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  1. Francis Jeffry Pelletier, A History of Natural Deduction and Elementary Logic Textbooks.
    In 1934 a most singular event occurred. Two papers were published on a topic that had (apparently) never before been written about, the authors had never been in contact with one another, and they had (apparently) no common intellectual background that would otherwise account for their mutual interest in this topic.1 These two papers formed the basis for a movement in logic which is by now the most common way of teaching elementary logic by far, and indeed is perhaps all (...)
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  2. Francis Jeffry Pelletier, Geoff Sutcliffe.
    (although the FOF, unlike the CNF, is still a theorem). The correct version of Problem 62 is (following the format of (Pelletier, 1986)): Natural FOF Negated Conclusion CNF (Ax)r(Pet~(Px m Pf(x))) m Pf(f(x))] Pet Px+ P f(f(x)) + -Pa..
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  3. Francis Jeffry Pelletier, Minds and Machines.
    I was asked to develop a course “Philosophy and Cognitive Science” to be taught for the first time in Spring 1995 in the Philosophy Department at the University of Alberta. Since my cognitive science-related interests are focussed more towards philosophy mixed with artificial intelligence (A I) and linguistics than towards (say) neuroscience or anthropology, I decided to slant the course in t hat direction. The departmental intent was that this should be an upper-level course, but with no spe cific prerequisite (...)
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  4. Francis Jeffry Pelletier, Renée Elio.
    We report empirical results on factors that influence how people reason with default rules of the form "Most x's have property P", in scenarios that specify information about exceptions to these rules and in scenarios that specify default-rule inheritance. These factors include (a) whether the individual, to which the default rule might apply, is similar to a known exception, when that similarity may explain why the exception did not follow the default, and (b) whether the problem involves classes of naturally (...)
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  5. Francis Jeffry Pelletier, Thephilosophyofautomatedtheoremproving.
    Different researchers use "the philosophy of automated theorem p r o v i n g " t o cover d i f f e r e n t concepts, indeed, different levels of concepts. Some w o u l d count such issues as h o w to e f f i c i e n t l y i n d e x databases as part of the philosophy of automated theorem p r o v i n g . (...)
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  6. Francis Jeffry Pelletier, The Effect of Syntactic Form on Simple.
    In this paper we report preliminary results on how people revise or update a previously held set of beliefs. When intelligent agents learn new things which conflict with their current belief set, they must revise their belief set. When the new information does not conflict, they merely must update their belief set. Various AI theories have been proposed to achieve these processes. There are two general dimensions along which these theories differ: whether they are syntactic-based or model-based, and what constitutes (...)
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  7. Francis Jeffry Pelletier, Thinking of 'Not'.
    A certain direction in cognitive science has been to try to “ground” public language statements in some species of mental representation. A central tenet of this trend is that communication – that is, public language – succeeds (when it does) because the elements of this public language are in some way correlated with mental items of both the speaker and the audience so that the mental state evoked in the audience by the use of that piece of public language is (...)
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  8. Francis Jeffry Pelletier, Vagueness.
    Vagueness: an expression is vague if and only if it is possible that it give rise to a “borderline case.” A borderline case is a situation in which the application of a particular expression to a (name of) a particular object does not generate an expression with a definite TRUTH-VALUE. That is, the piece of language in question neither applies to the object nor fails to apply. Although such a formulation leaves it open what the pieces of language might be (...)
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  9. James Delgrande & Francis Jeffry Pelletier, Compositional Belief Update.
    In this paper we explore a class of belief update operators, in which the definition of the operator is compositional with respect to the sentence to be added. The goal is to provide an update operator that is intuitive, in that its definition is based on a recursive decomposition of the update sentence’s structure, and that may be reasonably implemented. In addressing update, we first provide a definition phrased in terms of the models of a knowledge base. While this operator (...)
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  10. Ernest Lepore & Francis Jeffry Pelletier, Linguistics and Philosophy.
