Search results for 'Formal object' (try it on Scholar)

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  1.  11
    Gerald B. Phelan (1944). A Note on the Formal Object of Metaphysics. New Scholasticism 18 (2):197-201.
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  2.  58
    Roberto Casati (2004). Is the Object Concept Formal? Dialectica 58 (3):383–394.
    This review article explores several senses in which it can be held that the (actual, psychological) concept of an object is a formal concept, as opposed, here, to being a sortal concept. Some recent positions both from the philosophical and psychological literature are analyzed: Object-sortalism (Xu), quasi-sortalist reductive strategies (Bloom), qualified sortalism (Wiggins), demonstrative theories (Fodor), and anti-sortalism (Ayers).
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  3.  10
    Christopher Byrne (2014). The Object of Aristotelian Induction: Formal Cause or Composite Individual? In Louis F. Groarke & Paolo C. Biondi (eds.), Shifting the Paradigm: Alternative Perspectives on Induction. De Gruyter 251-268.
    According to a long interpretative tradition, Aristotle holds that the formal cause is the ultimate object of induction when investigating perceptible substances. For, the job of induction is to find the essential nature common to a set of individuals, and that nature is captured solely by their shared formal cause. Against this view, I argue that Aristotle understands perceptible individuals as irreducibly composite objects whose nature is constituted by both their formal and their material cause. As (...)
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  4.  6
    Ma Pei (1970). On the Object and the Objective Foundation of Formal Logic (A Discussion with Comrade Wang Fang-Ming). Contemporary Chinese Thought 1 (2):164-194.
    In the "Discussion" column of Teaching and Research, 1957, Nos. 1-5, Comrade Wang Fang-ming successively contributed five articles: "Concerning 'Preliminary Laws and Forms of Correct Thought,'" "On the State of Relative Stability and Qualitative Specificity of Objective Entities," and others. In these articles he discusses a series of problems on formal logic and makes some critical comments on some popular current views in studies of logic. In the No. 6 issue of the same journal, Comrade Wang also has a (...)
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  5.  2
    Ch'iu Shih (1969). Concerning "Preliminary Laws and Forms of Correct Thought" — A Query on the Scientific Object of Formal Logic. Contemporary Chinese Thought 1 (1):76-88.
    Formal logic is an antiquated science, but there have been no convincing solutions of such theoretical problems as its scientific object and its scientific character. The political report of the Eighth National Party Congress has called on us "to engage in the study of the basic theories of Marxism-Leninism and of the scientific sectors closely related to Marxism-Leninism." Since there is a consensus that formal logic is a discipline that is closely related to the philosophy of Marxism-Leninism, (...)
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  6.  8
    Paul Livingston (2016). Formal Ontology and the Flat World: A Review of Tristan Garcia’s Form and Object. [REVIEW] Continental Philosophy Review 49 (4):545-553.
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  7.  1
    F. Gregory Ashby, William Prinzmetal, Richard Ivry & W. Todd Maddox (1996). A Formal Theory of Feature Binding in Object Perception. Psychological Review 103 (1):165-192.
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  8.  5
    Peter K. Mcinerney Consciousness (1988). "Kant's Principle of the Formal Finality of Nature and its Role in Experience, Iris Fry in His Critique of Judgment, and Especially in its Two Introductions, Kant Examined the Necessary Conditions for Concrete Knowledge and Ex-Perience. The Object of Investigation Here Was Not the First Critique's" Na. Journal of Philosophy 85 (11).
  9.  12
    Benbow Ritchie (1945). The Formal Structure of the Aesthetic Object. Journal of Aesthetics and Art Criticism 3 (11/12):5-14.
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  10. Fabrice Teroni (2007). Emotions and Formal Objects. Dialectica 61 (3):395-415.
