Search results for 'Formal languages Semantics' (try it on Scholar)

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  1. Psycholinguistics Semantics & Formal Properties Of Languages (1974). The Following Classification is Pragmatic and is Intended Merely to Facilitate Reference. No Claim to Exhaustive Categorization is Made by the Parenthetical Additions in Small Capitals. Foundations of Language: International Journal of Language and Philosophy 12:149.score: 8400.0
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  2. Martin Stokhof (2007). Hand or Hammer? On Formal and Natural Languages in Semantics. Journal of Indian Philosophy 35 (5-6):597-626.score: 510.0
    This paper does not deal with the topic of ‘the generosity of artificial languages from an Asian or a comparative perspective’. Rather, it is concerned with a particular case taken from a development in the Western tradition, when in the wake of the rise of formal logic at the end of the nineteenth and the beginning of the twentieth century people in philosophy and later in linguistics started to use formal languages in the study of the (...)
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  3. Stokhof Martin, Hand or Hammer? On Formal and Natural Languages in Semantics.score: 492.0
    This paper does not deal with the topic of ‘the generosity of artificial languages from an Asian or a comparative perspective’. Rather, it is concerned with a particular case taken from a development in the Western tradition, when in the wake of the rise of formal logic at the end of the nineteenth and the beginning of the twentieth century people in philosophy and later in linguistics started to use formal languages in the study of the (...)
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  4. Truth Definitions (1998). Set Theory Influenced Logic, Both Through its Semantics, by Expanding the Possible Models of Various Theories and by the Formal Definition of a Model; and Through its Syntax, by Allowing for Logical Languages in Which Formulas Can Be Infinite in Length or in Which the Number of Symbols is Uncountable. Bulletin of Symbolic Logic 4 (3).score: 405.0
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  5. Dennis A. Rohatyn (1981). Formal Semantics and Pragmatics for Natural Languages. Edited by F. Guenthner and S. J. Schmidt. Modern Schoolman 58 (4):281-282.score: 405.0
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  6. A. Kasher (1976). Formal Semantics of Natural Languages'. Philosophica 18:149.score: 405.0
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  7. Asa Kasher (1976). On Degrees of Adequacy for Formal Semantics of Natural Languages. Philosophica 18 (2):139-157.score: 405.0
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  8. Franz Guenthner & Christian Rohrer (eds.) (1978). Studies in Formal Semantics: Intensionality, Temporality, Negation. Sole Distributors for the U.S.A. And Canada, Elsevier North-Holland.score: 354.0
     
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  9. Edward L. Keenan (ed.) (1975). Formal Semantics of Natural Language: Papers From a Colloquium Sponsored by the King's College Research Centre, Cambridge. Cambridge University Press.score: 327.0
  10. Thibaut Giraud (2014). Constructing Formal Semantics From an Ontological Perspective. The Case of Second-Order Logics. Synthese 191 (10):2115-2145.score: 281.0
    In a first part, I defend that formal semantics can be used as a guide to ontological commitment. Thus, if one endorses an ontological view \(O\) and wants to interpret a formal language \(L\) , a thorough understanding of the relation between semantics and ontology will help us to construct a semantics for \(L\) in such a way that its ontological commitment will be in perfect accordance with \(O\) . Basically, that is what I call (...)
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  11. Stephen Schiffer (forthcoming). Meaning and Formal Semantics in Generative Grammar. Erkenntnis:1-27.score: 261.0
    A generative grammar for a language L generates one or more syntactic structures for each sentence of L and interprets those structures both phonologically and semantically. A widely accepted assumption in generative linguistics dating from the mid-60s, the Generative Grammar Hypothesis (GGH), is that the ability of a speaker to understand sentences of her language requires her to have tacit knowledge of a generative grammar of it, and the task of linguistic semantics in those early days was taken to (...)
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  12. Jan Woleński (2004). What is Formal in Formal Semantics? Dialectica 58 (3):427–436.score: 261.0
    Formal semantics is understood either as a formal analysis of semantical features of natural language or as model-theoretic semantics of formal(ized) languages. This paper focuses on the second understanding. The problem is how to identify the formal aspects of formal semantics, if we understand ‘formal’ as ‘independent of content’. This is done by showing that the form of semantical interpretation of a language L is given by its syntax and the (...)
