Search results for 'Forward models' (try it on Scholar)

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  1.  10
    Martin J. Pickering & Simon Garrod (2013). Forward Models and Their Implications for Production, Comprehension, and Dialogue. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 36 (4):377-392.
    Our target article proposed that language production and comprehension are interwoven, with speakers making predictions of their own utterances and comprehenders making predictions of other people's utterances at different linguistic levels. Here, we respond to comments about such issues as cognitive architecture and its neural basis, learning and development, monitoring, the nature of forward models, communicative intentions, and dialogue.
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  2.  32
    Axel Cleeremans, Applying Forward Models to Sequence Learning: A Connectionist Implementation.
    The ability to process events in their temporal and sequential context is a fundamental skill made mandatory by constant interaction with a dynamic environment. Sequence learning studies have demonstrated that subjects exhibit detailed — and often implicit — sensitivity to the sequential structure of streams of stimuli. Current connectionist models of performance in the so-called Serial Reaction Time Task (SRT), however, fail to capture the fact that sequence learning can be based not only on sensitivity to the sequential associations (...)
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  3.  3
    Robert J. Hartsuiker (2013). Are Forward Models Enough to Explain Self-Monitoring? Insights From Patients and Eye Movements. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 36 (4):357-358.
    At the core of Pickering & Garrod's (P&G's) theory is a monitor that uses forward models. I argue that this account is challenged by neuropsychological findings and visual world eye-tracking data and that it has two conceptual problems. I propose that conflict monitoring avoids these issues and should be considered a promising alternative to perceptual loop and forward modeling theories.
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  4.  4
    Jeffrey Bowers (2013). How Do Forward Models Work? And Why Would You Want Them? Behavioral and Brain Sciences 36 (4):349-350.
    The project of coordinating perception, comprehension, and motor control is an exciting one, but I found it hard to follow some of Pickering & Garrod's (P&G's) arguments as presented. Consequently, my comment is not so much a disagreement with P&G but a query about the logic of forward models: It is not clear how they are supposed to work, nor why they are needed in this (or many other) contexts, and toward that end I present an alternative idea.
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  5.  58
    Martin J. Pickering & Andy Clark (2014). Getting Ahead: Forward Models and Their Place in Cognitive Architecture. Trends in Cognitive Sciences 18 (9):451-456.
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  6.  6
    Michael I. Jordan & David E. Rumelhart (1992). Forward Models: Supervised Learning with a Distal Teacher. Cognitive Science 16 (3):307-354.
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  7. D. M. Wolpert & J. R. Flanagan (2009). Forward Models. In Bayne Tim, Cleeremans Axel & Wilken Patrick (eds.), The Oxford Companion to Consciousness. Oxford University Press 294--296.
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  8.  12
    Mary S. Morgan (2015). Moving Forward on Models. Journal of Economic Methodology 22 (2):254-258.
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  9.  5
    Keith Morrison (2010). A Review of “Indra's Net: Alchemy and Chaos Theory as Models for Transformation” Robertson, Robin (with a Forward by Allan Combs). Wheaton, IL: Quest Books, 2009 (Notes, Bibliography, Credit Illustrations and Index, 175 Pp., $16.95 USD, Paperback, ISBN: 978-0-8356-0862-6). [REVIEW] World Futures 66 (8):626-629.
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  10.  4
    Gary S. Dell (2013). Cascading and Feedback in Interactive Models of Production: A Reflection of Forward Modeling? Behavioral and Brain Sciences 36 (4):351-352.
    Interactive theories of lexical retrieval in language production assume that activation cascades from earlier to later processing levels, and feeds back in the reverse direction. This commentary invites Pickering & Garrod (P&G) to consider whether cascading and feedback can be seen as a form of forwarding modeling within a hierarchical production system.
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  11.  2
    Thomas G. Fikes & James T. Townsend (1995). Moving Models of Motion Forward: Explication and a New Concept. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 18 (4):751.
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  12.  26
    Sa'idu Sulaiman (1998). Islamization of Knowledge: Background, Models and the Way Forward. The International Institute of Islamic Thought.
    On the implementation aspect of the Islamization of knowledge programme, there were also suggestions that my paper should provide readers with Al-Faruqi's ...
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  13. Robert Briscoe (2011). The Elusive Experience of Agency. Topics in Cognitive Science 3 (2):262-267.