    It is often claimed that emotions are linked to formal objects. But what are formal objects? What roles do they play? According to some philosophers, formal objects are axiological properties which individuate emotions, make them intelligible and give their correctness conditions. In this paper, I evaluate these claims in order to answer the above questions. I first give reasons to doubt the thesis that formal objects individuate emotions. Second, I distinguish different ways in which emotions are (...)
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  11.  14
    Olivier Massin (2015). Toni Rønnow‐Rasmussen, Personal Value, Oxford, Oxford University Press, 2011, 185 Pp., US$ 75 , ISBN 9780199603787. [REVIEW] Dialectica 69 (2):221-231.
    Personal Values is a delightful and enlightening read. It is teeming with novel insights, ground-breaking distinctions, rich examples, new delineations of the field, refreshing historical reminders, inventive arguments, unprecedented connections, identifications of neglected difficulties, and pioneering proposals. I shall focus here on three of these insights, which are illustrative of the pervasive scrupulousness and inventiveness of the book. The first is that there is a distinction between the supervenience base of values and their constitutive grounds. The second is that FA (...)
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  12. Walter Carnielli & Rodrigues Abilio, On the Philosophical Motivations for the Logics of Formal Consistency and Inconsistency.
    We present a philosophical motivation for the logics of formal inconsistency, a family of paraconsistent logics whose distinctive feature is that of having resources for expressing the notion of consistency within the object language. We shall defend the view according to which logics of formal inconsistency are theories of logical consequence of normative and epistemic character. This approach not only allows us to make inferences in the presence of contradictions, but offers a philosophically acceptable account of paraconsistency.
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  13.  3
    Christopher M. P. Tomaszewski (2016). Formal Proper Parts Through Strong Supplementation: A Reply to Bennett. Southern Journal of Philosophy 54 (4):521-526.
    Kathrin Koslicki argues that ordinary material objects like tables and motorcycles have formal proper parts that structure the material proper parts. Karen Bennett rejects a key premise in Koslicki's argument according to which the material ingredient out of which a complex material object is made is a proper part of that object. Koslicki defends this premise with a principle motivated by its power to explain three important phenomena of material composition. But these phenomena can be equally well (...)
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  14.  68
    Barry Smith (2012). On Classifying Material Entities in Basic Formal Ontology. In Interdisciplinary Ontology. Proceedings of the Third Interdisciplinary Ontology Meeting. Keio University Press 1-13.
    Basic Formal Ontology was created in 2002 as an upper-level ontology to support the creation of consistent lower-level ontologies, initially in the subdomains of biomedical research, now also in other areas, including defense and security. BFO is currently undergoing revisions in preparation for the release of BFO version 2.0. We summarize some of the proposed revisions in what follows, focusing on BFO’s treatment of material entities, and specifically of the category object.
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  15.  17
    Walter Carnielli & Abílio Rodrigues (2015). Towards a Philosophical Understanding of the Logics of Formal Inconsistency. Manuscrito 38 (2):155-184.
    In this paper we present a philosophical motivation for the logics of formal inconsistency, a family of paraconsistent logics whose distinctive feature is that of having resources for expressing the notion of consistency within the object language in such a way that consistency may be logically independent of non-contradiction. We defend the view according to which logics of formal inconsistency may be interpreted as theories of logical consequence of an epistemological character. We also argue that in order (...)
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  16.  50
    Walter Carnielli & Abilio Rodrigues, On Philosophical Motivations for Paraconsistency: An Ontology-Free Interpretation of the Logics of Formal Inconsistency.
    In this paper we present a philosophical motivation for the logics of formal inconsistency, a family of paraconsistent logics whose distinctive feature is that of having resources for expressing the notion of consistency within the object language in such a way that consistency may be logically independent of non- contradiction. We defend the view according to which logics of formal inconsistency may be interpreted as theories of logical consequence of an epistemological character. We also argue that in (...)
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  17.  10
    Louise Cummings (2003). Formal Dialectic in Fallacy Inquiry: An Unintelligible Circumscription of Argumentative Rationality? [REVIEW] Argumentation 17 (2):161-183.
