issues. We argue that the formal Darwinism project offers contradictory and confusing lines of thinking concerning level(s) of selection. The project favors multicellular organisms over both the lower (cell) and higher (social group) levels (...)
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  42. Kerry Trentelman & Barry Smith (2010). An Axiomatisation of Basic Formal Ontology with Projection Functions. In Kerry Taylor (ed.), Advances in Ontologies, Proceedings of the Sixth Australasian Ontology Workshop. University of Adelaide.score: 18.0
    This paper proposes a reformulation of the treatment of boundaries, at parts and aggregates of entities in Basic Formal Ontology. These are currently treated as mutually exclusive, which is inadequate for biological representation since some entities may simultaneously be at parts, boundaries and/or aggregates. We introduce functions which map entities to their boundaries, at parts or aggregations. We make use of time, space and spacetime projection functions which, along the way, allow us to develop a simple temporal theory.
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  43. Lilian Bermejo-Luque (2009). Logic as (Normative) Inference Theory: Formal Vs. Non-Formal Theories of Inference Goodness. Informal Logic 28 (4):315-334.score: 18.0
    I defend a conception of Logic as normative for the sort of activities in which inferences super-vene, namely, reasoning and arguing. Toulmin’s criticism of formal logic will be our framework to shape the idea that in order to make sense of Logic as normative, we should con-ceive it as a discipline devoted to the layout of arguments, understood as the representations of the semantic, truth relevant, properties of the inferences that we make in arguing and reason-ing.
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  44. Erik C. W. Krabbe (1988). Creative Reasoning in Formal Discussion. Argumentation 2 (4):483-498.score: 18.0
    Systems of formal dialectics articulate methods of conflict resolution. To this end they provide norms to regulate verbal exchanges between the Proponent of a thesis and an Opponent. These regulated exchanges constitute what are known as formal discussions.One may ask what moves, if any, in formal discusions correspond to arguing for or against the thesis. It is claimed that certain moves of the Proponent's are properly designated as arguing for the thesis, and that certain moves of the (...)
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  45. Barry Smith, Anand Kumar & Thomas Bittner (2005). Basic Formal Ontology for Bioinformatics. IFOMIS Reports.score: 18.0
    Two senses of ‘ontology’ can be distinguished in the current literature. First is the sense favored by information scientists, who view ontologies as software implementations designed to capture in some formal way the consensus conceptualization shared by those working on information systems or databases in a given domain. [Gruber 1993] Second is the sense favored by philosophers, who regard ontologies as theories of different types of entities (objects, processes, relations, functions) [Smith 2003]. Where information systems ontologists seek to maximize (...)
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  46. Edgar A. Whitley (1991). Two Approaches to Developing Expert Systems: A Consideration of Formal and Semi-Formal Domains. [REVIEW] AI and Society 5 (2):110-127.score: 18.0
    The conventional approach to developing expert systems views the domain of application as being “formally defined”. This view often leads to practical problems when expert systems are built using this approach. This paper examines the implications and problems of the formal approach to expert system design and proposes an alternative approach based on the concept of semi-formal domains. This approach, which draws on the work of socio-technical information systems, provides guidelines which can be used for the design of (...)
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  47. Carmen Sánchez Ovcharov (2002). Algunos razonamientos sobre el aparato formal de la mecánica clásica, relativista y cuántica. Revista de Filosofía (Madrid) 27 (2):419-430.score: 18.0
    Este artículo reúne los resultados de nuestra sistematización de las magnitudes físicas y de las expresiones matemáticas de los aparatos formales de la mecánica clásica, relativista y cuántica, revelando su estructura subyacente común. La sistematización se ha realizado ordenando en tablas algunas de las magnitudes físicas y expresiones matemáticas más conocidas según sus diferentes grados de derivación, abriendo paso, de este modo, a un criterio de fundamentalidad de las leyes, principios, postulados y ecuaciones de cada aparato formal.
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  48. Dennis Schulting & Christian Onof (forthcoming). Space as Form of Intuition and as Formal Intuition. On the Note to B160 in Kant’s Critique of Pure Reason. Philosophical Review 124 (1).score: 18.0
    In his argument for the possibility of knowledge of spatial objects, in the Transcendental Deduction of the B-version of the Critique of Pure Reason, Kant makes a crucial distinction between space as ‘form of intuition’ and space as ‘formal intuition.’ The traditional interpretation regards the distinction between the two notions as reflecting a distinction between indeterminate space and determinations of space by the understanding respectively. By contrast, a recent influential reading has argued that the two notions can be fused (...)
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  49. Dragan Stoianovici (2010). Formal Logic Vs. Philosophical Argument. Argumentation 24 (1):125-133.score: 18.0
    The wider topic to which the content of this paper belongs is that of the relationship between formal logic and real argumentation. Of particular potential interest in this connection are held to be substantive arguments constructed by philosophers reputed equally as authorities in logical theory. A number of characteristics are tentatively indicated by the author as likely to be encountered in such arguments. The discussion centers afterwards, by way of specification, on a remarkable piece of argument quoted in Cicero’s (...)
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  50. Stephen Davey (2013). How to Respond to the Problem of Deviant Formal Causation. Philosophia 41 (3):703-717.score: 16.0
    Recently, a new problem has arisen for an Anscombean conception of intentional action. The claim is that the Anscombean’s emphasis on the formally causal character of practical knowledge precludes distinguishing between an aim and a merely foreseen side effect. I propose a solution to this problem: the difference between aim and side effect should be understood in terms of the familiar Anscombean distinction between acting intentionally and the intention with which one acts. I also argue that this solution has advantages (...)
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