    I here present some doubts about whether Mandik’s (2010) proposed intermediacy and recurrence constraints are necessary and sufficient for agentive experience. I also argue that in order to vindicate the conclusion that agentive experience is an exclusively perceptual phenomenon (Prinz, 2007), it is not enough to show that the predictions produced by forward models of planned motor actions are conveyed by mock sensory signals. Rather, it must also be shown that the outputs of “comparator” mechanisms that compare these (...)
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  14.  20
    Lucia Foglia & Rick Grush (2011). The Limitations of a Purely Enactive (Non-Representational) Account of Imagery. Journal of Consciousness Studies 18 (5-6):35 - 43.
    Enaction, as put forward by Varela and defended by other thinkers (notably Alva Noë, 2004; Susan Hurley, 2006; and Kevin O’Regan, 1992), departs from traditional accounts that treat mental processes (like perception, reasoning, and action) as discrete, independent processes that are causally related in a sequen- tial fashion. According to the main claim of the enactive approach, which Thompson seems to fully endorse, perceptual awareness is taken to be a skill-based activity. Our perceptual contact with the world, according to (...)
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  15.  25
    Roberto Fumagalli (forthcoming). Why We Cannot Learn From Minimal Models. Erkenntnis:1-23.
    Philosophers of science have developed several accounts of how consideration of scientific models can prompt learning about real-world targets. In recent years, various authors advocated the thesis that consideration of so-called minimal models can prompt learning about such targets. In this paper, I draw on the philosophical literature on scientific modelling and on widely cited illustrations from economics and biology to argue that this thesis fails to withstand scrutiny. More specifically, I criticize leading proponents of such thesis for (...)
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  16.  18
    Björn Kralemann & Claas Lattmann (2013). Models as Icons: Modeling Models in the Semiotic Framework of Peirce's Theory of Signs. Synthese 190 (16):3397-3420.
    In this paper, we try to shed light on the ontological puzzle pertaining to models and to contribute to a better understanding of what models are. Our suggestion is that models should be regarded as a specific kind of signs according to the sign theory put forward by Charles S. Peirce, and, more precisely, as icons, i.e. as signs which are characterized by a similarity relation between sign (model) and object (original). We argue for this (1) (...)
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  17. Frederic Peters (2010). Consciousness as Recursive, Spatiotemporal Self-Location. Psychological Research.
    At the phenomenal level, consciousness arises in a consistently coherent fashion as a singular, unified field of recursive self-awareness (subjectivity) with explicitly orientational characteristics—that of a subject located both spatially and temporally in an egocentrically-extended domain. Understanding these twin elements of consciousness begins with the recognition that ultimately (and most primitively), cognitive systems serve the biological self-regulatory regime in which they subsist. The psychological structures supporting self-located subjectivity involve an evolutionary elaboration of the two basic elements necessary for extending self-regulation (...)
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  18.  6
    Gary M. Oppenheim (2013). Inner Speech as a Forward Model? Behavioral and Brain Sciences 36 (4):369-370.
    Pickering & Garrod (P&G) consider the possibility that inner speech might be a product of forward production models. Here I consider the idea of inner speech as a forward model in light of empirical work from the past few decades, concluding that, while forward models could contribute to it, inner speech nonetheless requires activity from the implementers.
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  19.  12
    Opher Donchin & Amir Raz (2004). Where in the Brain Does the Forward Model Lurk? Behavioral and Brain Sciences 27 (3):402-403.
    The general applicability of forward models in brain function has previously been recognized. Grush's contribution centers largely on broadening the extent and scope of forward models. However, in his effort to expand and generalize, important distinctions may have been overlooked. A better grounding in the underlying physiology would have helped to illuminate such valuable differences and similarities.
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  20.  5
    Myrto I. Mylopoulos & David Pereplyotchik (2013). Is There Any Evidence for Forward Modeling in Language Production? Behavioral and Brain Sciences 36 (4):368-369.
    The neurocognitive evidence that Pickering & Garrod (P&G) cite in favor of positing forward models in speech production is not compelling. The data to which they appeal either cannot be explained by forward models, or can be explained by a more parsimonious model.