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  13. Varol Akman (1995). Book Review -- Hans Kamp and Uwe Reyle, From Discourse to Logic: Introduction to Model-Theoretic Semantics of Natural Language, Formal Logic and Discourse Representation Theory. [REVIEW] Philosophical Explorations.score: 258.0
    This is a review of From Discourse to Logic: Introduction to Model-theoretic Semantics of Natural Language, Formal Logic and Discourse Representation Theory, by Hans Kamp and Uwe Reyle, published by Kluwer Academic Publishers in 1993.
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  14. Juan Barba (2007). Formal Semantics in the Age of Pragmatics. Linguistics and Philosophy 30 (6):637-668.score: 239.0
    This paper aims to argue for two related statements: first, that formal semantics should not be conceived of as interpreting natural language expressions in a single model (a very large one representing the world as a whole, or something like that) but as interpreting them in many different models (formal counterparts, say, of little fragments of reality); second, that accepting such a conception of formal semantics yields a better comprehension of the relation between semantics (...)
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  15. John N. Martin (1987). Elements of Formal Semantics: An Introduction to Logic for Students of Language. Academic Press.score: 229.0
     
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  16. J. Gutierrez-Rexach (1999). The Formal Semantics of Clitic Doubling. Journal of Semantics 16 (4):315-380.score: 225.0
    This article presents a study of the semantics of clitic pronouns and clitic doubling in Spanish and related languages. Its main hypothesis is that the co-occurrence restrictions that are observed between the clitic element and its quantifier associate can be properly characterized within Generalized Quantifiers Theory. Clitics are treated as generalized quantifier functions which are restricted to a context set In clitic doubling constructions, the context set is retrieved from the doubled NP-quantifier. Three main constraints are formulated that (...)
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  17. Thomas Baldwin & E. L. Keenan (1976). Formal Semantics of Natural Language. Philosophical Quarterly 26 (105):382.score: 215.0
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  18. Adam Morton (1982). Formal Semantics of Natural Language. Canadian Journal of Philosophy 12 (4):805-808.score: 215.0
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  19. B. O. G. (1976). Formal Semantics of Natural Language. Review of Metaphysics 30 (1):131-132.score: 215.0
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  20. Christopher Gauker (2010). Contexts in Formal Semantics. Philosophy Compass 5 (7):568-578.score: 198.0
    Recent philosophical literature has debated the question of how much context-relativity needs to be countenanced in precise semantic theories for natural languages and has displayed different conceptions of the way in which it might be accommodated. This article presents reasons to think that context-relativity is a phenomenon that semantic theory must accommodate and identifies some of the issues concerning how it ought to be accommodated.
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  21. Gilbert T. Null (2007). The Ontology of Intentionality II: Dependence Ontology as Prolegomenon to Noetic Modal Semantics. [REVIEW] Husserl Studies 23 (2):119-159.score: 198.0
    This is the second in a sequence of three essays which axiomatize and apply Edmund Husserl's dependence ontology of parts and wholes as a non-Diodorean, non-Kantian temporal semantics for first-order predicate modal languages. The Ontology of Intentionality I introduced enough of Husserl's dependence-ontology of parts and wholes to formulate his account of order as effected by relating moments of unity, and The Ontology of Intentionality II extends that axiomatic dependence-ontology far enough to enable its semantic application. Formalizing the (...)
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  22. Ralph Gregory Taylor (1998). Models of Computation and Formal Languages. Oxford University Press.score: 198.0
    This unique book presents a comprehensive and rigorous treatment of the theory of computability which is introductory yet self-contained. It takes a novel approach by looking at the subject using computation models rather than a limitation orientation, and is the first book of its kind to include software. Accompanying software simulations of almost all computational models are available for use in conjunction with the text, and numerous examples are provided on disk in a user-friendly format. Its applications to computer science (...)
     
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  23. Matthias Unterhuber (2013). Possible Worlds Semantics for Indicative and Counterfactual Conditionals? A Formal Philosophical Inquiry Into Chellas-Segerberg Semantics. Ontos (now De Gruyter).score: 197.0
    Conditional structures lie at the heart of the sciences, humanities, and everyday reasoning. It is hence not surprising that conditional logics – logics specifically designed to account for natural language conditionals – are an active and interdisciplinary area. The present book gives a formal and a philosophical account of indicative and counterfactual conditionals in terms of Chellas-Segerberg semantics. For that purpose a range of topics are discussed such as Bennett’s arguments against truth value based semantics for indicative (...)