    Roger Gibson has achieved as much as anyone else, indeed, more, in presenting and defending Quine’s philosophy. It is no surprise that the great man W.V. Quine himself said that in reading Gibson he gained a welcome perspective on his own work. His twin books The Philosophy of W.V. Quine and Enlightened Empiricism have no rivals. We are all indebted to Roger. The essay that follows is intended not only to honor him but also to continue a theme that runs (...)
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  11. Francis Jeffry Pelletier, On a Homework Problem of Larry Horn's.
    Larry Horn is justifiably famous for his work on the semantics of the English conjunction or and both its relationship to the formal logic truth functions ∨ and @ (“inclusive” and “exclusive” disjunction respectively1) and its relationship to the ways people employ or in natural discourse. These interests have been present since his 1972 dissertation, where he argued for a “scalar implicature-based” account of many of these relationships as opposed to a presuppositional account. They have surfaced in his “Greek Grice” (...)
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  12. Francis Jeffry Pelletier, The Good, the Bad, and the Ugly.
    Many different kinds of items have been called vague, and so-called for a variety of different reasons. Traditional wisdom distinguishes three views of why one might apply the epitaph "vague" to an item; these views are distinguished by what they claim the vagueness is due to. One type of vagueness, The Good, locates vagueness in language, or in some representational system -- for example, it might say that certain predicates have a range of applicability. On one side of the range (...)
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  13. Francis Jeffry Pelletier & Nicholas Asher, Generics and Defaults.
    1: Linguistic and Epistemological Background 1 . 1 : Generic Reference vs. Generic Predication 1 . 2 : Why are there any Generic Sentences at all? 1 . 3 : Generics and Exceptions, Two Bad Attitudes 1 . 4 : Exceptions and Generics, Some Other Attitudes 1 . 5 : Generics and Intensionality 1 . 6 : Goals of an Analysis of Generic Sentences 1 . 7 : A Little Notation 1 . 8 : Generics vs. Explicit Statements of Regularities..
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  14. Francis Jeffry Pelletier & Lenhart K. Schubert, Mass Expressions.
    previous theories and the relevance of those criticisms to the new accounts. Additionally, we have included a new section at the end, which gives some directions to literature outside of formal semantics in which the notion of mass has been employed. We looked at work on mass expressions in psycholinguistics and computational linguistics here, and we discussed some research in the history of philosophy and in metaphysics that makes use of the notion of mass.
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  15. Allen P. Hazen & Francis Jeffry Pelletier (forthcoming). Gentzen and Jaśkowski Natural Deduction: Fundamentally Similar but Importantly Different. Studia Logica:1-40.
    Gentzen’s and Jaśkowski’s formulations of natural deduction are logically equivalent in the normal sense of those words. However, Gentzen’s formulation more straightforwardly lends itself both to a normalization theorem and to a theory of “meaning” for connectives (which leads to a view of semantics called ‘inferentialism’). The present paper investigates cases where Jaskowski’s formulation seems better suited. These cases range from the phenomenology and epistemology of proof construction to the ways to incorporate novel logical connectives into the language. We close (...)
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  16. Sam Alxatib & Francis Jeffry Pelletier (2011). The Psychology of Vagueness: Borderline Cases and Contradictions. Mind and Language 26 (3):287-326.
    In an interesting experimental study, Bonini et al. (1999) present partial support for truth-gap theories of vagueness. We say this despite their claim to find theoretical and empirical reasons to dismiss gap theories and despite the fact that they favor an alternative, epistemic account, which they call ‘vagueness as ignorance’. We present yet more experimental evidence that supports gap theories, and argue for a semantic/pragmatic alternative that unifies the gappy supervaluationary approach together with its glutty relative, the subvaluationary approach.
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  17. Francis Jeffry Pelletier (2011). Descriptive Metaphysics, Natural Language Metaphysics, Sapir-Whorf, and All That Stuff: Evidence From the Mass-Count Distinction. The Baltic International Yearbook of Cognition, Logic and Communication 6 (1):7.
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  18. Francis Jeffry Pelletier (2009). Are All Generics Created Equal? In , Kinds, Things, and Stuff: Mass Terms and Generics. Oup Usa.