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  21.  29
    S. Kaplan, M. Weaver & Robert M. French (1990). Active Symbols and Internal Models: Towards a Cognitive Connectionism. [REVIEW] AI and Society 4 (1):51-71.
    In the first section of the article, we examine some recent criticisms of the connectionist enterprise: first, that connectionist models are fundamentally behaviorist in nature (and, therefore, non-cognitive), and second that connectionist models are fundamentally associationist in nature (and, therefore, cognitively weak). We argue that, for a limited class of connectionist models (feed-forward, pattern-associator models), the first criticism is unavoidable. With respect to the second criticism, we propose that connectionist modelsare fundamentally associationist but that this (...)
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  22. Steven French (2010). Keeping Quiet on the Ontology of Models. Synthese 172 (2):231 - 249.
    Stein once urged us not to confuse the means of representation with that which is being represented. Yet that is precisely what philosophers of science appear to have done at the meta-level when it comes to representing the practice of science. Proponents of the so-called ‘syntactic’ view identify theories as logically closed sets of sentences or propositions and models as idealised interpretations, or ‘theoruncula, as Braithwaite called them. Adherents of the ‘semantic’ approach, on the other hand, are typically characterised (...)
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  23.  2
    Roberto Fumagalli (2016). Why We Cannot Learn From Minimal Models. Erkenntnis 81 (3):433-455.
    Philosophers of science have developed several accounts of how consideration of scientific models can prompt learning about real-world targets. In recent years, various authors advocated the thesis that consideration of so-called minimal models can prompt learning about such targets. In this paper, I draw on the philosophical literature on scientific modelling and on widely cited illustrations from economics and biology to argue that this thesis fails to withstand scrutiny. More specifically, I criticize leading proponents of such thesis for (...)
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  24.  17
    Cynthia Passmore, Julia Svoboda Gouvea & Ronald Giere (2014). Models in Science and in Learning Science: Focusing Scientific Practice on Sense-Making. In Michael R. Matthews (ed.), International Handbook of Research in History, Philosophy and Science Teaching. Springer 1171-1202.
    The central aim of science is to make sense of the world. To move forward as a community endeavor, sense-making must be systematic and focused. The question then is how do scientists actually experience the sense-making process? In this chapter we examine the “practice turn” in science studies and in particular how as a result of this turn scholars have come to realize that models are the “functional unit” of scientific thought and form the center of the reasoning/sense-making (...)
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  25.  23
    Marion Vorms & David Lagnado, The Role of Models in Mind and Science.
    During the last few decades, models have become the centre of attention in both cognitive science and philosophy of science. In cognitive science, the claim that humans reason with mental models, rather than mentally manipulate linguistic symbols, is the majority view. Similarly, philosophers of science almost unanimously acknowledge that models have to be taken as a central unit of analysis. Moreover, some philosophers of science and cognitive scientists have suggested that the cognitive hypothesis of mental models (...)
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  26.  17
    B. Vereijken & H. T. A. Whiting (1998). Hoist by Their Own Petard: The Constraints of Hierarchical Models. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 21 (5):705-705.
    In the context of the motor skill literature on observational learning and hierarchical skill structuring, Byrne & Russon's findings call into question their standpoint that great apes imitate the behaviour of role models at the programme level. The authors impose a hierarchical model on their observations without properly considering alternative explanations. One such possibility, which stems from a constraints perspective that they dismiss, is put forward.
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  27.  15
    Nelly Grosset & Pierre Barrouillet (2003). On the Nature of Mental Models of Conditional: The Case of If , If Then , and Only If. Thinking and Reasoning 9 (4):289 – 306.
    It has recently been reported that forward inferences from if p then q sentences (i.e., from antecedent to consequent) were faster than backward inferences from consequent to antecedent (Barrouillet, Grosset, & Lecas, 2000). The standard mental model theory assumes that this directionality effect is a figural effect due to the order the information enters working memory, whereas we claim that it results from the nature of the mental models that represent oriented relations from hypothetical values introduced by the (...)
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  28.  4
    V. W. Marek, A. Nerode & J. B. Remmel (1994). A Context for Belief Revision: Forward Chaining-Normal Nonmonotomic Rule Systems. Annals of Pure and Applied Logic 67 (1-3):269-323.
