Search results for 'Foundations of measurement' (try it on Scholar)

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  1. Luca Mari (2005). The Problem of Foundations of Measurement. Measurement 38 (4):259-266.score: 172.0
    Given the common assumption that measurement plays an important role in the foundation of science, the paper analyzes the possibility that Measurement Science, and therefore measurement itself, can be properly founded. The realist and the representational positions are analyzed at this regards: the conclusion, that such positions unavoidably lead to paradoxical situations, opens the discussion for a new epistemology of measurement, whose characteristics and interpretation are sketched here but are still largely matter of investigation.
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  2. David Sherry (2011). Thermoscopes, Thermometers, and the Foundations of Measurement. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 42 (4):509-524.score: 129.0
    Psychologists debate whether mental attributes can be quantified or whether they admit only qualitative comparisons of more and less. Their disagreement is not merely terminological, for it bears upon the permissibility of various statistical techniques. This article contributes to the discussion in two stages. First it explains how temperature, which was originally a qualitative concept, came to occupy its position as an unquestionably quantitative concept (§§1–4). Specifically, it lays out the circumstances in which thermometers, which register quantitative (or cardinal) differences, (...)
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  3. Jochen Rau (2011). Measurement-Based Quantum Foundations. Foundations of Physics 41 (3):380-388.score: 120.0
    I show that quantum theory is the only probabilistic framework that permits arbitrary processes to be emulated by sequences of local measurements. This supports the view that, contrary to conventional wisdom, measurement should not be regarded as a complex phenomenon in need of a dynamical explanation but rather as a primitive—and perhaps the only primitive—operation of the theory.
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  4. Michael Katz (1981). Łukasiewicz Logic and the Foundations of Measurement. Studia Logica 40 (3):209 - 225.score: 120.0
    The logic of inexactness, presented in this paper, is a version of the Łukasiewicz logic with predicates valued in [0, ∞). We axiomatize multi-valued models of equality and ordering in this logic guaranteeing their imbeddibility in the real line. Our axioms of equality and ordering, when interpreted as axioms of proximity and dominance, can be applied to the foundations of measurement (especially in the social sciences). In two-valued logic they provide theories of ratio scale measurement. In multivalued (...)
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  5. Olival Freire Jr (2004). The Historical Roots of ''Foundations of Quantum Physics'' as a Field of Research (1950–1970). Foundations of Physics 34 (11):1741-1760.score: 109.0
    The rising interest, in the late 20th century, in the foundations of quantum physics, a subject in which Franco Selleri has excelled, has suggested the fair question: how did it become so? The current answer says that experiments have allowed to bring into the laboratories some previous gedanken experiments, beginning with those about EPR and related to Bell’s inequalities. I want to explore an alternative view, by which there would have been, before Bell’s inequalities experimental tests, a change in (...)
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  6. Henry C. Byerly & Vincent A. Lazara (1973). Realist Foundations of Measurement. Philosophy of Science 40 (1):10-28.score: 107.0
    This paper defends a realist interpretation of theories and a modest realism concerning the existence of quantities as providing the best account both of the logic of quantity concepts and of scientific measurement practices. Various operationist analyses of measurement are shown to be inadequate accounts of measurement practices used by scientists. We argue, furthermore, that appeals to implicit definitions to provide meaning for theoretical terms over and above operational definitions fail because implicit definitions cannot generate the requisite (...)
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  7. R. N. Sen (2008). Physics and the Measurement of Continuous Variables. Foundations of Physics 38 (4):301-316.score: 103.0
    This paper addresses the doubts voiced by Wigner about the physical relevance of the concept of geometrical points by exploiting some facts known to all but honored by none: Almost all real numbers are transcendental; the explicit representation of any one will require an infinite amount of physical resources. An instrument devised to measure a continuous real variable will need a continuum of internal states to achieve perfect resolution. Consequently, a laboratory instrument for measuring a continuous variable in a finite (...)
