Search results for 'Foundations of measurement' (try it on Scholar)

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  1. Luca Mari (2005). The Problem of Foundations of Measurement. Measurement 38 (4):259-266.score: 696.0
    Given the common assumption that measurement plays an important role in the foundation of science, the paper analyzes the possibility that Measurement Science, and therefore measurement itself, can be properly founded. The realist and the representational positions are analyzed at this regards: the conclusion, that such positions unavoidably lead to paradoxical situations, opens the discussion for a new epistemology of measurement, whose characteristics and interpretation are sketched here but are still largely matter of investigation.
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  2. David Sherry (2011). Thermoscopes, Thermometers, and the Foundations of Measurement. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 42 (4):509-524.score: 567.0
    Psychologists debate whether mental attributes can be quantified or whether they admit only qualitative comparisons of more and less. Their disagreement is not merely terminological, for it bears upon the permissibility of various statistical techniques. This article contributes to the discussion in two stages. First it explains how temperature, which was originally a qualitative concept, came to occupy its position as an unquestionably quantitative concept (§§1–4). Specifically, it lays out the circumstances in which thermometers, which register quantitative (or cardinal) differences, (...)
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  3. Michael Katz (1981). Łukasiewicz Logic and the Foundations of Measurement. Studia Logica 40 (3):209 - 225.score: 540.0
    The logic of inexactness, presented in this paper, is a version of the Łukasiewicz logic with predicates valued in [0, ∞). We axiomatize multi-valued models of equality and ordering in this logic guaranteeing their imbeddibility in the real line. Our axioms of equality and ordering, when interpreted as axioms of proximity and dominance, can be applied to the foundations of measurement (especially in the social sciences). In two-valued logic they provide theories of ratio scale measurement. In multivalued (...)
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  4. Henry C. Byerly & Vincent A. Lazara (1973). Realist Foundations of Measurement. Philosophy of Science 40 (1):10-28.score: 501.0
    This paper defends a realist interpretation of theories and a modest realism concerning the existence of quantities as providing the best account both of the logic of quantity concepts and of scientific measurement practices. Various operationist analyses of measurement are shown to be inadequate accounts of measurement practices used by scientists. We argue, furthermore, that appeals to implicit definitions to provide meaning for theoretical terms over and above operational definitions fail because implicit definitions cannot generate the requisite (...)
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  5. S. French (2002). A Phenomenological Solution to the Measurement Problem? Husserl and the Foundations of Quantum Mechanics. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part B 33 (3):467-491.score: 480.0
    The London and Bauer monograph occupies a central place in the debate concerning the quantum measurement problem. Gavroglu has previously noted the influence of Husserlian phenomenology on London's scientific work. However, he has not explored the full extent of this influence in the monograph itself. I begin this paper by outlining the important role played by the monograph in the debate. In effect, it acted as a kind of 'lens' through which the standard, or Copenhagen, 'solution' to the (...) problem came to be perceived and, as such, it was robustly criticized, most notably by Putnam and Shimony. I then spell out the Husserlian understanding of consciousness in order to illuminate the traces of this understanding within the London and Bauer text. This, in turn, yields a new perspective on this 'solution' to the measurement problem, one that I believe has not been articulated before and, furthermore, which is immune to the criticisms of Putnam and Shimony. (shrink)
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  6. Conrad Heilmann, Measurement-Theoretic Foundations of Time Discounting in Economics.score: 471.0
    In economics, the concept of time discounting introduces weights on future goods to make these less valuable. Yet, both the conceptual motivation for time discounting and its specic functional form remain contested. To address these problems, this paper provides a measurement-theoretic framework of representation for time discounting. The representation theorem characterises time discounting factors by representations of time dierences. This general result can be interpreted with existing theories of time discounting to clarify their formal and conceptual assumptions. It also (...)