    A number of nonmonotonic reasoning formalisms have been introduced to model the set of beliefs of an agent. These include the extensions of a default logic, the stable models of a general logic program, and the extensions of a truth maintenance system among others. In [13] and [16], the authors introduced nonmonotomic rule systems as a nonlogical generalization of all essential features of such formulisms so that theorems applying to all could be proven once and for all. In this (...)
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  29.  11
    Stéphane Demri & Dov Gabbay (2000). On Modal Logics Characterized by Models with Relative Accessibility Relations: Part II. Studia Logica 66 (3):349-384.
    This work is divided in two papers (Part I and Part II). In Part I, we introduced the class of Rare-logics for which the set of terms indexing the modal operators are hierarchized in two levels: the set of Boolean terms and the set of terms built upon the set of Boolean terms. By investigating different algebraic properties satisfied by the models of the Rare-logics, reductions for decidability were established by faithfully translating the Rare-logics into more standard modal logics (...)
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  30.  6
    Margaret Exley (2007). Managing CEO Succession: New Models for a New Era. International Journal of Business Governance and Ethics 3 (2):139-149.
    External pressures have changed the context within which CEOs are succeeded. At the same time, chairmen are clear that this responsibility is personal to them and are increasingly changing the nature of the process. Two new models of CEO succession are identified: one where the Board actively partners with the incumbent CEO and the other a crisis model where the Chairman and the Board assure the active management of the succession process. In both cases, best practice is for the (...)
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  31.  5
    Kok Yong Lee (2015). Causal Models and the Ambiguity of Counterfactuals. In Wiebe van der Hoek, Wesley H. Holliday & Wen-Fang Wang (eds.), Logic, Rationality, and Interaction 5th International Workshop, LORI 2015, Taipei, Taiwan, October 28-30, 2015. Proceedings. Springer 201-229.
    Counterfactuals are inherently ambiguous in the sense that the same counterfactual may be true under one mode of counterfactualization but false under the other. Many have regarded the ambiguity of counterfactuals as consisting in the distinction between forward-tracking and backtracking counterfactuals. This is incorrect since the ambiguity persists even in cases not involving backtracking counterfactualization. In this paper, I argue that causal modeling semantics has the resources enough for accounting for the ambiguity of counterfactuals. Specifically, we need to distinguish (...)
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  32. Douglas Walton (2006). Epistemic and Dialectical Models of Begging the Question. Synthese 152 (2):237 - 284.
    This paper addresses the problem posed by the current split between the two opposed hypotheses in the growing literature on the fallacy of begging the question the epistemic hypothesis, based on knowledge and belief, and the dialectical one, based on formal dialogue systems. In the first section, the nature of split is explained, and it is shown how each hypothesis has developed. To get the beginning reader up to speed in the literature, a number of key problematic examples are analyzed (...)
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  33. Rick Grush (2004). The Emulation Theory of Representation: Motor Control, Imagery, and Perception. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 27 (3):377-396.
    The emulation theory of representation is developed and explored as a framework that can revealingly synthesize a wide variety of representational functions of the brain. The framework is based on constructs from control theory (forward models) and signal processing (Kalman filters). The idea is that in addition to simply engaging with the body and environment, the brain constructs neural circuits that act as models of the body and environment. During overt sensorimotor engagement, these models are driven (...)
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  34.  14
    Gottfried Vosgerau & Matthis Synofzik (2012). Weighting Models and Weighting Factors. Consciousness and Cognition 21 (1):55-58.
    We defend our multifactorial weighting model of the sense of agency and our critique of the comparator model against the critiques that have been brought forward by and . Building on the specification of our model that emerges from this response, we will suggest a distinct mechanism how weighting of different agency factors might work: internal and external agency cues are constantly weighted according to their reliability in a given situation. Thus, the weighting process underlying the sense of agency (...)
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  35.  56
    David Degrazia (1992). Moving Forward in Bioethical Theory: Theories, Cases, and Specified Principlism. Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 17 (5):511-539.
    The field of bioethics has deployed different models of justification for particular moral judgments. The best known models are those of deductivism, casuistry, and principlism (under one, rather limited interpretation). Each of these models, however, has significant difficulties that are explored in this essay. An alternative model, suggested by the work of Henry Richardson, is presented. It is argued that specified principlism is the most promising model of justification in bioethics. Keywords: casuistry, deductivism, ethical theories, intuition principlism, (...)
