Search results for 'Formalization' (try it on Scholar)

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  1. Michael Baumgartner & Timm Lampert (2008). Adequate Formalization. Synthese 164 (1):93-115.score: 24.0
    This article identifies problems with regard to providing criteria that regulate the matching of logical formulae and natural language. We then take on to solve these problems by defining a necessary and sufficient criterion of adequate formalization. On the basis of this criterion we argue that logic should not be seen as an ars iudicandi capable of evaluating the validity or invalidity of informal arguments, but as an ars explicandi that renders transparent the formal structure of informal reasoning.
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  2. Georg Brun (2008). Formalization and the Objects of Logic. Erkenntnis 69 (1):1 - 30.score: 24.0
    There is a long-standing debate whether propositions, sentences, statements or utterances provide an answer to the question of what objects logical formulas stand for. Based on the traditional understanding of logic as a science of valid arguments, this question is firstly framed more exactly, making explicit that it calls not only for identifying some class of objects, but also for explaining their relationship to ordinary language utterances. It is then argued that there are strong arguments against the proposals commonly put (...)
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  3. Jaroslav Peregrin & Vladimír Svoboda (2013). Criteria for Logical Formalization. Synthese 190 (14):2897-2924.score: 24.0
    The article addresses two closely related questions: What are the criteria of adequacy of logical formalization of natural language arguments, and what gives logic the authority to decide which arguments are good and which are bad? Our point of departure is the criticism of the conception of logical formalization put forth, in a recent paper, by M. Baumgartner and T. Lampert. We argue that their account of formalization as a kind of semantic analysis brings about more problems (...)
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  4. Sybille Krämer (2014). Mathematizing Power, Formalization, and the Diagrammatical Mind Or: What Does “Computation” Mean? [REVIEW] Philosophy and Technology 27 (3):345-357.score: 24.0
    Computation and formalization are not modalities of pure abstractive operations. The essay tries to revise the assumption of the constitutive nonsensuality of the formal. The argument is that formalization is a kind of linear spatialization, which has significant visual dimensions. Thus, a connection can be discovered between visualization by figurative graphism and formalization by symbolic calculations: Both use spatial relations not only to represent but also to operate on epistemic, nonspatial, nonvisual entities. Descartes was one of the (...)
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  5. Peter Woelert (2013). Technology, Knowledge, Governance: The Political Relevance of Husserl's Critique of the Epistemic Effects of Formalization. Continental Philosophy Review 46 (4):487-507.score: 24.0
    This paper explores the political import of Husserl’s critical discussion of the epistemic effects of the formalization of rational thinking. More specifically, it argues that this discussion is of direct relevance to make sense of the pervasive processes of ‘technization’, that is, of a mechanistic and superficial generation and use of knowledge, to be observed in current contexts of governance. Building upon Husserl’s understanding of formalization as a symbolic technique for abstraction in the thinking with and about numbers, (...)
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  6. James Griesemer (2013). Formalization and the Meaning of “Theory” in the Inexact Biological Sciences. Biological Theory 7 (4):298-310.score: 24.0
    Exact sciences are described as sciences whose theories are formalized. These are contrasted to inexact sciences, whose theories are not formalized. Formalization is described as a broader category than mathematization, involving any form/content distinction allowing forms, e.g., as represented in theoretical models, to be studied independently of the empirical content of a subject-matter domain. Exactness is a practice depending on the use of theories to control subject-matter domains and to align theoretical with empirical models and not merely a state (...)
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  7. Georg Brun (2012). Adequate Formalization and de Morgan's Argument. Grazer Philosophische Studien 85 (1):325-335.score: 24.0
    Lampert and Baumgartner (2010) critically discuss accounts of adequate formalization focusing on my analysis in (Brun 2004). There, I investigated three types of criteria of adequacy (matching truth conditions or inferential role, corresponding syntactical surface and systematicity) and argued that they ultimately call for a procedure of formalization. Although Lampert and Baumgartner have a point about matching truth conditions, their arguments target a truncated version of my account. They ignore all aspects of systematicity which make their counter-example unconvincing.