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  24. Zhaohui Luo (2012). Formal Semantics in Modern Type Theories with Coercive Subtyping. Linguistics and Philosophy 35 (6):491-513.score: 196.0
    In the formal semantics based on modern type theories, common nouns are interpreted as types, rather than as predicates of entities as in Montague’s semantics. This brings about important advantages in linguistic interpretations but also leads to a limitation of expressive power because there are fewer operations on types as compared with those on predicates. The theory of coercive subtyping adequately extends the modern type theories and, as shown in this paper, plays a very useful role in (...)
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  25. Judith Tonhauser (2011). The Paraguayan Guaraní Future Marker-Ta: Formal Semantics and Crosslinguistic Comparison. In Renate Musan & Monika Rathert (eds.), Tense Across Languages. Niemeyer. 207--231.score: 189.0
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  26. Barbara H. Partee, Formal Semantics.score: 183.0
    Formal semantics is an approach to SEMANTICS1, the study of meaning, with roots in logic, the philosophy of language, and linguistics, and since the 1980’s a core area of linguistic theory. Characteristics of formal semantics to be treated in this article include the following: Formal semanticists treat meaning as mind-independent (though abstract), contrasting with the view of meanings as concepts “in the head” (see I-LANGUAGE AND E-LANGUAGE and MEANING EXTERNALISM AND INTERNALISM); formal semanticists distinguish (...)
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  27. Barbara Abbott, The Formal Approach to Meaning: Formal Semantics and its Recent Developments.score: 183.0
    Like Spanish moss on a live oak tree, the scientific study of meaning in language has expanded in the last 100 years, and continues to expand steadily. In this essay I want to chart some central themes in that expansion, including their histories and their important figures. Our attention will be directed toward what is called 'formal semantics', which is the adaptation to natural language of analytical techniques from logic.[1] The first, background, section of the paper will survey (...)
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  28. David Levy & Eduardo Zamuner, The Architecture of Meaning: Wittgenstein's Tractatus and Formal Semantics.score: 183.0
    With a few notable exceptions formal semantics, as it originated from the seminal work of Richard Montague, Donald Davidson, Max Cresswell, David Lewis and others, in the late sixties and early seventies of the previous century, does not consider Wittgenstein as one of its ancestors. That honour is bestowed on Frege, Tarski, Carnap. And so it has been in later developments. Most introductions to the subject will refer to Frege and Tarski (Carnap less frequently) —in addition to the (...)
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  29. Gert Jan Lokhorst (1988). Ontology, Semantics and Philosophy of Mind in Wittgenstein's Tractatus: A Formal Reconstruction. [REVIEW] Erkenntnis 29 (1):35 - 75.score: 183.0
    The paper presents a formal explication of the early Wittgenstein's views on ontology, the syntax and semantics of an ideal logical language, and the propositional attitudes. It will be shown that Wittgenstein gave a language of thought analysis of propositional attitude ascriptions, and that his ontological views imply that such ascriptions are truth-functions of (and supervenient upon) elementary sentences. Finally, an axiomatization of a quantified doxastic modal logic corresponding to Tractarian semantics will be given.
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  30. Martin Stokhof, Could Semantics Be Something Else? Philosophical Challenges for Formal Semantics.score: 183.0
    When in 1980, on the Third Amsterdam Colloquium, Johan van Benthem read a paper with the title ‘Why is Semantics What?’ (cf. [1]), I was puzzled: Wasn’t it obvious what semantics is? Why did our concept of it stand in need of justification? Later, much later, I came to appreciate what Van Benthem was doing in this paper (and in some others). Questioning the ‘standard model’, the assumptions on which the working semanticists silently agree, Van Benthem opened up (...)
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  31. Gert-Jan Lokhorst (1988). Ontology, Semantics and Philosophy of Mind in Wittgenstein's "Tractatus": A Formal Reconstruction. Erkenntnis 29 (1):35 - 75.score: 183.0
    The paper presents a formal explication of the early Wittgenstein's views on ontology, the syntax and semantics of an ideal logical language, and the propositional attitudes. It will be shown that Wittgenstein gave a "language of thought" analysis of propositional attitude ascriptions, and that his ontological views imply that such ascriptions are truth-functions of (and supervenient upon) elementary sentences. Finally, an axiomatization of a quantified doxastic modal logic corresponding to Tractarian semantics will be given.