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  7. José A. Diez (1993). Foundations of Measurement. Vol. II. Geometrical, Threshold and Probabilistic Representations. Theoria 8 (1):163-168.score: 450.0
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  8. J. A. Diez (1993). Comentario a Foundations of Measurement 2 y 3'. Theoria 19:163-168.score: 450.0
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  9. José A. Diez (1993). Eoundations of Measurement. Vol. II. Geometrical, Threshold and Probabilistic Representations. Foundations of Measurement. Vol. III. Representation, Axiomatization and Invariance. [REVIEW] Theoria 8 (1):163-168.score: 450.0
     
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  10. David Krantz, Duncan Luce, Patrick Suppes & Amos Tversky (eds.) (1971). Foundations of Measurement, Vol. I: Additive and Polynomial Representations. New York Academic Press.score: 450.0
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  11. Duncan Luce, David Krantz, Patrick Suppes & Amos Tversky (eds.) (1990). Foundations of Measurement, Vol. III: Representation, Axiomatization, and Invariance. New York Academic Press.score: 450.0
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  12. Patrick Suppes, David Krantz, Duncan Luce & Amos Tversky (eds.) (1989). Foundations of Measurement, Vol. II: Geometrical, Threshold, and Probabilistic Representations. New York Academic Press.score: 450.0
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  13. Jochen Rau (2011). Measurement-Based Quantum Foundations. Foundations of Physics 41 (3):380-388.score: 432.0
    I show that quantum theory is the only probabilistic framework that permits arbitrary processes to be emulated by sequences of local measurements. This supports the view that, contrary to conventional wisdom, measurement should not be regarded as a complex phenomenon in need of a dynamical explanation but rather as a primitive—and perhaps the only primitive—operation of the theory.
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  14. Olival Freire Jr (2004). The Historical Roots of ''Foundations of Quantum Physics'' as a Field of Research (1950–1970). Foundations of Physics 34 (11):1741-1760.score: 411.0
    The rising interest, in the late 20th century, in the foundations of quantum physics, a subject in which Franco Selleri has excelled, has suggested the fair question: how did it become so? The current answer says that experiments have allowed to bring into the laboratories some previous gedanken experiments, beginning with those about EPR and related to Bell’s inequalities. I want to explore an alternative view, by which there would have been, before Bell’s inequalities experimental tests, a change in (...)
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  15. Giovanni Boniolo & Fernando de Felice (2000). On the Philosophical Foundations of Measurements in General Relativity. Foundations of Physics 30 (10):1629-1641.score: 383.0
    In this paper, first, the question of what a measurement is in General Relativity is tackled; then, some foundational problems it involves are analysed. In particular, by recalling what a measurement is in general, we will try to precisely define what it is in General Relativity. Then, we will analyse, by means of a suitable example, some foundational problems it involves. It will be stressed that such foundational problems do not arise owing to the gauge invariance or the (...)
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  16. R. N. Sen (2008). Physics and the Measurement of Continuous Variables. Foundations of Physics 38 (4):301-316.score: 381.0
    This paper addresses the doubts voiced by Wigner about the physical relevance of the concept of geometrical points by exploiting some facts known to all but honored by none: Almost all real numbers are transcendental; the explicit representation of any one will require an infinite amount of physical resources. An instrument devised to measure a continuous real variable will need a continuum of internal states to achieve perfect resolution. Consequently, a laboratory instrument for measuring a continuous variable in a finite (...)
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  17. Matthias Neuber (2012). Invariance, Structure, Measurement – Eino Kaila and the History of Logical Empiricism. Theoria 78 (4):358-383.score: 339.0
    Eino Kaila's thought occupies a curious position within the logical empiricist movement. Along with Hans Reichenbach, Herbert Feigl, and the early Moritz Schlick, Kaila advocates a realist approach towards science and the project of a “scientific world conception”. This realist approach was chiefly directed at both Kantianism and Poincaréan conventionalism. The case in point was the theory of measurement. According to Kaila, the foundations of physical reality are characterized by the existence of invariant systems of relations, which he (...)
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  18. GianCarlo Ghirardi (2008). Reconsidering Mermin's “In Praise of Measurement”. Foundations of Physics 38 (11):1011-1019.score: 336.0
    We critically analyze a recent paper by D. Mermin and we compare his statements with Bell’s position on the problems he is discussing.
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  19. Mirjana Božić & Zvonko Marić (1998). Quantum Interference, Quantum Theory of Measurement, and (In)Completeness of Quantum Mechanics. Foundations of Physics 28 (3):415-427.score: 333.0
    The new techniques and ideas in quantum interferometry with neutrons, photons, atoms, electrons, and Bose condensates that fluorished in the last two decades have influenced in a decisive way the thinking and the research in the foundations and interpretation of quantum mechanics. The controversies existing among different schools on the reality of matter waves of quantum theory, the postulates of quantum measurement theory, and the (in)completeness of quantum mechanics have to be approached now in a new way. Our (...)