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  19. Francis Jeffry Pelletier (ed.) (2009). Kinds, Things, and Stuff: Mass Terms and Generics. OUP USA.
    A generic statement is a type of generalization that is made by asserting that a "kind" has a certain property. For example we might hear that marshmallows are sweet. Here, we are talking about the "kind" marshmallow and assert that individual instances of this kind have the property of being sweet. Almost all of our common sense knowledge about the everyday world is put in terms of generic statements. What can make these generic sentences be true even when there are (...)
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  20. Francis Jeffry Pelletier & Bernard Linsky (2009). Russell Vs. Frege on Definite Descriptions as Singular Terms. In Nicholas Griffin & Dale Jacquette (eds.), Russell Vs. Meinong: The Legacy of "on Denoting". Routledge.
    In ‘On Denoting’ and to some extent in ‘Review of Meinong and Others, Untersuchungen zur Gegenstandstheorie und Psychologie’, published in the same issue of Mind (Russell, 1905a,b), Russell presents not only his famous elimination (or contextual defi nition) of defi nite descriptions, but also a series of considerations against understanding defi nite descriptions as singular terms. At the end of ‘On Denoting’, Russell believes he has shown that all the theories that do treat defi nite descriptions as singular terms fall (...)
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  21. Francis Jeffry Pelletier & Alasdair Urquhart (2008). Synonymous Logics: A Correction. [REVIEW] Journal of Philosophical Logic 37 (1):95 - 100.
    In an earlier paper entitled Synonymous Logics, the authors attempted to show that there are two modal logics so that each is exactly translatable into the other, but they are not translationally equivalent. Unfortunately, there is an error in the proof of this result. The present paper provides a new example of two such logics, and a proof of the result claimed in the earlier paper.
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  22. Peter Pagin & Francis Jeffry Pelletier (2007). Content, Context and Composition. In Gerhard Preyer & Georg Peter (eds.), Context-Sensitivity and Semantic Minimalism: New Essays on Semantics and Pragmatics. Oup Oxford.
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  23. Francis Jeffry Pelletier (2006). The Law of Non-Contradiction: New Philosophical Essays, Edited by Priest Graham, Beall JC, and Armour-Garb Bradley, Oxford University Press, Oxford, 2004, Xii+ 443 Pp. [REVIEW] Bulletin of Symbolic Logic 12 (1):131-135.
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  24. G. Priest, J. C. Beall, B. Armour-Garb & Francis Jeffry Pelletier (2006). REVIEWS-The Law of Non-Contradiction: New Philosophical Essays. Bulletin of Symbolic Logic 12 (1):131-134.
    The Law of Non-Contradiction - that no contradiction can be true - has been a seemingly unassailable dogma since the work of Aristotle. It is an assumption challenged from a variety of angles in this collection of original papers. Twenty-three of the world's leading experts investigate the 'law', considering arguments for and against it and discuss methodological issues that arise. The result is a balanced inquiry into a venerable principle of logic, one that raises questions at the very centre of (...)
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  25. Greg N. Carlson & Francis Jeffry Pelletier (eds.) (2005). Reference and Quantification: The Partee Effect. Csli.
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  26. Francis Jeffry Pelletier & Renée Elio (2005). The Case for Psychologism in Default and Inheritance Reasoning. Synthese 146 (1-2):7 - 35.
    Default reasoning occurs whenever the truth of the evidence available to the reasoner does not guarantee the truth of the conclusion being drawn. Despite this, one is entitled to draw the conclusion “by default” on the grounds that we have no information which would make us doubt that the inference should be drawn. It is the type of conclusion we draw in the ordinary world and ordinary situations in which we find ourselves. Formally speaking, ‘nonmonotonic reasoning’ refers to argumentation in (...)
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  27. Luc Lismont, Philippe Mongin, Strong Completeness, Volker Halbach, Hannes Leitgeb, Philip Welch, Francis Jeffry Pelletier, Alasdair Urquhart & Synonymous Logics (2003). Philip G. Calabrese/Operating on Functions with Variable Domains 1–18 Stewart Shapiro/Mechanism, Truth, and Penrose's New Argu-Ment 19–42 Steven E. Boër/Thought-Contents and the Formal Ontology Of. [REVIEW] Journal of Philosophical Logic 32:667-668.