    Since its inception in the work on fallacies of Charles Hamblin, formal dialectic has been the object of an unparalleled level of optimism concerning the potential of its analytical contribution to fallacy inquiry. This optimism has taken the form of a rapid proliferation of formal dialectical studies of arguments in general and fallacious arguments in particular under the auspices of theorists such as Jim Mackenzie and John Woods and Douglas Walton, to name but a few. Notwithstanding the (...)
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  18.  42
    Amir Saemi (2015). Aiming at the Good. Canadian Journal of Philosophy 45 (2):197-219.
    This paper shows how we can plausibly extend the guise of the good thesis in a way that avoids intellectualist challenge, allows animals to be included, and is consistent with the possibility of performing action under the cognition of their badness. The paper also presents some independent arguments for the plausibility of this interpretation of the thesis. To this aim, a teleological conception of practical attitudes as well as a cognitivist account of arational desires is offered.
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  19. Ryszard Maciołek (2008). Is Formal Logic a Kind of Ontology? Roczniki Filozoficzne 56 (1):191-219.
    This paper addresses the question of the relationship between the object of formal logic and the object of ontology. The history of logic and philosophy shows a kinship and overlapping between the two sciences. The analyses were conducted on the basis of three approaches to formal logic, i.e. Aristotle’s logic Rus­sell’s and Whitehead’s logic, and Leśniewski’s logic. At the same time, it sought to grasp its material and formal object. Now with regard to ontology (...)
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  20.  23
    Philippe G. Schyns, Robert L. Goldstone & Jean-Pierre Thibaut (1998). The Development of Features in Object Concepts. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 21 (1):1-17.
    According to one productive and influential approach to cognition, categorization, object recognition, and higher level cognitive processes operate on a set of fixed features, which are the output of lower level perceptual processes. In many situations, however, it is the higher level cognitive process being executed that influences the lower level features that are created. Rather than viewing the repertoire of features as being fixed by low-level processes, we present a theory in which people create features to subserve the (...)
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  21. Barry Smith & Kevin Mulligan (1983). Framework for Formal Ontology. Topoi 2 (1):73-85.
    The discussions which follow rest on a distinction, first expounded by Husserl, between formal logic and formal ontology. The former concerns itself with (formal) meaning-structures; the latter with formal structures amongst objects and their parts. The paper attempts to show how, when formal ontological considerations are brought into play, contemporary extensionalist theories of part and whole, and above all the mereology of Leniewski, can be generalised to embrace not only relations between concrete objects and (...)-pieces, but also relations between what we shall call dependent parts or moments. A two-dimensional formal language is canvassed for the resultant ontological theory, a language which owes more to the tradition of Euler, Boole and Venn than to the quantifier-centred languages which have predominated amongst analytic philosophers since the time of Frege and Russell. Analytic philosophical arguments against moments, and against the entire project of a formal ontology, are considered and rejected. The paper concludes with a brief account of some applications of the theory presented. (shrink)
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  22.  31
    Giuseppe Spolaore (2015). Agency and Fictional Truth: A Formal Study on Fiction-Making. Synthese 192 (5):1235-1265.
    Fictional truth, or truth in fiction/pretense, has been the object of extended scrutiny among philosophers and logicians in recent decades. Comparatively little attention, however, has been paid to its inferential relationships with time and with certain deliberate and contingent human activities, namely, the creation of fictional works. The aim of the paper is to contribute to filling the gap. Toward this goal, a formal framework is outlined that is consistent with a variety of conceptions of fictional truth and (...)
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  23. K. Bennett (2011). Koslicki on Formal Proper Parts. Analysis 71 (2):286-290.