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  36.  37
    Brendan Clarke, Bert Leuridan & Jon Williamson (2013). Modelling Mechanisms with Causal Cycles. Synthese 191 (8):1-31.
    Mechanistic philosophy of science views a large part of scientific activity as engaged in modelling mechanisms. While science textbooks tend to offer qualitative models of mechanisms, there is increasing demand for models from which one can draw quantitative predictions and explanations. Casini et al. (Theoria 26(1):5–33, 2011) put forward the Recursive Bayesian Networks (RBN) formalism as well suited to this end. The RBN formalism is an extension of the standard Bayesian net formalism, an extension that allows for (...)
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  37. Jonathan Waskan (2011). A Vehicular Theory of Corporeal Qualia (a Gift to Computationalists). Philosophical Studies 152 (1):103 - 125.
    I have argued elsewhere that non-sentential representations that are the close kin of scale models can be, and often are, realized by computational processes. I will attempt here to weaken any resistance to this claim that happens to issue from those who favor an across-the-board computational theory of cognitive activity. I will argue that embracing the idea that certain computers harbor nonsentential models gives proponents of the computational theory of cognition the means to resolve the conspicuous disconnect between (...)
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  38.  69
    Alessandro Torza (2011). Models for Counterparts. Axiomathes 21 (4):553-579.
    Lewis proposed to test the validity of a modal thesis by checking whether its possible-world translation is a theorem of counterpart theory. However, that criterion fails to validate many standard modal laws, thus raising doubts about the logical adequacy of the Lewisian framework. The present paper considers systems of counterpart theory of increasing strength and shows how each can be motivated by exhibiting a suitable intended model. In particular, perfect counterpart theory validates all the desired modal laws and therefore provides (...)
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  39.  5
    Zhouying Jin & Ying Bai (2009). Beyond the Financial Crisis: A Way Forward with Development Paradigm. [REVIEW] AI and Society 24 (4):343-349.
    As the impact of the financial crisis spreads worldwide, it has become a top priority of various countries, international institutions, entrepreneurs and scholars to find innovative and creative ways to face this challenge. As Hazel Henderson (2002) has pointed out, “the world has not fallen into a financial crisis, but fundamentally fell into a crisis of development paradigm.” We need to reflect seriously on this paradigm and rethink of the social and economic models and cultural values for meeting the (...)
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  40.  39
    Graham Scambler (2006). Jigsaws, Models and the Sociology of Stigma. Journal of Critical Realism 5 (2):273-289.
    _ Source: _Volume 5, Issue 2, pp 273 - 289 The impact of the stigma often associated with chronic illness cannot be explained by sociology alone, yet sociology has a significant contribution to make, most obviously through the analysis of stigma relations as social structures. This paper draws on critical realist philosophy and advances a _jigsaw model_ comprising _logics, relations_ and _figurations_ to assist empirical enquiry. A case is made for focusing on interrelations between the logic of shame and the (...)
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  41.  15
    Laura Martignon & Michael Schmitt (1999). Simplicity and Robustness of Fast and Frugal Heuristics. Minds and Machines 9 (4):565-593.
    Intractability and optimality are two sides of one coin: Optimal models are often intractable, that is, they tend to be excessively complex, or NP-hard. We explain the meaning of NP-hardness in detail and discuss how modem computer science circumvents intractability by introducing heuristics and shortcuts to optimality, often replacing optimality by means of sufficient sub-optimality. Since the principles of decision theory dictate balancing the cost of computation against gain in accuracy, statistical inference is currently being reshaped by a vigorous (...)
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  42.  3
    Derek R. Carson (2000). Putting Names to Faces: A Review and Tests of the Models. Pragmatics and Cognition 8 (1):9-62.
    It is well established that retrieval of names is harder than the retrieval of other identity specific information. This paper offers a review of the more influential accounts put forward as explanations of why names are so difficult to retrieve. A series of five experiments tests a number of these accounts. Experiments One to Three examine the claims that names are hard to recall because they are typically meaningless (Cohen 1990), or unique (Burton and Bruce 1992; Brédart, Valentine, Calder, (...)
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  43.  1
    A. Das Gupta (2001). Corporate Ethical Dilemmas: Indian Models for Moral Management. Journal of Human Values 7 (2):171-191.