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  8. S. French (2002). A Phenomenological Solution to the Measurement Problem? Husserl and the Foundations of Quantum Mechanics. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part B 33 (3):467-491.score: 102.0
    The London and Bauer monograph occupies a central place in the debate concerning the quantum measurement problem. Gavroglu has previously noted the influence of Husserlian phenomenology on London's scientific work. However, he has not explored the full extent of this influence in the monograph itself. I begin this paper by outlining the important role played by the monograph in the debate. In effect, it acted as a kind of 'lens' through which the standard, or Copenhagen, 'solution' to the (...) problem came to be perceived and, as such, it was robustly criticized, most notably by Putnam and Shimony. I then spell out the Husserlian understanding of consciousness in order to illuminate the traces of this understanding within the London and Bauer text. This, in turn, yields a new perspective on this 'solution' to the measurement problem, one that I believe has not been articulated before and, furthermore, which is immune to the criticisms of Putnam and Shimony. (shrink)
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  9. Conrad Heilmann, Measurement-Theoretic Foundations of Time Discounting in Economics.score: 99.0
    In economics, the concept of time discounting introduces weights on future goods to make these less valuable. Yet, both the conceptual motivation for time discounting and its specic functional form remain contested. To address these problems, this paper provides a measurement-theoretic framework of representation for time discounting. The representation theorem characterises time discounting factors by representations of time dierences. This general result can be interpreted with existing theories of time discounting to clarify their formal and conceptual assumptions. It also (...)
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  10. Edward J. Gillis (2011). Causality, Measurement, and Elementary Interactions. Foundations of Physics 41 (12):1757-1785.score: 93.0
    Signal causality, the prohibition of superluminal information transmission, is the fundamental property shared by quantum measurement theory and relativity, and it is the key to understanding the connection between nonlocal measurement effects and elementary interactions. To prevent those effects from transmitting information between the generating and observing process, they must be induced by the kinds of entangling interactions that constitute measurements, as implied in the Projection Postulate. They must also be nondeterministic as reflected in the Born Probability Rule. (...)
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  11. Michael B. Heaney (2013). A Symmetrical Interpretation of the Klein-Gordon Equation. Foundations of Physics 43 (6):733-746.score: 93.0
    This paper presents a new Symmetrical Interpretation (SI) of relativistic quantum mechanics which postulates: quantum mechanics is a theory about complete experiments, not particles; a complete experiment is maximally described by a complex transition amplitude density; and this transition amplitude density never collapses. This SI is compared to the Copenhagen Interpretation (CI) for the analysis of Einstein’s bubble experiment. This SI makes several experimentally testable predictions that differ from the CI, solves one part of the measurement problem, resolves some (...)
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  12. José A. Diez (1993). Foundations of Measurement. Vol. II. Geometrical, Threshold and Probabilistic Representations. Theoria 8 (1):163-168.score: 90.0
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  13. J. A. Diez (1993). Comentario a Foundations of Measurement 2 y 3'. Theoria 19:163-168.score: 90.0
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  14. José A. Diez (1993). Eoundations of Measurement. Vol. II. Geometrical, Threshold and Probabilistic Representations. Foundations of Measurement. Vol. III. Representation, Axiomatization and Invariance. [REVIEW] Theoria 8 (1):163-168.score: 90.0
     
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  15. David Krantz, Duncan Luce, Patrick Suppes & Amos Tversky (eds.) (1971). Foundations of Measurement, Vol. I: Additive and Polynomial Representations. New York Academic Press.score: 90.0
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  16. Duncan Luce, David Krantz, Patrick Suppes & Amos Tversky (eds.) (1990). Foundations of Measurement, Vol. III: Representation, Axiomatization, and Invariance. New York Academic Press.score: 90.0
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  17. Patrick Suppes, David Krantz, Duncan Luce & Amos Tversky (eds.) (1989). Foundations of Measurement, Vol. II: Geometrical, Threshold, and Probabilistic Representations. New York Academic Press.score: 90.0
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  18. Matthias Neuber (2012). Invariance, Structure, Measurement – Eino Kaila and the History of Logical Empiricism. Theoria 78 (4):358-383.score: 89.0
    Eino Kaila's thought occupies a curious position within the logical empiricist movement. Along with Hans Reichenbach, Herbert Feigl, and the early Moritz Schlick, Kaila advocates a realist approach towards science and the project of a “scientific world conception”. This realist approach was chiefly directed at both Kantianism and Poincaréan conventionalism. The case in point was the theory of measurement. According to Kaila, the foundations of physical reality are characterized by the existence of invariant systems of relations, which he (...)