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  8. Aimable-André Dufatanye (2012). From the Logical Square to Blanché's Hexagon: Formalization, Applicability and the Idea of the Normative Structure of Thought. [REVIEW] Logica Universalis 6 (1-2):45-67.score: 24.0
    The square of opposition and many other geometrical logical figures have increasingly proven to be applicable to different fields of knowledge. This paper seeks to show how Blanché generalizes the classical theory of oppositions of propositions and extends it to the structure of opposition of concepts. Furthermore, it considers how Blanché restructures the Apuleian square by transforming it into a hexagon. After presenting G. Kalinowski’s formalization of Blanché’s hexagonal theory, an illustration of its applicability to mathematics, to modal logic, (...)
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  9. Aaron Ben-Zeev (1995). Analysis of Argument Strategies of Attack and Cooption: Stock Cases, Formalization, and Argument Reconstruction. Informal Logic 17 (2).score: 24.0
    Three common strategies used by informal logicians are considered: (1) the appeal to standard cases, (2) the attempt to partially formalize so-called "informal fallacies," and (3) restatement of arguments in such a way as to make their logical character more perspicuous. All three strategies are found to be useful. Attention is drawn to several advantages of a "stock case" approach, a minimalist approach to formalization is recommended, and doubts are raised about the applicability, from a logical point of view, (...)
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  10. Tibor Bosse, Catholijn M. Jonker & Jan Treur (2006). Formalization and Analysis of Reasoning by Assumption. Cognitive Science 30 (1):147-180.score: 21.0
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  11. Norman D. Megill (1995). A Finitely Axiomatized Formalization of Predicate Calculus with Equality. Notre Dame Journal of Formal Logic 36 (3):435-453.score: 19.0
    We present a formalization of first-order predicate calculus with equality which, unlike traditional systems with axiom schemata or substitution rules, is finitely axiomatized in the sense that each step in a formal proof admits only finitely many choices. This formalization is primarily based on the inference rule of condensed detachment of Meredith. The usual primitive notions of free variable and proper substitution are absent, making it easy to verify proofs in a machine-oriented application. Completeness results are presented. The (...)
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  12. Michael Detlefsen (ed.) (1992). Proof, Logic, and Formalization. Routledge.score: 18.0
    Proof, Logic and Formalization addresses the various problems associated with finding a philosophically satisfying account of mathematical proof. It brings together many of the most notable figures currently writing on this issue in an attempt to explain why it is that mathematical proof is given prominence over other forms of mathematical justification. The difficulties that arise in accounts of proof range from the rightful role of logical inference and formalization to questions concerning the place of experience in proof (...)
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  13. C. Adam, A. Herzig & D. Longin (2009). A Logical Formalization of the Occ Theory of Emotions. Synthese 168 (2):201 - 248.score: 18.0
    In this paper, we provide a logical formalization of the emotion triggering process and of its relationship with mental attitudes, as described in Ortony, Clore, and Collins’s theory. We argue that modal logics are particularly adapted to represent agents’ mental attitudes and to reason about them, and use a specific modal logic that we call Logic of Emotions in order to provide logical definitions of all but two of their 22 emotions. While these definitions may be subject to debate, (...)
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  14. Sven Ove Hansson (2000). Formalization in Philosophy. Bulletin of Symbolic Logic 6 (2):162-175.score: 18.0
    The advantages and disadvantages of formalization in philosophy are summarized. It is concluded that formalized philosophy is an endangered speciality that needs to be revitalized and to increase its interactions with non-formalized philosophy. The enigmatic style that is common in philosophical logic must give way to explicit discussions of the problematic relationship between formal models and the philosophical concepts and issues that motivated their development.
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  15. Luca Bellotti (2007). Formalization, Syntax and the Standard Model of Arithmetic. Synthese 154 (2):199 - 229.score: 18.0
    I make an attempt at the description of the delicate role of the standard model of arithmetic for the syntax of formal systems. I try to assess whether the possible instability in the notion of finiteness deriving from the nonstandard interpretability of arithmetic affects the very notions of syntactic metatheory and of formal system. I maintain that the crucial point of the whole question lies in the evaluation of the phenomenon of formalization. The ideas of Skolem, Zermelo, Beth and (...)