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  32. Stephen C. Levinson (2000). Presumptive Meanings: The Theory of Generalized Conversational Implicature. Mit Press.score: 180.0
    When we speak, we mean more than we say. In this book Stephen C. Levinson explains some general processes that underlie presumptions in communication.
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  33. Robert Mattison (1968). An Introduction to the Model Theory of First-Order Predicate Logic and a Related Temporal Logic. Santa Monica, Calif.,Rand Corp..score: 180.0
  34. Godehard Link (1983). Logical Semantics for Natural Language. Erkenntnis 19 (1-3):261 - 283.score: 177.0
    It is now a quarter of a century ago that Wolfgang Stegmfiller wrote his monograph 'Das Wahrheitsproblem und die Idee der Semantik' (1957) which dealt with Tarski's and Carnap's foundational work in the field of semantics. While this book is about the definition of the basic semantical concepts in artificial formal languages there is an article written a year earlier (1956) in which Stegmfiller addresses himself specifically to the relation between logic and natural language. Here he gives (...)
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  35. Veneeta Dayal, South Asian Languages and Semantic Variation: A Cross-Linguistic Study.score: 171.0
    This project investigates the possibility of variation in the semantic component, a new and dynamic area of study in formal approaches to semantics. Its particular focus is the effect on variation of language contact. The semantic status of classifier languages of South Asia, which have been described as marginal instances of this language type, is used to illustrate the nature of the investigation. Data from a small representative sample of such languages will be collected. The semantic (...)
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  36. James Brawner & James Vorbach (1998). An Algorithmic Logic Approach to Formalizing Database Update Semantics. Journal of Applied Non-Classical Logics 8 (3):199-220.score: 171.0
    ABSTRACT To more efficiently cover a wide spectrum of conceptual modeling applications such as computer-aided design, computer-aided manufacturing, and medical information systems, we envision multi-paradigm design environments which have reasoning capability to support analyzing specifcations for correctness. For such applications, information system designers employ conceptual models characterized by semantically-rich specification languages. The problem of providing a comprehensive formal framework for such languages has not been adequately addressed. This paper investigates a formal system for this purpose called (...)
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  37. Laureano Luna (2013). Indefinite Extensibility in Natural Language. The Monist 96 (2):295-308.score: 168.0
    The Monist’s call for papers for this issue ended: “if formalism is true, then it must be possible in principle to mechanize meaning in a conscious thinking and language-using machine; if intentionalism is true, no such project is intelligible”. We use the Grelling-Nelson paradox to show that natural language is indefinitely extensible, which has two important consequences: it cannot be formalized and model theoretic semantics, standard for formal languages, is not suitable for it. We also point out (...)
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  38. J. P. Ressayre (1988). Formal Languages Defined by the Underlying Structure of Their Words. Journal of Symbolic Logic 53 (4):1009-1026.score: 168.0
    i) We show for each context-free language L that by considering each word of L as a structure in a natural way, one turns L into a finite union of classes which satisfy a finitary analog of the characteristic properties of complete universal first order classes of structures equipped with elementary embeddings. We show this to hold for a much larger class of languages which we call free local languages. ii) We define local languages, a class of (...)
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  39. Camilo Thorne & Diego Calvanese (2012). Tractability and Intractability of Controlled Languages for Data Access. Studia Logica 100 (4):787-813.score: 166.0
    In this paper we study the semantic data complexity of several controlled fragments of English designed for natural language front-ends to OWL (Web Ontology Language) and description logic ontology-based systems. Controlled languages are fragments of natural languages, obtained by restricting natural language syntax, vocabulary and semantics with the goal of eliminating ambiguity. Semantic complexity arises from the formal logic modelling of meaning in natural language and fragments thereof. It can be characterized as the computational complexity of (...)
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  40. Miklós Erdélyi-Szabó, László Kálmán & Agi Kurucz (2008). Towards a Natural Language Semantics Without Functors and Operands. Journal of Logic, Language and Information 17 (1):1-17.score: 162.0
    The paper sets out to offer an alternative to the function/argument approach to the most essential aspects of natural language meanings. That is, we question the assumption that semantic completeness (of, e.g., propositions) or incompleteness (of, e.g., predicates) exactly replicate the corresponding grammatical concepts (of, e.g., sentences and verbs, respectively). We argue that even if one gives up this assumption, it is still possible to keep the compositionality of the semantic interpretation of simple predicate/argument structures. In our opinion, compositionality presupposes (...)