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  19. Giovanni Boniolo & Fernando de Felice (2000). On the Philosophical Foundations of Measurements in General Relativity. Foundations of Physics 30 (10):1629-1641.score: 89.0
    In this paper, first, the question of what a measurement is in General Relativity is tackled; then, some foundational problems it involves are analysed. In particular, by recalling what a measurement is in general, we will try to precisely define what it is in General Relativity. Then, we will analyse, by means of a suitable example, some foundational problems it involves. It will be stressed that such foundational problems do not arise owing to the gauge invariance or the (...)
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  20. Nicholas Maxwell (1972). A New Look at the Quantum Mechanical Problem of Measurement. American Journal of Physics 40:1431-5..score: 87.0
    According to orthodox quantum mechanics, state vectors change in two incompatible ways: "deterministically" in accordance with Schroedinger's time-dependent equation, and probabilistically if and only if a measurement is made. It is argued here that the problem of measurement arises because the precise mutually exclusive conditions for these two types of transitions to occur are not specified within orthodox quantum mechanics. Fundamentally, this is due to an inevitable ambiguity in the notion of "meawurement" itself. Hence, if the problem of (...)
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  21. Jose G. Vargas (2008). The Foundations of Quantum Mechanics and the Evolution of the Cartan-Kähler Calculus. Foundations of Physics 38 (7):610-647.score: 87.0
    In 1960–1962, E. Kähler enriched É. Cartan’s exterior calculus, making it suitable for quantum mechanics (QM) and not only classical physics. His “Kähler-Dirac” (KD) equation reproduces the fine structure of the hydrogen atom. Its positron solutions correspond to the same sign of the energy as electrons.The Cartan-Kähler view of some basic concepts of differential geometry is presented, as it explains why the components of Kähler’s tensor-valued differential forms have three series of indices. We demonstrate the power of his calculus by (...)
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  22. Luca Mari, Valentina Lazzarotti & Raffaella Manzini (2009). Measurement in Soft Systems: Epistemological Framework and a Case Study. Measurement 42 (2):241-253.score: 86.0
    Measurement in soft systems generally cannot exploit physical sensors as data acquisition devices. The emphasis in this case is instead on how to choose the appropriate indicators and to combine their values so to obtain an overall result, interpreted as the value of a property, i.e., the measurand, for the system under analysis. This paper aims at discussing the epistemological conditions of the claim that such a process is a measurement, and performance evaluation is the case introduced to (...)
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  23. Eric Schliesser (2013). Newtonian Emanation, Spinozism, Measurement and the Baconian Origins of the Laws of Nature. Foundations of Science 18 (3):449-466.score: 85.0
    The first two sections of this paper investigate what Newton could have meant in a now famous passage from “De Graviatione” (hereafter “DeGrav”) that “space is as it were an emanative effect of God.” First it offers a careful examination of the four key passages within DeGrav that bear on this. The paper shows that the internal logic of Newton’s argument permits several interpretations. In doing so, the paper calls attention to a Spinozistic strain in Newton’s thought. Second it sketches (...)
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  24. GianCarlo Ghirardi (2008). Reconsidering Mermin's “In Praise of Measurement”. Foundations of Physics 38 (11):1011-1019.score: 84.0
    We critically analyze a recent paper by D. Mermin and we compare his statements with Bell’s position on the problems he is discussing.
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  25. Rafał Gruszczyński & Andrzej Pietruszczak (2009). Space, Points and Mereology. On Foundations of Point-Free Euclidean Geometry. Logic and Logical Philosophy 18 (2):145-188.score: 84.0
    This article is devoted to the problem of ontological foundations of three-dimensional Euclidean geometry. Starting from Bertrand Russell’s intuitions concerning the sensual world we try to show that it is possible to build a foundation for pure geometry by means of the so called regions of space. It is not our intention to present mathematically developed theory, but rather demonstrate basic assumptions, tools and techniques that are used in construction of systems of point-free geometry and topology by means of (...)