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  16. Joseph Berger (2000). Theory and Formalization: Some Reflections on Experience. Sociological Theory 18 (3):482-489.score: 18.0
    I describe in this paper some of my efforts in developing formal theories of social processes. These include work on models of occupational mobility, on models to describe the emergence of expectations out of performance evaluations, and on the graph theory formulation of the Status Characteristics theory. Not all models have been equally significant in developing theory. However, the graph theory formulation has played a central role in the growth of the Expectation States program. It has been involved in the (...)
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  17. Andrew Schumann (2013). On Two Squares of Opposition: The Leśniewski's Style Formalization of Synthetic Propositions. [REVIEW] Acta Analytica 28 (1):71-93.score: 18.0
    In the paper we build up the ontology of Leśniewski’s type for formalizing synthetic propositions. We claim that for these propositions an unconventional square of opposition holds, where a, i are contrary, a, o (resp. e, i) are contradictory, e, o are subcontrary, a, e (resp. i, o) are said to stand in the subalternation. Further, we construct a non-Archimedean extension of Boolean algebra and show that in this algebra just two squares of opposition are formalized: conventional and the square (...)
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  18. Czesław Lejewski (1989). Formalization of Functionally Complete Propositional Calculus with the Functor of Implication as the Only Primitive Term. Studia Logica 48 (4):479 - 494.score: 18.0
    The most difficult problem that Leniewski came across in constructing his system of the foundations of mathematics was the problem of defining definitions, as he used to put it. He solved it to his satisfaction only when he had completed the formalization of his protothetic and ontology. By formalization of a deductive system one ought to understand in this context the statement, as precise and unambiguous as possible, of the conditions an expression has to satisfy if it is (...)
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  19. Constantine Politis (1965). Limitations of Formalization. Philosophy of Science 32 (3/4):356-360.score: 18.0
    After several decades during which formalization has flourished it now becomes possible to detect its shortcomings. A definition of formalization is given at the outset. It is next shown that the main justification of formalization as making explicit the form of a proof has serious difficulties. An important shortcoming is found in the fact that many validation procedures in logic and mathematics are not adequately represented deductively. Several such procedures relating to the validation of logical and mathematical (...)
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  20. Wieslaw Dziobiak (1977). On Detachment-Substitutional Formalization in Normal Modal Logics. Studia Logica 36 (3):165 - 171.score: 18.0
    The aim of this paper is to propose a criterion of finite detachment-substitutional formalization for normal modal systems. The criterion will comprise only those normal modal systems which are finitely axiomatizable by means of the substitution, detachment for material implication and Gödel rules.
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  21. James G. Williams (1990). On the Formalization of Semantic Conventions. Journal of Symbolic Logic 55 (1):220-243.score: 18.0
    This paper discusses six formalization techniques, of varying strengths, for extending a formal system based on traditional mathematical logic. The purpose of these formalization techniques is to simulate the introduction of new syntactic constructs, along with associated semantics for them. We show that certain techniques (among the six) subsume others. To illustrate sharpness, we also consider a selection of constructs and show which techniques can and cannot be used to introduce them. The six studied techniques were selected on (...)
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  22. Gabor L. Peli, Laszlo Polos & Michael T. Hannan (2000). Back to Inertia: Theoretical Implications of Alternative Styles of Logical Formalization. Sociological Theory 18 (2):195-215.score: 18.0
    This article applies two new criteria, desirability and faithfulness, to evaluate Peli et al.'s (1994) formalization of Hannan and Freeman's structural inertia argument (1984, 1989). We conclude that this formalization fails to meet these criteria. We argue that part of the rational reconstruction on which this formalization builds does not reflect well the substantive argument in translating the natural language theory into logic. We propose two alternative formalizations that meet both of these criteria. Moreover, both derive the (...)
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  23. Anita Wasilewska (1976). A Sequence Formalization for SCI. Studia Logica 35 (3):213 - 217.score: 18.0
    This paper can be treated as a simplification of the Gentzen formalization of SCI-tautologies presented by A. Michaels in [1].