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  20. Eric Schliesser (2013). Newtonian Emanation, Spinozism, Measurement and the Baconian Origins of the Laws of Nature. Foundations of Science 18 (3):449-466.score: 327.0
    The first two sections of this paper investigate what Newton could have meant in a now famous passage from “De Graviatione” (hereafter “DeGrav”) that “space is as it were an emanative effect of God.” First it offers a careful examination of the four key passages within DeGrav that bear on this. The paper shows that the internal logic of Newton’s argument permits several interpretations. In doing so, the paper calls attention to a Spinozistic strain in Newton’s thought. Second it sketches (...)
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  21. Sebastiano Bavetta & Marco Del Seta (2001). Constraints and the Measurement of Freedom of Choice. Theory and Decision 50 (3):213-238.score: 314.0
    This paper introduces considerations about constraints in the construction of measures of an agent's freedom. It starts with motivating the exercise from both the philosophical and the informational point of view. Then it presents two rankings of opportunity sets based on information about the extent of options and the constraints that a decision maker faces. The first ranking measures freedom as variety of choice; the second as non-restrictedness in choice.
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  22. Bas Spitters (2012). The Space of Measurement Outcomes as a Spectral Invariant for Non-Commutative Algebras. Foundations of Physics 42 (7):896-908.score: 312.0
    The recently developed technique of Bohrification associates to a (unital) C*-algebra Athe Kripke model, a presheaf topos, of its classical contexts;in this Kripke model a commutative C*-algebra, called the Bohrification of A;the spectrum of the Bohrification as a locale internal in the Kripke model. We propose this locale, the ‘state space’, as a (n intuitionistic) logic of the physical system whose observable algebra is A.We compute a site which externally captures this locale and find that externally its points may be (...)
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  23. Bas Fraassen (1995). A Philosophical Approach to Foundations of Science. Foundations of Science 1 (1).score: 309.0
    Foundational research focuses on the theory, but theories are to be related also to other theories, experiments, facts in their domains, data, and to their uses in applications, whether of prediction, control, or explanation. A theory is to be identified through its class of models, but not so narrowly as to disallow these roles. The language of science is to be studied separately, with special reference to the relations listed above, and to the consequent need for resources other than for (...)
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  24. Paul Busch & Pekka J. Lahti (1996). The Standard Model of Quantum Measurement Theory: History and Applications. [REVIEW] Foundations of Physics 26 (7):875-893.score: 309.0
    The standard model of the quantum theory of measurement is based on an interaction Hamiltonian in which the observable to be measured is multiplied by some observable of a probe system. This simple Ansatz has proved extremely fruitful in the development of the foundations of quantum mechanics. While the ensuing type of models has often been argued to be rather artificial, recent advances in quantum optics have demonstrated their principal and practical feasibility. A brief historical review of the (...)
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  25. Bas van Fraassen (1995). A Philosophical Approach to Foundations of Science. Foundations of Science 1 (1):5-18.score: 309.0
    Foundational research focuses on the theory, but theories are to be related also to other theories, experiments, facts in their domains, data, and to their uses in applications, whether of prediction, control, or explanation. A theory is to be identified through its class of models, but not so narrowly as to disallow these roles. The language of science is to be studied separately, with special reference to the relations listed above, and to the consequent need for resources other than for (...)
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  26. Amit Hagar (2007). Experimental Metaphysics2: The Double Standard in the Quantum-Information Approach to the Foundations of Quantum Theory. Studies in History and Philosophy of Modern Physics 38 (4):906-919.score: 306.0
    Among the alternatives of non-relativistic quantum mechanics (NRQM) there are those that give different predictions than quantum mechanics in yet-untested circumstances, while remaining compatible with current empirical findings. In order to test these predictions, one must isolate one’s system from environmental induced decoherence, which, on the standard view of NRQM, is the dynamical mechanism that is responsible for the ‘apparent’ collapse in open quantum systems. But while recent advances in condensed-matter physics may lead in the near future to experimental setups (...)
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  27. Edward J. Gillis (2011). Causality, Measurement, and Elementary Interactions. Foundations of Physics 41 (12):1757-1785.score: 297.0
    Signal causality, the prohibition of superluminal information transmission, is the fundamental property shared by quantum measurement theory and relativity, and it is the key to understanding the connection between nonlocal measurement effects and elementary interactions. To prevent those effects from transmitting information between the generating and observing process, they must be induced by the kinds of entangling interactions that constitute measurements, as implied in the Projection Postulate. They must also be nondeterministic as reflected in the Born Probability Rule. (...)