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  26. Dalia Vasarienė (2012). The Constitutional Foundations of the Financial System of the State of Lithuania. Jurisprudence 19 (3):987-1003.score: 84.0
    The paper focuses on the constitutional foundations of the finance system of the Republic of Lithuania. Constitutional jurisprudence pays due respect to the issues of budget system, and to interpret and analyse tax problems. The main purpose of this paper is to analyse separate institutes of the financial system of Lithuania, reflected in the main law of the country – the Constitution, and how these norms are interpreted in the constitutional doctrine. Notably, although the main analysed provisions are entrenched (...)
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  27. Mirjana Božić & Zvonko Marić (1998). Quantum Interference, Quantum Theory of Measurement, and (In)Completeness of Quantum Mechanics. Foundations of Physics 28 (3):415-427.score: 83.0
    The new techniques and ideas in quantum interferometry with neutrons, photons, atoms, electrons, and Bose condensates that fluorished in the last two decades have influenced in a decisive way the thinking and the research in the foundations and interpretation of quantum mechanics. The controversies existing among different schools on the reality of matter waves of quantum theory, the postulates of quantum measurement theory, and the (in)completeness of quantum mechanics have to be approached now in a new way. Our (...)
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  28. Sebastiano Bavetta & Marco Del Seta (2001). Constraints and the Measurement of Freedom of Choice. Theory and Decision 50 (3):213-238.score: 80.7
    This paper introduces considerations about constraints in the construction of measures of an agent's freedom. It starts with motivating the exercise from both the philosophical and the informational point of view. Then it presents two rankings of opportunity sets based on information about the extent of options and the constraints that a decision maker faces. The first ranking measures freedom as variety of choice; the second as non-restrictedness in choice.
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  29. Eran Tal (2012). The Epistemology of Measurement: A Model-Based Account. Dissertation, University of Torontoscore: 80.0
    This work develops an epistemology of measurement, that is, an account of the conditions under which measurement and standardization methods produce knowledge as well as the nature, scope, and limits of this knowledge. I focus on three questions: (i) how is it possible to tell whether an instrument measures the quantity it is intended to? (ii) what do claims to measurement accuracy amount to, and how might such claims be justified? (iii) when is disagreement among instruments a (...)
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  30. Paul Busch & Pekka J. Lahti (1996). The Standard Model of Quantum Measurement Theory: History and Applications. [REVIEW] Foundations of Physics 26 (7):875-893.score: 79.0
    The standard model of the quantum theory of measurement is based on an interaction Hamiltonian in which the observable to be measured is multiplied by some observable of a probe system. This simple Ansatz has proved extremely fruitful in the development of the foundations of quantum mechanics. While the ensuing type of models has often been argued to be rather artificial, recent advances in quantum optics have demonstrated their principal and practical feasibility. A brief historical review of the (...)
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  31. Bas Spitters (2012). The Space of Measurement Outcomes as a Spectral Invariant for Non-Commutative Algebras. Foundations of Physics 42 (7):896-908.score: 76.0
    The recently developed technique of Bohrification associates to a (unital) C*-algebra Athe Kripke model, a presheaf topos, of its classical contexts;in this Kripke model a commutative C*-algebra, called the Bohrification of A;the spectrum of the Bohrification as a locale internal in the Kripke model. We propose this locale, the ‘state space’, as a (n intuitionistic) logic of the physical system whose observable algebra is A.We compute a site which externally captures this locale and find that externally its points may be (...)
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  32. Fernando Ferreira (1999). A Note on Finiteness in the Predicative Foundations of Arithmetic. Journal of Philosophical Logic 28 (2):165-174.score: 76.0
    Recently, Feferman and Hellman (and Aczel) showed how to establish the existence and categoricity of a natural number system by predicative means given the primitive notion of a finite set of individuals and given also a suitable pairing function operating on individuals. This short paper shows that this existence and categoricity result does not rely (even indirectly) on finite-set induction, thereby sustaining Feferman and Hellman's point in favor of the view that natural number induction can be derived from a very (...)