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  24. John T. Baldwin (2012). Formalization, Primitive Concepts, and Purity. Review of Symbolic Logic 1 (1):1-42.score: 18.0
    We emphasize the role of the choice of vocabulary in formalization of a mathematical area and remark that this is a particular preoccupation of logicians. We use this framework to discuss Kennedyformalism freenessspatial contents through algebra, of the embedding theorem.
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  25. Carlos Iván Chesñevar & Guillermo Ricardo Simari (2007). Modelling Inference in Argumentation Through Labelled Deduction: Formalization and Logical Properties. [REVIEW] Logica Universalis 1 (1):93-124.score: 18.0
    . Artificial Intelligence (AI) has long dealt with the issue of finding a suitable formalization for commonsense reasoning. Defeasible argumentation has proven to be a successful approach in many respects, proving to be a confluence point for many alternative logical frameworks. Different formalisms have been developed, most of them sharing the common notions of argument and warrant. In defeasible argumentation, an argument is a tentative (defeasible) proof for reaching a conclusion. An argument is warranted when it ultimately prevails over (...)
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  26. Anders Kraal (2013). The Emergence of Logical Formalization in the Philosophy of Religion: Genesis, Crisis, and Rehabilitation. History and Philosophy of Logic 34 (4):351 - 366.score: 18.0
    The paper offers a historical survey of the emergence of logical formalization in twentieth-century analytically oriented philosophy of religion. This development is taken to have passed through three main ?stages?: a pioneering stage in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries (led by Frege and Russell), a stage of crisis in the 1920s and early 1930s (occasioned by Wittgenstein, logical positivists such as Carnap, and neo-Thomists such as Maritain), and a stage of rehabilitation in the 1930s, 1940s, and 1950s (...)
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  27. Anna Gomolińska (1997). A Nonmonotonic Modal Formalization of the Logic of Acceptance and Rejection. Studia Logica 58 (1):113-127.score: 18.0
    The problems we deal with concern reasoning about incomplete knowledge. Knowledge is understood as ability of an ideal rational agent to make decisions about pieces of information. The formalisms we are particularly interested in are Moore's autoepistemic logic (AEL) and its variant, the logic of acceptance and rejection (AEL2). It is well-known that AEL may be seen as the nonmonotonic KD45 modal logic. The aim is to give an appropriate modal formalization for AEL2.
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  28. Wilfried Sieg, Church's Thesis, "Consistency", "Formalization", "Proof Theory" : Dictionary Entries.score: 18.0
    Wilfred Sieg. “Church's Thesis”, “Consistency”, “Formalization”, “Proof Theory”: Dictionary Entries.
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  29. André Porto (2008). Formalization and Infinity. Manuscrito 31 (1).score: 18.0
    This article discusses some of Chateaubriand’s views on the connections between the ideas of formalization and infinity, as presented in chapters 19 and 20 of Logical Forms. We basically agree with his criticisms of the standard construal of these connections, a view we named “formal proofs as ultimate provings”, but we suggest an alternative way of picturing that connection based on some ideas of the late Wittgenstein.
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  30. M. Staude (2008). Meaning and Description in Non-Dualism: A Formalization and Extension. Constructivist Foundations 3 (3):231-248.score: 18.0
    Problem: The article seeks to tackle three problems of Mitterer's non-dualistic philosophy. Firstly, the key term description remains not only rather unclear and rudimentary but also isolated from relevant neighboring terms and theories of other disciplines. Secondly, a logical reconstruction and formal model of non-dualism is still lacking. Thirdly, there are hardly any extensions of philosophical non-dualism to non-philosophical disciplines and fields. Findings: The three main findings of the article are based on the abovementioned problems. Firstly, the non-dualistic term description (...)