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  28. Michael B. Heaney (2013). A Symmetrical Interpretation of the Klein-Gordon Equation. Foundations of Physics 43 (6):733-746.score: 297.0
    This paper presents a new Symmetrical Interpretation (SI) of relativistic quantum mechanics which postulates: quantum mechanics is a theory about complete experiments, not particles; a complete experiment is maximally described by a complex transition amplitude density; and this transition amplitude density never collapses. This SI is compared to the Copenhagen Interpretation (CI) for the analysis of Einstein’s bubble experiment. This SI makes several experimentally testable predictions that differ from the CI, solves one part of the measurement problem, resolves some (...)
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  29. E. Prugovečki (1974). Fuzzy Sets in the Theory of Measurement of Incompatible Observables. Foundations of Physics 4 (1):9-18.score: 294.0
    The notion of fuzzy event is introduced in the theory of measurement in quantum mechanics by indicating in which sense measurements can be considered to yield fuzzy sets. The concept of probability measure on fuzzy events is defined, and its general properties are deduced from the operational meaning assigned to it. It is pointed out that such probabilities can be derived from the formalism of quantum mechanics. Any such probability on a given fuzzy set is related to the frequency (...)
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  30. Fedor Herbut (1994). Delayed-Choice Experiments and Retroactive Apparent Occurrence in the Quantum Theory of Measurement. Foundations of Physics 24 (1):117-137.score: 294.0
    The concept of retroactive apparent occurrence, the main ingredient of Wheeler's delayed-choice thought experiments, is systematically incorporated into the quantum theory of measurement (in the framework of the recent review of Busch, Lahti, and Mittelstaedt). Besides, the (general) notion of individual-system measurement is introduced, and, due to it, premeasurement is defined by a truly minimal condition. Finally, retroactive apparent occurrence is made use of to derive apparent objectification in measurement. The derivation is discussed in the framework of (...)
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  31. P. A. Moldauer (1972). A Reinterpretation of von Neumann's Theory of Measurement. Foundations of Physics 2 (1):41-47.score: 294.0
    Von Neumann's theory of measurement in quantum mechanics is reinterpreted so that the experimental arrangement specifies the location of the “cut” by calling for the separate observation of the object and the measuring apparatus after the initial measurement interaction. The measurement ascertains which element of the mixture describing the final state of the apparatus is actually present. The relevance and feasibility of observing the final coherent state of the object plus apparatus is criticized and the paradoxes of (...)
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  32. J. Andrade E. Silva (1982). On the Contribution of Louis de Broglie to the Quantum Theory of Measurement. Foundations of Physics 12 (10):977-987.score: 294.0
    An account of the contributions of Louis de Broglie to the quantum theory of measurement processes is presented. It being impracticable to cover all research work done by de Broglie and his School about this matter, stress is put on the refutation of von Neumann's theorem, on the alternative description arising from the double solution theory, and on some critical analysis of the usually accepted formalism.
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  33. Y. Aharonov & M. Vardi (1981). An Operational Approach for Testing the Postulate of Measurement in Quantum Theory. Foundations of Physics 11 (1-2):121-125.score: 294.0
    We interpret the (formal) postulates of measurement in quantum theory in terms of measurement procedures that can be done in the laboratory (at least in principle).
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  34. Jerzy Rayski (1977). Epistemological and Mathematical Foundations of Quantum Mechanics. Foundations of Physics 7 (3-4):151-164.score: 294.0
    The concepts of measurement and measurable quantity are discussed. A probabilistic interpretation independent of the arrow of time is recommended and a definition of quantizable physical systems is given. The space of states of information about the physical system is Schwarz space rather than Hilbert space.
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  35. H. D. Zeh (1970). On the Interpretation of Measurement in Quantum Theory. Foundations of Physics 1 (1):69-76.score: 294.0
    It is demonstrated that neither the arguments leading to inconsistencies in the description of quantum-mechanical measurement nor those “explaining” the process of measurement by means of thermodynamical statistics are valid. Instead, it is argued that the probability interpretation is compatible with an objective interpretation of the wave function.