    Cornell University Ithaca, NY 14850 kb383@cornell.eduWhat are motorcycles made of? Presumably the answer is something like ‘wheels, pistons, fuel lines …’ or perhaps ‘metal, leather, plastic …’. Whatever precisely the parts of a motorcycle are, surely they are all material. Kathrin Koslicki disagrees. She has recently argued that ordinary material objects like motorcycles not only have material proper parts, but also have formal proper parts . On her view, an accurate list of the proper parts of a motorcycle must (...)
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  24.  59
    Graham Harman (2012). Object-Oriented France: The Philosophy of Tristan Garcia. Continent 2 (1):6-21.
    continent. 2.1 (2012): 6–21. The French philosopher and novelist Tristan Garcia was born in Toulouse in 1981. This makes him rather young to have written such an imaginative work of systematic philosophy as Forme et objet , 1 the latest entry in the MétaphysiqueS series at Presses universitaires de France. But this reference to Garcia’s youthfulness is not a form of condescension: by publishing a complete system of philosophy in the grand style, he has already done what none of us (...)
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  25.  57
    Roberto Poli (1993). Husserl's Conception of Formal Ontology. History and Philosophy of Logic 14 (1):1-14.
    The concept of formal ontology was first developed by Husserl. It concerns problems relating to the notions of object, substance, property, part, whole, predication, nominalization, etc. The idea of formal ontology is present in many of Husserl?s works, with minor changes. This paper provides a reconstruction of such an idea. Husserl?s proposal is faced with contemporary logical orthodoxy and it is presented also an interpretative hypothesis, namely that the original difference between the general perspective of usual model (...)
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  26.  21
    Stephen Pimentel (2006). Formal Identity as Isomorphism in Thomistic Philosophy of Mind. Proceedings of the American Catholic Philosophical Association 80:115-126.
    A central problem within an influential strand of recent philosophy of mind has been to explain the “conformity of mind to thing” that characterizes knowledge. John Haldane has argued that this problem can be best addressed by a development of Thomas Aquinas’s account of the “formal identity” of the knowing subject with the object known. However, such a development is difficult to present in a manner perspicuous to a contemporary audience. This paper seeks to present a persuasive account (...)
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  27. Stokhof Martin, Hand or Hammer? On Formal and Natural Languages in Semantics.
    This paper does not deal with the topic of ‘the generosity of artificial languages from an Asian or a comparative perspective’. Rather, it is concerned with a particular case taken from a development in the Western tradition, when in the wake of the rise of formal logic at the end of the nineteenth and the beginning of the twentieth century people in philosophy and later in linguistics started to use formal languages in the study of the semantics of (...)
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  28.  26
    Dale Jacquette (2008). Object Theory Logic and Mathematics: Two Essays by Ernst Mally. History and Philosophy of Logic 29 (2):167-182.
    Presented here are translations of two essays of the Austrian logician, philosopher and experimental psychologist Ernst Mally, originally delivered at the Third International Congress of Philosophy in Heidelberg, Germany. Both essays conclude with discussion between Mally and Kurt Grelling. Mally was a student of Alexius Meinong and a contributor to logical investigations in the field of object theory (Gegenstandstheorie). In these essays, Mally introduces a vital distinction between formal and extra-formal ?determinations? (Bestimmungen), and he argues that (...) determinations are not part of the identity conditions for intended objects, but provide the basis for a theory of pure logical and mathematical relations. Mally then proceeds to develop a formal logic of formal and extra-formal determinations, whose interrelations of ontic and modal predications provide an analysis of fundamental object theory concepts. (shrink)
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  29.  12
    Beckett Sterner (2009). Object Spaces: An Organizing Strategy for Biological Theorizing. Biological Theory 4 (3):280-286.
    A classic analytic approach to biological phenomena seeks to refine definitions until classes are sufficiently homogenous to support prediction and explanation, but this approach founders on cases where a single process produces objects with similar forms but heterogeneous behaviors. I introduce object spaces as a tool to tackle this challenging diversity of biological objects in terms of causal processes with well-defined formal properties. Object spaces have three primary components: (1) a combinatorial biological process such as protein synthesis (...)