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  31. T. Achourioti & M. van Lambalgen (2011). A Formalization of Kant's Transcendental Logic. Review of Symbolic Logic 4 (2):254-289.score: 16.0
    Although Kant (1998) envisaged a prominent role for logic in the argumentative structure of his Critique of Pure Reason, logicians and philosophers have generally judged Kantgeneralformaltranscendental logics is a logic in the strict formal sense, albeit with a semantics and a definition of validity that are vastly more complex than that of first-order logic. The main technical application of the formalism developed here is a formal proof that Kants logic is after all a distinguished subsystem of first-order logic, namely what (...)
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  32. Steven Ravett Brown (2000). Peirce and Formalization of Thought: The Chinese Room Argument. Journal of Mind and Behavior.score: 16.0
    Whether human thinking can be formalized and whether machines can think in a human sense are questions that have been addressed by both Peirce and Searle. Peirce came to roughly the same conclusion as Searle, that the digital computer would not be able to perform human thinking or possess human understanding. However, his rationale and Searle's differ on several important points. Searle approaches the problem from the standpoint of traditional analytic philosophy, where the strict separation of syntax and semantics renders (...)
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  33. Michael Baumgartner (2010). Informal Reasoning and Logical Formalization. In S. Conrad & S. Imhof (eds.), Ding und Begriff. Ontos.score: 16.0
    According to a prevalent view among philosophers formal logic is the philosopher’s main tool to assess the validity of arguments, i.e. the philosopher’s ars iudicandi. By drawing on a famous dispute between Russell and Strawson over the validity of a certain kind of argument – of arguments whose premises feature definite descriptions – this paper casts doubt on the accuracy of the ars iudicandi conception. Rather than settling the question whether the contentious arguments are valid or not, Russell and Strawson, (...)
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  34. Eric R. Scerri (2005). On the Formalization of the Periodic Table. Poznan Studies in the Philosophy of the Sciences and the Humanities 84 (1):191-210.score: 16.0
    A critique is given of the attempt by Hettema and Kuipers to formalize the periodic table. In particular I dispute their notions of identifying a naïve periodic table with tables having a constant periodicity of eight elements and their views on the different conceptions of the atom by chemists and physicists. The views of Hettema and Kuipers on the reduction of the periodic system to atomic physics are also considered critically.
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  35. Wojciech Krysztofiak (1995). Noemata and Their Formalization. Synthese 105 (1):53 - 86.score: 16.0
    The presentation of the formal conception of noemata is the main aim of the article. In the first section, three informal approaches to noemata are discussed. The goal of this chapter is specifying main controversies and their sources concerned with different ways of the understanding of noemata. In the second section, basic assumptions determining the proposed way of understanding noemata are presented. The third section is devoted to the formal set-theoretic construction needed for the formal comprehension of noemata. In the (...)
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  36. Paul Horwich (1975). A Formalization of ``Nothing''. Notre Dame Journal of Formal Logic 16 (3):363-368.score: 16.0
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  37. Jacek Malinowski (2006). On the Formalization of Strawson's Presupposition. Poznan Studies in the Philosophy of the Sciences and the Humanities 91 (1):111-118.score: 16.0
    In this paper we analyze the Strawson's notion of presupposition proposed in his book Introduction to Logical Theory. Strawsonian notion of presupposition is dependent on the notion of logical entailment. We make use of the theory of logical consequence operation as a general framework to show that it is impossible to find a logical consequence operation which mirrors the philosophical intuitions of the Strawson's notions of presupposition. The aim of this paper is to present in details the philosophical backgrounds of (...)
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  38. Jan von Plato (1997). Formalization of Hilbert's Geometry of Incidence and Parallelism. Synthese 110 (1):127-141.score: 16.0
    Three things are presented: How Hilbert changed the original construction postulates of his geometry into existential axioms; In what sense he formalized geometry; How elementary geometry is formalized to present day's standards.
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  39. Harvey Friedman, 1 the Formalization of Mathematics.score: 16.0
    It has been accepted since the early part of the Century that there is no problem formalizing mathematics in standard formal systems of axiomatic set theory. Most people feel that they know as much as they ever want to know about how one can reduce natural numbers, integers, rationals, reals, and complex numbers to sets, and prove all of their basic properties. Furthermore, that this can continue through more and more complicated material, and that there is never a real problem.