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  33. Ernst von Glasersfeld (2006). A Constructivist Approach to Experiential Foundations of Mathematical Concepts Revisited. Constructivist Foundations 1 (2):61-72.score: 76.0
    Purpose: The paper contributes to the naturalization of epistemology. It suggests tentative itineraries for the progression from elementary experiential situations to the abstraction of the concepts of unit, plurality, number, point, line, and plane. It also provides a discussion of the question of certainty in logical deduction and arithmetic. Approach: Whitehead’s description of three processes involved in criticizing mathematical thinking (1956) is used to show discrepancies between a traditional epistemological stance and the constructivist approach to knowing and communication. Practical implications: (...)
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  34. Kenneth R. Westphal (1998). ‘On Hegel’s Early Critique of Kant’s Metaphysical Foundations of Natural Science’. In S. Houlgate (ed.), Hegel and the Philosophy of Nature. SUNY.score: 76.0
    In 1801 Hegel charged that, on Kant’s analysis, forces are ‘either purely ideal, in which case they are not forces, or else they are transcendent’. I argue that this objection, which Hegel did not spell out, reveals an important and fundamental line of internal criticism of Kant’s Critical philosophy. I show that Kant’s basic forces of attraction and repulsion, which constitute matter, are merely ideal because Kant’s arguments for them are circular and beg the question, and they have no determinate (...)
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  35. Luiz Carlos Ryff (2014). Null-Result Detection and Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen Correlations. Foundations of Physics 44 (1):58-70.score: 75.0
    It follows from Bell’s theorem and quantum mechanics that the detection of a particle of an entangled pair can (somehow) “force” the other distant particle of the pair into a well-defined state (which is equivalent to a reduction of the state vector): no property previously shared by the particles can explain the predicted quantum correlations. This result has been corroborated by experiment, although some loopholes still remain. However, it has not been experimentally proved—and it is far from obvious—that the absence (...)
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  36. Ioannis E. Antoniou (2002). Caratheodory and the Foundations of Thermodynamics and Statistical Physics. Foundations of Physics 32 (4):627-641.score: 75.0
    Constantin Caratheodory offered the first systematic and contradiction free formulation of thermodynamics on the basis of his mathematical work on Pfaff forms. Moreover, his work on measure theory provided the basis for later improved formulations of thermodynamics and physics of continua where extensive variables are measures and intensive variables are densities. Caratheodory was the first to see that measure theory and not topology is the natural tool to understand the difficulties (ergodicity, approach to equilibrium, irreversibility) in the Foundations of (...)
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  37. Bas Fraassen (1995). A Philosophical Approach to Foundations of Science. Foundations of Science 1 (1).score: 75.0
    Foundational research focuses on the theory, but theories are to be related also to other theories, experiments, facts in their domains, data, and to their uses in applications, whether of prediction, control, or explanation. A theory is to be identified through its class of models, but not so narrowly as to disallow these roles. The language of science is to be studied separately, with special reference to the relations listed above, and to the consequent need for resources other than for (...)
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  38. Bas van Fraassen (1995). A Philosophical Approach to Foundations of Science. Foundations of Science 1 (1):5-18.score: 75.0
    Foundational research focuses on the theory, but theories are to be related also to other theories, experiments, facts in their domains, data, and to their uses in applications, whether of prediction, control, or explanation. A theory is to be identified through its class of models, but not so narrowly as to disallow these roles. The language of science is to be studied separately, with special reference to the relations listed above, and to the consequent need for resources other than for (...)
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  39. Peter Verdée (2013). Non-Monotonic Set Theory as a Pragmatic Foundation of Mathematics. Foundations of Science 18 (4):655-680.score: 74.7
    In this paper I propose a new approach to the foundation of mathematics: non-monotonic set theory. I present two completely different methods to develop set theories based on adaptive logics. For both theories there is a finitistic non-triviality proof and both theories contain (a subtle version of) the comprehension axiom schema. The first theory contains only a maximal selection of instances of the comprehension schema that do not lead to inconsistencies. The second allows for all the instances, also the inconsistent (...)