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  30.  18
    Bernard Comrie (1985). Reflections on Subject and Object Control. Journal of Semantics 4 (1):47-65.
    A recurrent problem in linguistic theory has been trying to provide a principled basis for the distinction between subject control and object control verbs, where by 'subject control verb' is understood a main clause verb that requires coreference between its subject and the understood subject of a dependent infinitive (e.g. I tried to leave, I promised you to leave), and by ‘object control verb’ a main clause verb that requires coreference between its object and the understood subject (...)
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  31.  7
    Lesław Hostyński & Małgorzata Sady (2009). Formal Axiology of Henryk Elzenberg. Dialogue and Universalism 19 (8-9):19-38.
    The article is a presentation of Henryk Elzenberg’s system of formal axiology He is one of the most eminent Polish axiologists and moral philosophers of the 20th century. His system of philosophy of value is built on three pillars: (1) a clear differentiation between two concepts of value: utilitarian and perfect; (2) connection of the concept of perfect value with that of obligation by definition; (3) approaches obligation pertaining to being as oppose to deed. The starting point is differentiation (...)
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  32.  14
    Michael Tkacz (2003). The Retorsive Argument for Formal Cause and the Darwinian Account of Scientific Knowledge. International Philosophical Quarterly 43 (2):159-166.
    Contemporary biologists generally agree with E. O. Wilson’s claim that “reduction is the traditional instrument of scientific analysis.” This is certainly true of Michael Ruse, who has attempted to provide a Darwinian account of human scientific knowledge in terms of epigenetic rules. Such an account depends on the characterization of natural objects as the chance concatenations of material elements, making natural form an effect rather than a cause of the object. This characterization, however, can be shown to be false (...)
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  33.  3
    Ni Dingfu (1981). The Principle of Sufficient Reason and the Development of Formal Logic. Contemporary Chinese Thought 12 (3):16-28.
    Whether or not the principle of sufficient reason is a fundamental rule of formal logic is a question that merits serious discussion. In debates from as early as the 1960s, when discussing the subject and functions of formal logic, some comrades pointed out that formal logic cannot study just the forms of thought alone. One of their basic arguments was that "the principle of sufficient reason demands that the content of a premise must be true." In discussions (...)
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  34.  22
    Jan Woleński (2007). The Cognitive Relation in a Formal Setting. Studia Logica 86 (3):479-497.
    This paper proposes a formal framework for the cognitive relation understood as an ordered pair with the cognitive subject and object of cognition as its members. The cognitive subject is represented as consisting of a language, conequence relation and a stock of accepted theories, and the object as a model of those theories. This language allows a simple formulation of the realism/anti-realism controversy. In particular, Tarski’s undefinability theorem gives a philosophical argument for realism in epistemology.
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  35.  2
    Chiang T'ien-Chi (1970). Some Basic Concepts Regarding the Problem of the Object of Dialectical Logic. Contemporary Chinese Thought 1 (2):144-163.
    In my article "Formal Logic and Dialectics" , I discussed secondarily the problem of the object of dialectical logic. Since the purpose of the article was limited to giving a precise definition to concepts expressed by the terms "dialectics" and "dialectical logic," and was an attempt to clarify the meaning of some basic concepts and point out the differences between them, the two paragraphs in the original draft which touched on the relation between dialectics and dialectical logic, due (...)
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  36.  5
    Ni Dingfu (1982). The Development of the Law of Sufficient Reason and Formal Logic. Contemporary Chinese Thought 13 (4):66-78.
    Whether or not the law of sufficient reason is a basic law of formal logic is a question that merits in-depth discussion. Back in the 1960s, when discussion was held on the object and function of formal logic, some comrades were of the opinion that formal logic should not be confined to the study of the form of thinking. One of their arguments was "the law of sufficient reason requires that the contents of the premise be (...)