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  36. W. M. De Muynck & J. P. H. W. Van den Eijnde (1984). A Derivation of Local Commutativity From Macrocausality Using a Quantum Mechanical Theory of Measurement. Foundations of Physics 14 (2):111-146.score: 294.0
    A theory of the joint measurement of quantum mechanical observables is generalized in order to make it applicable to the measurement of the local observables of field theory. Subsequently, the property of local commutativity, which is usually introduced as a postulate, is derived by means of the theory of measurement from a requirement of mutual nondisturbance, which, for local observables performed at a spacelike distance from each other, is interpreted as a requirement of macrocausality. Alternative attempts at (...)
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  37. Martin S. Altschul (1978). Coordinate Transformations and the Theory of Measurement. Foundations of Physics 8 (1-2):69-92.score: 288.0
    We discuss the criteria for deriving new information from coordinate transformations, focusing on the property of implementability, or measurability in practice. We contrast the role of coordinate transformations in classical and quantum physics, and demonstrate that many well-known applications fail to meet the criteria for new information. Finally, we discuss some mathematical properties of the coordinate transformations, and then relate these properties to a practical measurement scheme.
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  38. Hidde de Jong, Nicolaas Mars & Paul van der Vet (1999). Computer-Supported Resolution of Measurement Conflicts: A Case-Study in Materials Science. [REVIEW] Foundations of Science 4 (4):427-461.score: 288.0
    Resolving conflicts between different measurements ofa property of a physical system may be a key step in a discoveryprocess. With the emergence of large-scale databases and knowledgebases with property measurements, computer support for the task ofconflict resolution has become highly desirable. We will describe amethod for model-based conflict resolution and the accompanyingcomputer tool KIMA, which have been applied in a case-study inmaterials science. In order to be a useful aid to scientists, the toolneeds to be integrated with other tools in (...)
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  39. Renato M. Angelo (2009). On the Interpretative Essence of the Term “Interaction-Free Measurement”: The Role of Entanglement. [REVIEW] Foundations of Physics 39 (2):109-119.score: 276.0
    The polemical term “interaction-free measurement” (IFM) is analyzed in its interpretative nature. Two seminal works proposing the term are revisited and their underlying interpretations are assessed. The role played by nonlocal quantum correlations (entanglement) is formally discussed and some controversial conceptions in the original treatments are identified. As a result the term IFM is shown to be consistent neither with the standard interpretation of quantum mechanics nor with the lessons provided by the EPR debate.
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  40. Gerd Niestegge (2009). A Representation of Quantum Measurement in Nonassociative Algebras. Foundations of Physics 39 (2):120-136.score: 276.0
    Starting from an abstract setting for the Lüders-von Neumann quantum measurement process and its interpretation as a probability conditionalization rule in a non-Boolean event structure, the author derived a certain generalization of operator algebras in a preceding paper. This is an order-unit space with some specific properties. It becomes a Jordan operator algebra under a certain set of additional conditions, but does not own a multiplication operation in the most general case. A major objective of the present paper is (...)
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  41. Gerd Niestegge (2008). A Representation of Quantum Measurement in Order-Unit Spaces. Foundations of Physics 38 (9):783-795.score: 276.0
    A certain generalization of the mathematical formalism of quantum mechanics beyond operator algebras is considered. The approach is based on the concept of conditional probability and the interpretation of the Lüders-von Neumann quantum measurement as a probability conditionalization rule. A major result shows that the operator algebras must be replaced by order-unit spaces with some specific properties in the generalized approach, and it is analyzed under which conditions these order-unit spaces become Jordan algebras. An application of this result provides (...)
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  42. Rodolfo Gambini & Jorge Pullin (2007). Relational Physics with Real Rods and Clocks and the Measurement Problem of Quantum Mechanics. Foundations of Physics 37 (7):1074-1092.score: 276.0
    The use of real clocks and measuring rods in quantum mechanics implies a natural loss of unitarity in the description of the theory. We briefly review this point and then discuss the implications it has for the measurement problem in quantum mechanics. The intrinsic loss of coherence allows to circumvent some of the usual objections to the measurement process as due to environmental decoherence.
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  43. Michael Simpson (2011). Larc: A State Reduction Theory of Quantum Measurement. [REVIEW] Foundations of Physics 41 (10):1648-1663.score: 276.0
    This proposes a new theory of Quantum measurement; a state reduction theory in which reduction is to the elements of the number operator basis of a system, triggered by the occurrence of annihilation or creation (or lowering or raising) operators in the time evolution of a system. It is from these operator types that the acronym ‘LARC’ is derived. Reduction does not occur immediately after the trigger event; it occurs at some later time with probability P t per unit (...)