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  40. Luca Mari (2000). Beyond the Representational Viewpoint: A New Formalization of Measurement. Measurement 27 (2):71-84.score: 16.0
    The paper introduces and formally defines a functional concept of a measuring system, on this basis characterizing the measurement as an evaluation performed by means of a calibrated measuring system. The distinction between exact and uncertain measurement is formalized in terms of the properties of the traceability chain joining the measuring system to the primary standard. The consequence is drawn that uncertain measurements lose the property of relation-preservation, on which the very concept of measurement is founded according to the representational (...)
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  41. Kathi Fisler (1999). Timing Diagrams: Formalization and Algorithmic Verification. [REVIEW] Journal of Logic, Language and Information 8 (3):323-361.score: 16.0
    Timing diagrams are popular in hardware design. They have been formalized for use in reasoning tasks, such as computer-aided verification. These efforts have largely treated timing diagrams as interfaces to established notations for which verification is decidable; this has restricted timing diagrams to expressing only regular language properties. This paper presents a timing diagram logic capable of expressing certain context-free and context-sensitive properties. It shows that verification is decidable for properties expressible in this logic. More specifically, it shows that containment (...)
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  42. B. S. Niven (1982). Formalization of the Basic Concepts of Animal Ecology. Erkenntnis 17 (3):307 - 320.score: 16.0
    Formal definitions of the following concepts of animal ecology are given: environment, niche, locality, local population, natural population, community, ecosystem. Five primitive (undefined) notions are used including "animal", "offspring" and "habitat", the latter in the sense of Charles Elton. The defining equations for the environment of one animal are first given, then niche (in the Elton sense) is formally defined in terms of the environment. The fifth primitve notion "habitat" is then introduced in order to define the remaining concepts.
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  43. Jan Platvono (1997). Formalization of Hilbert's Geometry of Incidence and Parallelism. Synthese 110 (1):127-141.score: 16.0
    Three things are presented: How Hilbert changed the original construction postulates of his geometry into existential axioms; In what sense he formalized geometry; How elementary geometry is formalized to present day's standards.
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  44. Kevin Donnelly, Formalization of O Notation in Isabelle/HOL.score: 16.0
    We are working on formalizing a proof of the prime number theorem using Isabelle/HOL. In support of this project we formalized a very general notion of O notation.
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  45. Nicolas D. Goodman (1987). Intensions, Church's Thesis, and the Formalization of Mathematics. Notre Dame Journal of Formal Logic 28 (4):473-489.score: 16.0
  46. Sergio Galvan (1994). A Note on the Ω-Incompleteness Formalization. Studia Logica 53 (3):389 - 396.score: 16.0
    The paper studies two formal schemes related to -completeness.LetS be a suitable formal theory containing primitive recursive arithmetic and letT be a formal extension ofS. Denoted by (a), (b) and (c), respectively, are the following three propositions (where (x) is a formula with the only free variable x): (a) (for anyn) ( T (n)), (b) T x Pr T (–(x)–) and (c) T x(x) (the notational conventions are those of Smoryski [3]). The aim of this paper is to examine the (...)
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  47. Makoto Kikuchi & Kazuyuki Tanaka (1994). On Formalization of Model-Theoretic Proofs of Gödel's Theorems. Notre Dame Journal of Formal Logic 35 (3):403-412.score: 16.0
    Within a weak subsystem of second-order arithmetic , that is -conservative over , we reformulate Kreisel's proof of the Second Incompleteness Theorem and Boolos' proof of the First Incompleteness Theorem.
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  48. Tobias Chapman (1972). Note on Rescher's Formalization of Aristotelian Indeterminism. Notre Dame Journal of Formal Logic 13 (4):573-575.score: 16.0
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  49. Nicholas Rescher (1961). On the Formalization of Two Modal Theses. Notre Dame Journal of Formal Logic 2 (3):154-157.score: 16.0
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  50. Bolesław Sobociński (1972). A New Formalization of Newman Algebra. Notre Dame Journal of Formal Logic 13 (2):255-264.score: 16.0
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