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  37. Dale L. Jacquette (1983). The Object Theory Logic of Intention. Dissertation, Brown University
    Alexius Meinong's Gegenstandstheorie is subject to a formal semantic paradox. The theory of defective objects originally developed by Meinong in response to Ernst Mally's paradox about self-referential thought is rejected as a general solution to paradox in the object theory. The intentionality thesis is also refuted by the counter-example of the unapprehended mountain. It is argued that despite these difficulties, an object theory is required in order to make intuitively correct sense of ontological commitment. ;A version of (...)
     
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  38. Sergio Tenenbaum (1996). The Object of Reason: An Inquiry Into the Possibility of Practical Reason. Dissertation, University of Pittsburgh
    Subjectivism is the mainstream view of practical reason. According to subjectivism, what has value for an agent must ultimately be grounded in what the agent actually desires. Subjectivism is motivated by a conservative view of the scope and extent of practical reason. Against this view, my dissertation argues that any coherent conception of an end must endow practical reason with a scope that goes beyond anything that subjectivism could accommodate. ;Subjectivism correctly grasps that nothing can count as an end for (...)
     
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  39.  97
    Stathis Livadas (2012). The Expressional Limits of Formal Language in the Notion of Quantum Observation. Axiomathes 22 (1):147-169.
    In this article I deal with the notion of observation, from a phenomenologically motivated point of view, and its representation mainly by means of the formal language of quantum mechanics. In doing so, I have taken the notion of observation in two diverse contexts. In one context as a notion related with objects of a logical-mathematical theory taken as registered facts of phenomenological perception ( Wahrnehmung ) inasmuch as this phenomenological idea can also be linked with a process of (...)
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  40.  61
    Stevan Harnad (1992). Connecting Object to Symbol in Modeling Cognition. In A. Clark & Ronald Lutz (eds.), Connectionism in Context. Springer-Verlag 75--90.
    Connectionism and computationalism are currently vying for hegemony in cognitive modeling. At first glance the opposition seems incoherent, because connectionism is itself computational, but the form of computationalism that has been the prime candidate for encoding the "language of thought" has been symbolic computationalism (Dietrich 1990, Fodor 1975, Harnad 1990c; Newell 1980; Pylyshyn 1984), whereas connectionism is nonsymbolic (Fodor & Pylyshyn 1988, or, as some have hopefully dubbed it, "subsymbolic" Smolensky 1988). This paper will examine what is and is not (...)
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  41. Henny Blomme (2012). The Completeness of Kant's Metaphysical Exposition of Space. Kant-Studien 103 (2):139-162.
    In the first edition of his book on the completeness of Kant’s table of judgments, Klaus Reich shortly indicates that the B-version of the metaphysical exposition of space in the Critique of pure reason is structured following the inverse order of the table of categories. In this paper, I develop Reich’s claim and provide further evidence for it. My argumentation is as follows: Through analysis of our actually given representation of space as some kind of object (the formal (...)
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  42. Edward N. Zalta (2000). The Road Between Pretense Theory and Abstract Object Theory. In T. Hofweber & A. Everett (eds.), Empty Names, Fiction, and the Puzzles of Non-Existence. CSLI Publications
    In its approach to fiction and fictional discourse, pretense theory focuses on the behaviors that we engage in once we pretend that something is true. These may include pretending to name, pretending to refer, pretending to admire, and various other kinds of make-believe. Ordinary discourse about fictions is analyzed as a kind of institutionalized manner of speaking. Pretense, make-believe, and manners of speaking are all accepted as complex patterns of behavior that prove to be systematic in various ways. In this (...)
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  43. Sara Cannizzaro (2013). Where Did Information Go? Reflections on the Logical Status of Information in a Cybernetic and Semiotic Perspective. Biosemiotics 6 (1):105-123.