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  28. Francis Jeffry Pelletier (2003). Context Dependence and Compositionality. Mind and Language 18 (2):148–161.
    Some utterances of sentences such as ‘Every student failed the midterm exam’ and ‘There is no beer’ are widely held to be true in a conversation despite the facts that not every student in the world failed the midterm exam and that there is, in fact, some beer somewhere. For instance, the speaker might be talking about some particular course, or about his refrigerator. Stanley and Szabó (in Mind and Language v. 15, 2000) consider many different approaches to how contextual (...)
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  29. Francis Jeffry Pelletier & Alasdair Urquhart (2003). Synonymous Logics. Journal of Philosophical Logic 32 (3):259-285.
    This paper discusses the general problem of translation functions between logics, given in axiomatic form, and in particular, the problem of determining when two such logics are "synonymous" or "translationally equivalent." We discuss a proposed formal definition of translational equivalence, show why it is reasonable, and also discuss its relation to earlier definitions in the literature. We also give a simple criterion for showing that two modal logics are not translationally equivalent, and apply this to well-known examples. Some philosophical morals (...)
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  30. Gregory N. Carlson, Francis Jeffry Pelletier & Richmond H. Thomason (2002). Editors'note to the 25th Anniversary Issue. Linguistics and Philosophy 25 (505).
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  31. Charles Grady Morgan, Francis Jeffry Pelletier, Theo Janssen, Gerard Kok & Lambert Meertens (2002). 25th Anniversary Volume Contents. Linguistics and Philosophy 25:813-829.
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  32. Francis Jeffry Pelletier & Richmond H. Thomason (2002). Twenty-Five Years of Linguistics and Philosophy. Linguistics and Philosophy 25 (5-6):507-529.
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  33. Francis Jeffry Pelletier (2001). Did Frege Believe Frege's Principle? Journal of Logic, Language and Information 10 (1):87-114.
    In this essay I will consider two theses that are associated with Frege,and will investigate the extent to which Frege really believed them.Much of what I have to say will come as no surprise to scholars of thehistorical Frege. But Frege is not only a historical figure; he alsooccupies a site on the philosophical landscape that has allowed hisdoctrines to seep into the subconscious water table. And scholars in a widevariety of different scholarly establishments then sip from thesedoctrines. I believe (...)
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  34. Francis Jeffry Pelletier (2000). A Problem for Goldman on Rationality. Social Epistemology 14 (4):239 – 245.
    The central concern of Knowledge in a Social World is to restore the notion of Truth to the rightful place of glory that it had before the onslaught of those pragmatic, cultural-studying, social constructing, critical legalistic and feministic postmodernists (PoMo’s, for short). As G sees it, these PoMo’s have never put forward any “real” arguments for their veriphobia; and, well, how could they, since their position is committed to the “denial of Truth” and hence committed to denying that there is (...)
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  35. Francis Jeffry Pelletier (2000). Metamathematics of Fuzzy Logic. Bulletin of Symbolic Logic 6 (3):342-346.
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  36. Francis Jeffry Pelletier (2000). Review: Petr Hájek, Metamathematics of Fuzzy Logic. [REVIEW] Bulletin of Symbolic Logic 6 (3):342-346.
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  37. Francis Jeffry Pelletier & Edward N. Zalta (2000). How to Say Goodbye to the Third Man. Noûs 34 (2):165–202.
    In (1991), Meinwald initiated a major change of direction in the study of Plato’s Parmenides and the Third Man Argument. On her conception of the Parmenides , Plato’s language systematically distinguishes two types or kinds of predication, namely, predications of the kind ‘x is F pros ta alla’ and ‘x is F pros heauto’. Intuitively speaking, the former is the common, everyday variety of predication, which holds when x is any object (perceptible object or Form) and F is a property (...)
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  38. Barbara C. Scholz, Francis Jeffry Pelletier & Geoffrey K. Pullum (2000). Philosophy and Linguistics. Dialogue 39 (3):605-607.
