1. Frances S. Chen, Maria Barth, Stephen L. Johnson, Ian H. Gotlib & Susan C. Johnson (2011). Oxytocin Receptor (OXTR) Polymorphisms and Attachment in Human Infants. Frontiers in Psychology 2.
    Ordinary variations in human infants’ attachment behaviors—their proclivity to seek and accept comfort from caregivers—are associated with a wide range of individual differences in psychological functioning in adults. The current investigation examined variation in the oxytocin receptor (OXTR) gene as one possible source of these variations in infant attachment. One hundred and seventy-six infants (77 Caucasian, 99 non-Caucasian) were classified as securely or insecurely attached based on their behavior in the Strange Situation (Ainsworth et al., 1976). The A allele at (...)
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  2. Susan C. Johnson & Frances S. Chen (2011). Socioemotional Information Processing in Human Infants: From Genes to Subjective Construals. Emotion Review 3 (2):169-178.
    This article examines infant attachment styles from the perspective of cognitive and emotional subjectivity. We review new data that show that individual differences in infants’ attachment behaviors in the traditional Strange Situation are related to (a) infants’ subjective construals of infant—caregiver interactions, (b) their attention to emotional expressions, and (c) polymorphisms in the oxytocin receptor (OXTR) gene. We use these findings to argue that individual differences in infants’ attachment styles reflect, in part, the subjective outcomes of objective experience as filtered (...)
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  3. Susan C. Johnson, Carol S. Dweck, Frances S. Chen, Hilarie L. Stern, Su-Jeong Ok & Maria Barth (2010). At the Intersection of Social and Cognitive Development: Internal Working Models of Attachment in Infancy. Cognitive Science 34 (5):807-825.
    Three visual habituation studies using abstract animations tested the claim that infants’ attachment behavior in the Strange Situation procedure corresponds to their expectations about caregiver–infant interactions. Three unique patterns of expectations were revealed. Securely attached infants expected infants to seek comfort from caregivers and expected caregivers to provide comfort. Insecure-resistant infants not only expected infants to seek comfort from caregivers but also expected caregivers to withhold comfort. Insecure-avoidant infants expected infants to avoid seeking comfort from caregivers and expected caregivers to (...)
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