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  40. Amit Hagar (2007). Experimental Metaphysics2: The Double Standard in the Quantum-Information Approach to the Foundations of Quantum Theory. Studies in History and Philosophy of Modern Physics 38 (4):906-919.score: 74.0
    Among the alternatives of non-relativistic quantum mechanics (NRQM) there are those that give different predictions than quantum mechanics in yet-untested circumstances, while remaining compatible with current empirical findings. In order to test these predictions, one must isolate one’s system from environmental induced decoherence, which, on the standard view of NRQM, is the dynamical mechanism that is responsible for the ‘apparent’ collapse in open quantum systems. But while recent advances in condensed-matter physics may lead in the near future to experimental setups (...)
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  41. O. Bradley Bassler (2005). Book Review: J. P. Mayberry. Foundations of Mathematics in the Theory of Sets. [REVIEW] Notre Dame Journal of Formal Logic 46 (1):107-125.score: 73.0
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  42. Thomas S. Wallsten (1971). Subjectively Expected Utility Theory and Subjects' Probability Estimates: Use of Measurement-Free Techniques. Journal of Experimental Psychology 88 (1):31.score: 73.0
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  43. H. E. O'Shea (1931). Errors of Measurement in a Test and a Retest. Journal of Experimental Psychology 14 (4):439.score: 73.0
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  44. G. H. Thomson (1924). A Formula to Correct for the Effect of Errors of Measurement on the Correlation of Initial Values with Gains. Journal of Experimental Psychology 7 (4):321.score: 73.0
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  45. Jeffrey Bub (2005). Quantum Mechanics is About Quantum Information. Foundations of Physics 35 (4):541-560.score: 72.0
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  46. Irwin Feller (2009). Performance Measurement and the Governance of American Academic Science. Minerva 47 (3):323-344.score: 72.0
    Neoliberal precepts of the governance of academic science-deregulation; reification of markets; emphasis on competitive allocation processes have been conflated with those of performance management—if you cannot measure it, you cannot manage it—into a single analytical and consequent single programmatic worldview. As applied to the United States’ system of research universities, this conflation leads to two major divergences from relationships hypothesized in the governance of science literature. (1) The governance and financial structures supporting academic science in the United States’ system of (...)
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  47. Nicholas Maxwell (1975). Does the Minimal Statistical Interpretation of Quantum Mechanics Resolve the Measurement Problem? Methodology and Science 8:84-101.score: 72.0
    It is argued that the so-called minimal statistical interpretation of quantum mechanics does not completely resolve the measurement problem in that this view is unable to show that quantjum mechanics can dispense with classical physics when it comes to a treatment of the measuring interaction. It is suggested that the view that quantum mechanics applies to individual systems should not be too hastily abandoned, in that this view gives perhaps the best hope of leading to a version of quantum (...)
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  48. Bart D'Hooghe (2010). A Possible Operational Motivation for the Orthocomplementation in Quantum Structures. Foundations of Physics 40 (11):1669-1680.score: 71.0
    In the foundations of quantum mechanics Gleason’s theorem dictates the uniqueness of the state transition probability via the inner product of the corresponding state vectors in Hilbert space, independent of which measurement context induces this transition. We argue that the state transition probability should not be regarded as a secondary concept which can be derived from the structure on the set of states and properties, but instead should be regarded as a primitive concept for which measurement context (...)
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  49. Barry Smith (1994). Topological Foundations of Cognitive Science. Topological Foundations of Cognitive Science.score: 70.0
    This is a revised version of the introductory essay in C. Eschenbach, C. Habel and B. Smith (eds.), Topological Foundations of Cognitive Science, Hamburg: Graduiertenkolleg Kognitionswissenschaft, 1994, the text of a talk delivered at the First International Summer Institute in Cognitive Science in Buffalo in July 1994.
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  50. F. Michael Akeroyd (2000). The Foundations of Modern Organic Chemistry: The Rise of the Highes and Ingold Theory From 1930–1942. [REVIEW] Foundations of Chemistry 2 (2):99-125.score: 70.0
    The foundations of modern organic chemistry were laid by the seminal work of Hughes and Ingold. The rise from being an interesting alternative hypothesis in 1933 to being the leading theory (outside the USA) in 1942 was achieved by a multiplicity of methods. This include:the construction of a new scientific notation, the rationalisation of some seemingly contradictory reported data, the refutation of the experimental work of one of their persistent critics, the use of conceptual arguments and also the achievement (...)
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