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  44. Luca Mari, Valentina Lazzarotti & Raffaella Manzini (2009). Measurement in Soft Systems: Epistemological Framework and a Case Study. Measurement 42 (2):241-253.score: 276.0
    Measurement in soft systems generally cannot exploit physical sensors as data acquisition devices. The emphasis in this case is instead on how to choose the appropriate indicators and to combine their values so to obtain an overall result, interpreted as the value of a property, i.e., the measurand, for the system under analysis. This paper aims at discussing the epistemological conditions of the claim that such a process is a measurement, and performance evaluation is the case introduced to (...)
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  45. Richard Bradley (2001). Ramsey and the Measurement of Belief. In David Corfield & Jon Williamson (eds.), Foundations of Bayesianism.score: 264.0
    Foundations of Bayesianism is an authoritative collection of papers addressing the key challenges that face the Bayesian interpretation of probability today. Some of these papers seek to clarify the relationships between Bayesian, causal and logical reasoning. Others consider the application of Bayesianism to artificial intelligence, decision theory, statistics and the philosophy of science and mathematics. The volume includes important criticisms of Bayesian reasoning and also gives an insight into some of the points of disagreement amongst advocates of the Bayesian (...)
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  46. Henry Margenau & James L. Park (1973). The Physics and the Semantics of Quantum Measurement. Foundations of Physics 3 (1):19-28.score: 264.0
    In a recent paper, Prugovečki offered a theory of simultaneous measurements based upon an axiomatic description of the measurement act which excludes certain illustrations of simultaneous measurement previously discussed by the present writers. In this article, the fundamental conceptions of state preparation, state determination, and measurement which underlie our research are compared to Prugovečki's interpretations of the analogous constructs in his theory of measurement.
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  47. Eduard Prugovečki (1975). Measurement in Quantum Mechanics as a Stochastic Process on Spaces of Fuzzy Events. Foundations of Physics 5 (4):557-571.score: 264.0
    The measurement of one or more observables can be considered to yield sample points which are in general fuzzy sets. Operationally these fuzzy sample points are the outcomes of calibration procedures undertaken to ensure the internal consistency of a scheme of measurement. By introducing generalized probability measures on σ-semifields of fuzzy events, one can view a quantum mechanical state as an ensemble of probability measures which specify the likelihood of occurrence of any specific fuzzy sample point at some (...)
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  48. Izuru Fujiwara (1972). Quantum Theory of State Reduction and Measurement. Foundations of Physics 2 (2-3):83-110.score: 264.0
    The central problem in the quantum theory of measurement, how to describe the process of state reduction in terms of the quantum mechanical formalism, is solved on the basis of the relativity of quantal states, which implies that once the apparatus is detected in a well-defined state, the object state must reduce to a corresponding one. This is a process termed by Schrödinger disentanglement. Here, it is essential to observe that Renninger's negative result does constitute an actual measurement (...)
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  49. Roger A. Hegstrom & Fernando Sols (1995). A Model of Quantum Measurement in Josephson Junctions. Foundations of Physics 25 (5):681-700.score: 264.0
    A model for the quantum measurement of the electronic current in a Josephson junction is presented and analyzed. The model is similar to a Stern-Gerlach apparatus, relying on the deflection of a spin-polarized particle beam by the magnetic field created by the Josephson current. The aim is (1) to explore, with the help of a simple model, some general ideas about the nature of the information which can be obtained by measurements upon a quantum system and (2) to find (...)
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  50. V. P. Belavkin (1994). Nondemolition Principle of Quantum Measurement Theory. Foundations of Physics 24 (5):685-714.score: 264.0
    We give an explicit axiomatic formulation of the quantum measurement theory which is free of the projection postulate. It is based on the generalized nondemolition principle applicable also to the unsharp, continuous-spectrum and continuous-in-time observations. The “collapsed state-vector” after the “objectification” is simply treated as a random vector of the a posterioristate given by the quantum filtering, i.e., the conditioning of the a prioriinduced state on the corresponding reduced algebra. The nonlinear phenomenological equation of “continuous spontaneous localization” has been (...)
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