    This article explores the usefulness of interdisciplinarity as method of enquiry by proposing an investigation of the concept of information in the light of semiotics. This is because, as Kull, Deacon, Emmeche, Hoffmeyer and Stjernfelt state, information is an implicitly semiotic term (Biological Theory 4(2):167–173, 2009: 169), but the logical relation between semiosis and information has not been sufficiently clarified yet. Across the history of cybernetics, the concept of information undergoes an uneven development; that is, information is an ‘objective’ entity (...)
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  44.  62
    Brice Halimi (2012). Diagrams as Sketches. Synthese 186 (1):387-409.
    This article puts forward the notion of “evolving diagram” as an important case of mathematical diagram. An evolving diagram combines, through a dynamic graphical enrichment, the representation of an object and the representation of a piece of reasoning based on the representation of that object. Evolving diagrams can be illustrated in particular with category-theoretic diagrams (hereafter “diagrams*”) in the context of “sketch theory,” a branch of modern category theory. It is argued that sketch theory provides a diagrammatic* theory (...)
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  45.  26
    Rafael Ferber (1984). Der Grundgedanke des Tractatus als Metamorphose des obersten Grundsatzes der Kritik der reinen Vernunft. Kant-Studien 75 (1-4):460-468.
    The paper puts forward that the basic principle of Wittgenstein’s Tractatus (4.0312) transforms the supreme principle of all synthetic judgments a priori in Kant’s Critique of Pure Reason (A158/B197) from a level of reason to the level of language. Both philosophers, Kant and Wittgenstein, put forward a transcendental principle and both hold a formal identity true, Kant an identity between the form of experience and the form of the object of experience, Wittgenstein an identity between the form of (...)
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  46.  56
    Michael Kohlhase & Kristina Sojakova, Towards an Atlas of Formal Logics.
    LF has been designed as a meta-logical framework to represent logics, and has become a standard tool for studying properties of logics. Building on the newly introduced module system for LF, we present the nucleus of an integrated and structured development of the syntax, semantics, and proof theory of logics, and of the relations between those logics. The methodology is chosen so that it will scale to an atlas for the zoo of logics currently used in reasoning systems, and the (...)
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  47.  21
    Wilfried Sieg (2014). The Ways of Hilbert's Axiomatics: Structural and Formal. Perspectives on Science 22 (1):133-157.
    Hilbert gave lectures on the foundations of mathematics throughout his career. Notes for many of them have been preserved and are treasures of information; they allow us to reconstruct the path from Hilbert's logicist position, deeply influenced by Dedekind and presented in lectures starting around 1890, to the program of finitist proof theory in the early 1920s. The development toward proof theory begins, in some sense, in 1917 when Hilbert gave his talk Axiomatisches Denken in Zürich. This talk is rooted (...)
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  48.  21
    Stefan Ristic (2010). Identity of the Work of Art. Filozofija I Društvo 21 (2):293-308.
    The paper intends to determine the identity of the work of art in visual arts, music and literature. The discussion is of ontological nature. Particular attention is given to the problem of imitation of works of art in different arts, making a distinction between two types of imitation: fakes and forgeries. The first type is found only within the arts where the work of art is a singular physical object, i.e. with the so called autographic arts, whereas the second (...)
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  49.  4
    Rebecca Morris & Jeremy Avigad, Character and Object.
    In 1837, Dirichlet proved that there are infinitely many primes in any arithmetic progression in which the terms do not all share a common factor. Modern presentations of the proof are explicitly higher-order, in that they involve quantifying over and summing over Dirichlet characters, which are certain types of functions. The notion of a character is only implicit in Dirichlet’s original proof, and the subsequent history shows a very gradual transition to the modern mode of presentation. In this essay, we (...)
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  50.  34
    Stewart Shapiro (1998). Review of J. P. Burgess and G. A. Rosen, A Subject with No Object: Strategies for Nominalistic Interpretation of Mathematics. [REVIEW] Notre Dame Journal of Formal Logic 39 (4):600-612.
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