    The 'wall' that differentiates two different kinds of attitudes of the same person at different points of time denotes, as the author envisages, Conscious Attitudinal Infringement Area , where moral dilemmas take birth to bridge the two different kinds of attitudes to give way to attitudinal interrelatedness. In order to 'reinforce' CAIA to narrow the gap between personal behaviour and public behaviour, lead a moral life and behave ethically in public, there has to be harmony between the inner life of (...)
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  44.  1
    Latauskienė Eglė (2012). Drugs Crimes: Forward Looking Expectations and Challenges. Jurisprudence 19 (1):331-350.
    Drug phenomenon is relatively new in our country; it became relevant only in the ninth decade of the last century. A new phenomenon or a process is usually dynamic in the initial stages and only later does it acquire features of stability and the main trends that have become prominent several years ago remain unchanged. The author shows the data of drugs crime and other indicators and the aspects of their perspectives. In the article, a question about drug crimes in (...)
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  45.  2
    Angelo Nm Recchia-Luciani (2012). Manipulating Representations. Biosemiotics 5 (1):95-120.
    The present paper proposes a definition for the complex polysemic concepts of consciousness and awareness (in humans as well as in other species), and puts forward the idea of a progressive ontological development of consciousness from a state of ‘childhood’ awareness, in order to explain that humans are not only able to manipulate objects, but also their mental representations. The paper builds on the idea of qualia intended as entities posing regular invariant requests to neural processes, trough the permanence (...)
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  46. Pierre Jacob (2006). Why Visual Experience is Likely to Resist Being Enacted. Psyche 12 (1).
    Alva Noë’s version of the enactive conception in _Action in Perception_ is an important contribution to the study of visual perception. First, I argue, however, that it is unclear (at best) whether, as the enactivists claim, work on change blindness supports the denial of the existence of detailed visual representations. Second, I elaborate on what Noë calls the ‘puzzle of perceptual presence’. Thirdly, I question the enactivist account of perceptual constancy. Finally, I draw attention to the tensions between enactivism and (...)
     
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  47.  60
    Giovanni Pezzulo (2011). Grounding Procedural and Declarative Knowledge in Sensorimotor Anticipation. Mind and Language 26 (1):78-114.
    We propose a view of embodied representations that is alternative to both symbolic/linguistic approaches and purely sensorimotor views of cognition, and can account for procedural and declarative knowledge manipulation. In accordance with recent evidence in cognitive neuroscience and psychology, we argue that anticipatory and simulative mechanisms, which arose during evolution for action control and not for cognition, determined the first form of representational content and were exapted for increasingly sophisticated cognitive uses. In particular, procedural and declarative forms of knowledge can (...)
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  48. Rick Grush (2007). Skill Theory V2.0: Dispositions, Emulation, and Spatial Perception. Synthese 159 (3):389 - 416.
    An attempt is made to defend a general approach to the spatial content of perception, an approach according to which perception is imbued with spatial content in virtue of certain kinds of connections between perceiving organism's sensory input and its behavioral output. The most important aspect of the defense involves clearly distinguishing two kinds of perceptuo-behavioral skills—the formation of dispositions, and a capacity for emulation. The former, the formation of dispositions, is argued to by the central pivot of spatial content. (...)
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  49. Richard Menary (2007). Cognitive Integration: Mind and Cognition Unbounded. Palgrave Macmillan.
    In Cognitive Integration: Attacking The Bounds of Cognition Richard Menary argues that the real pay-off from extended-mind-style arguments is not a new form of externalism in the philosophy of mind, but a view in which the 'internal' and 'external' aspects of cognition are integrated into a whole. Menary argues that the manipulation of external vehicles constitutes cognitive processes and that cognition is hybrid: internal and external processes and vehicles complement one another in the completion of cognitive tasks. However, we cannot (...)
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  50. Peter Langland-Hassan (2011). A Puzzle About Visualization. Phenomenology and the Cognitive Sciences 10 (2):145-173.
    Visual imagination (or visualization) is peculiar in being both free, in that what we imagine is up to us, and useful to a wide variety of practical reasoning tasks. How can we rely upon our visualizations in practical reasoning if what we imagine is subject to our whims? The key to answering this puzzle, I argue, is to provide an account of what constrains the sequence in which the representations featured in visualization unfold—an account that is consistent with its freedom. (...)
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