    Philosophy of linguistics is the philosophy of science as applied to linguistics. This differentiates it sharply from the philosophy of language, traditionally concerned with matters of meaning and reference.
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  39. Francis Jeffry Pelletier (1999). A Brief History of Natural Deduction. History and Philosophy of Logic 20 (1):1-31.
    Natural deduction is the type of logic most familiar to current philosophers, and indeed is all that many modern philosophers know about logic. Yet natural deduction is a fairly recent innovation in logic, dating from Gentzen and Ja?kowski in 1934. This article traces the development of natural deduction from the view that these founders embraced to the widespread acceptance of the method in the 1960s. I focus especially on the different choices made by writers of elementary textbooks?the standard conduits of (...)
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  40. James P. Delgrande & Francis Jeffry Pelletier (1998). A Formal Analysis of Relevance. Erkenntnis 49 (2):137-173.
    We investigate the notion of relevance as it pertains to ‘commonsense’, subjunctive conditionals. Relevance is taken here as a relation between a property (such as having a broken wing) and a conditional (such as birds typically fly). Specifically, we explore a notion of ‘causative’ relevance, distinct from ‘evidential’ relevance found, for example, in probabilistic approaches. A series of postulates characterising a minimal, parsimonious concept of relevance is developed. Along the way we argue that no purely logical account of relevance (even (...)
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  41. Ali Kazmi & Francis Jeffry Pelletier (1998). Is Compositionality Formally Vacuous? Linguistics and Philosophy 21 (6):629-633.
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  42. Francis Jeffry Pelletier (1998). Automated Natural Deduction in Thinker. Studia Logica 60 (1):3-43.
    Although resolution-based inference is perhaps the industry standard in automated theorem proving, there have always been systems that employed a different format. For example, the Logic Theorist of 1957 produced proofs by using an axiomatic system, and the proofs it generated would be considered legitimate axiomatic proofs; Wang’s systems of the late 1950’s employed a Gentzen-sequent proof strategy; Beth’s systems written about the same time employed his semantic tableaux method; and Prawitz’s systems of again about the same time are often (...)
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  43. Francis Jeffry Pelletier (1998). Natural Deduction Theorem Proving in THINKER. Studia Logica 60 (1):3-43.
     
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  44. Renée Elio & Francis Jeffry Pelletier (1997). Belief Change as Propositional Update. Cognitive Science 21 (4):419-460.
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  45. Barbara Abbott, Annette Herskovits, Philip L. Peterson, Alfred R. Mele, David J. Cole, Daniel Crevier, Francis Jeffry Pelletier, Istvan S. N. Berkeley, Brendan J. Kitts, Mike Brown & George Paliouras (1996). Book Reviews. [REVIEW] Minds and Machines 6 (2):239-285.
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  46. Francis Jeffry Pelletier (1996). Review: Allan Ramsay, Formal Methods in Artificial Intelligence. [REVIEW] Journal of Symbolic Logic 61 (1):347-351.
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  47. Francis Jeffry Pelletier (1994). The Principle of Semantic Compositionality. Topoi 13 (1):11-24.
    The Principle of Semantic Compositionality (sometimes called Frege''s Principle) is the principle that the meaning of a (syntactically complex) whole is a function only of the meanings of its (syntactic) parts together with the manner in which these parts were combined. This principle has been extremely influential throughout the history of formal semantics; it has had a tremendous impact upon modern linguistics ever since Montague Grammars became known; and it has more recently shown up as a guiding principle for a (...)
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  48. Francis Jeffry Pelletier & Lenhart K. Schubert (1991). Review: Raymond Turner, Logics for Artificial Intelligence. [REVIEW] Journal of Symbolic Logic 56 (1):339-340.
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  49. Francis Jeffry Pelletier & Norman M. Martin (1990). Post's Functional Completeness Theorem. Notre Dame Journal of Formal Logic 31 (3):462-475.
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  50. Francis Jeffry Pelletier (1989). Another Argument Against Vague Objects. Journal of Philosophy 86 (9):481-492.
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