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  41. Raymond Turner (2014). Programming Languages as Technical Artifacts. Philosophy and Technology 27 (3):377-397.score: 162.0
    Taken at face value, a programming language is defined by a formal grammar. But, clearly, there is more to it. By themselves, the naked strings of the language do not determine when a program is correct relative to some specification. For this, the constructs of the language must be given some semantic content. Moreover, to be employed to generate physical computations, a programming language must have a physical implementation. How are we to conceptualize this complex package? Ontologically, what kind (...)
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  42. Mark Schroeder, Is Semantics Formal?score: 156.0
    In this paper I will be concerned with the question of the extent to which semantics can be thought of as a purely formal exercise, which we can engage in in a way that is neutral with respect to how our formal system is to be interpreted. I will be arguing, to the contrary, that the features of the formal systems which we use to do semantics are closely linked, in several different ways, to the (...)
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  43. Ronnie Cann (1993). Formal Semantics: An Introduction. Cambridge University Press.score: 156.0
    This accessible introduction to formal, and especially Montague, semantics within a linguistic framework, presupposes no previous background in logic, but takes students step-by-step from simple predicate/argument structures and their interpretation to Montague's intentional logic.
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  44. Josep Macià (2000). On the Interpretation of Formal Languages and the Analysis of Logical Properties. Theoria 15 (2):235-258.score: 153.3
    We can distinguish different senses in which a formal language can be said to have been provided with an interpretation. We focus on two: (i) We provide a model (or structure) and a definition of satisfaction and truth in the standard way (ii) We provide a translation into a natural language. We argue that the sentences of a formal language interpreted as in (i) do not have meaning. A formal language interpreted as in (i) models the way (...)
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  45. Roberto M. Amadio (1998). Domains and Lambda-Calculi. Cambridge University Press.score: 153.0
    This book describes the mathematical aspects of the semantics of programming languages. The main goals are to provide formal tools to assess the meaning of programming constructs in both a language-independent and a machine-independent way, and to prove properties about programs, such as whether they terminate, or whether their result is a solution of the problem they are supposed to solve. In order to achieve this the authors first present, in an elementary and unified way, the theory (...)
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  46. Emar Maier (2014). Language Shifts in Free Indirect Discourse. Journal of Literary Semantics 43 (2):143--167.score: 151.0
    In this paper I present a linguistic investigation of the literary style known as free indirect discourse within the framework of formal semantics. I will argue that a semantics for free indirect discourse involves more than a mechanism for the independent context shifting of pronouns and other deictic elements. My argumentation is fueled by literary examples of free indirect discourse involving what I call language shifts: -/- Most of the great flame-throwers were there and naturally, handling Big (...)
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  47. Stergios Chatzikyriakidis & Zhaohui Luo (forthcoming). Natural Language Inference in Coq. Journal of Logic, Language and Information 23 (4):1-40.score: 149.0
    In this paper we propose a way to deal with natural language inference (NLI) by implementing Modern Type Theoretical Semantics in the proof assistant Coq. The paper is a first attempt to deal with NLI and natural language reasoning in general by using the proof assistant technology. Valid NLIs are treated as theorems and as such the adequacy of our account is tested by trying to prove them. We use Luo’s Modern Type Theory (MTT) with coercive subtyping as the (...)
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  48. Peter Swiggart (1974). Self Reference in Formal Languages. Notre Dame Journal of Formal Logic 15 (4):608-612.score: 146.0
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  49. Mona Singh (1998). On the Semantics of the Perfective Aspect. Natural Language Semantics 6 (2):171-199.score: 146.0
    The study of the temporal structure of events in natural language is of prime importance in linguistics. Though there has been recent progress on formal theories of events, these theories do not address certain syntactic and semantic properties peculiar to languages such as Hindi. This paper concentrates on properties related to perfectivity. It motivates a small number of semantic features for events and their objects, such as whether an object exists independently of an event, whether it is totally (...)
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  50. Alain Polguere (1997). Meaning-Text Semantic Networks as a Formal Language. In Leo Wanner (ed.), Recent Trends in Meaning-Text Theory. J. Benjamins Pub.. 39--1.score: 145.0
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