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Frank C. Keil [40]Frank Keil [28]
  1. Patricia Smith Churchland, Rick Grush, Rob Wilson & Frank Keil, Computation and the Brain.
    Two very different insights motivate characterizing the brain as a computer. One depends on mathematical theory that defines computability in a highly abstract sense. Here the foundational idea is that of a Turing machine. Not an actual machine, the Turing machine is really a conceptual way of making the point that any well-defined function could be executed, step by step, according to simple 'if-you-are-in-state-P-and-have-input-Q-then-do-R' rules, given enough time (maybe infinite time) [see COMPUTATION]. Insofar as the brain is a device whose (...)
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  2. Frank Keil, Getting to the Truth.
    One aspect of truth concerns knowing when to trust others when one’s own knowledge is inadequate. This is an ever more common problem in societies where technological and scientific change seems to be constantly accelerating. There is an increasing need to rely on the expertise of others and consequently to know when others are more likely to be offering an objective opinion as opposed to a biased one. Here, I argue that there are systematic and early emerging cognitive heuristics and (...)
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  3. Frank Keil, Philosophical Psychology.
    To cite this Article: Keil, Frank C. (2008) 'Space—The Primal Frontier? Spatial Cognition and the Origins of Concepts', Philosophical Psychology, 21:2, 241 —.
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  4. Frank C. Keil, By Domains: The Origins of Concepts Of.
    domains as rareiied as a cardiologistRi7;s knowledge of arrhythmia to those as commonplace as everyday folk psychology. Domains can vary from the highly concrete causally rich relations in a naive mechanics of physical objects to the highly abstract noncausal relations of mathematics or natural language syntax. Lumping together all of these different sorts of domains so as to have similar effects on cognitive development is likely to be misleading and un· informative. In this chapter, I consider some distinctions and their (...)
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  5. Frank C. Keil, C. Fl. Gallistel University of California, Los Angeles.
    Rochel Gelman University of California, Los Angeles..
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  6. Frank C. Keil, 6 Constraints 0i1 the Acquisition And.
    y arguments about the intrinsically interactional nature of development (e.g. Johnston, 1988; Lehrman, 1953; Lemeri983O te learning takes place and an environment to be learned. The use of the term Cngnz`rii*e Psyc/10/0g_v.· An Inrerrzational Review. Edited by Michael W. Eysenck @1990 by John Wiley & Sons Ld..
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  7. Frank Keil, Biology and Beyond: Domain Specificity in a Broader Developmental Context.
    The assumption of domain specificity has been invaluable to the study of the emergence of biological thought in young children. Yet, domains of thought must be understood within a broader context that explains how those domains relate to the surrounding cultures, to different kinds of cognitive constraints, to framing effects, to abilities to evaluate knowledge and to the ways in which domain-specific knowledge in any individual mind is related to knowledge in other minds. All of these issues must come together (...)
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  8. Frank Keil, Conceptualizing a Nonnatural Entity: Anthropomorphism in God Concepts.
    We investigate the problem of how nonnatural entities are represented by examining university students’ concepts of God, both professed theological beliefs and concepts used in comprehension of narratives. In three story processing tasks, subjects often used an anthropomorphic God concept that is inconsistent with stated theological beliefs; and drastically distorted the narratives without any awareness of doing so. By heightening subjects’ awareness of their theological beliefs, we were able to manipulate the degree of anthropomorphization. This tendency to anthropomorphize may be (...)
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  9. Frank Keil, Categorisation, Causation, and the Limits of Understanding.
    Although recent work has emphasised the importance of naı¨ve theories to categorisation, there has been little work examining the grain of analysis at which causal information normally influences categorisation. That level of analysis may often go unappreciated because of an ‘‘illusion of explanatory depth’’, in which people think they mentally represent causal explanatory relations in far more detail than they really do. Naı¨ve theories therefore might seem to be irrelevant to categorisation, or perhaps they only involve noting the presence of (...)
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  10. Frank Keil, Children's Sensitivity to Circular Explanations.
    The ability to evaluate the quality of explanations is an essential part of children’s intellectual growth. Explanations can be faulty in structural ways such as when they are circular. A circular explanation reiterates the question as if it were an explanation rather than providing any new information. Two experiments (N = 77) examined children’s preferences when faced with circular and noncircular explanations. The results demonstrate that a preference for noncircular explanations is present, albeit in a fragile form, by 5 or (...)
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  11. Frank Keil, Derek E Lyons, Laurie R Santos and Frank C Keil.
    uniquely human ability. We are thus left with a fascinating question: if not imitation, what are mirror neurons for? Recent..
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  12. Frank Keil, Early Understanding of the Division of Cognitive Labor.
    Two studies with 3-, 4-, and 5-year-olds (N 104) examined whether young children can differentiate expertise in the minds of others. Study 1 revealed that all children in the sample could correctly attribute observable knowledge to familiar experts (i.e., a doctor and a car mechanic). Further, 4- and 5-year-olds could correctly attribute knowledge of underlying scientific principles to the appropriate experts. In contrast, Study 2 demonstrated that 3-, 4-, and 5-year-olds have difficulty making attributions of knowledge of scientific principles to (...)
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  13. Frank Keil, Frank C. Keil, Ph.D.
    At the most general level I am interested in how we come to make sense of the world around us. Much of this research involves asking how intuitive explanations and understandings emerge in development and how they are related to notions of cause, mechanism and agency. These relations are linked to broader questions of what concepts are, how they change with development and increasing expertise and how they are structured in adults.
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  14. Frank Keil, From Ugly Duckling to Swan? Japanese and American Beliefs About the Stability and Origins of Traits.
    Two studies compared the development of beliefs about the stability and origins of physical and psychological traits in Japan and the United States in three age groups: 5–6-year-olds, 8–10-year-olds, and college students. The youngest children in both cultures were the most optimistic about negative traits changing in a positive direction over development and being maintained over the aging period. The belief that individual differences in traits are inborn increased with age, and in all age groups, this belief was related to (...)
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  15. Frank Keil, Nurturing Nativism.
    empiricist approaches to knowledge acquisition. I say " appears" because so often the debaters seem to be talking past each other, arguing about different things or misunderstanding each other in such basic ways that the debates can seem to an observer as incoherent. For these reasons there has been a powerful need for a systematic treatment of the different senses of nativism and empiricism that considers both their historical contexts and their current manifestations. Cowie's book offers such a treatment, one (...)
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  16. Frank Keil, Reviews 859.
    H actually ran the program on a number of large pieces of English text, though from my point of view, it’s the ability and the willingness to do this that is the motivation of learning Perl. H’s Perl code takes all periods ‘.’ to mark sentence breaks, and of course not all periods really do mark sentence breaks: the previous one earlier in this sentence does not, nor does the period after an abbreviation, most of the time—though the next one (...)
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  17. Frank Keil, The Hidden Structure of Overimitation.
    Edited by Susan E. Carey, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA, and approved October 18, 2007 (received for review May 11, 2007).
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  18. Frank Keil, The Seductive Allure of Neuroscience Explanations.
    & Explanations of psychological phenomena seem to genervs. with neuroscience) design. Crucially, the neuroscience inate more public interest when they contain neuroscientific..
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  19. Frank Keil, The Scope of the Cognitive Sciences: Reply to 6 Reviews of the MIT Encyclopedia of the Cognitive Sciences.
    Although there have been several reviews of the The MIT Encyclopedia of the Cognitive Sciences, the six reviews in this issue of Artificial Intelligence represent an unusual opportunity to see in one collection how scholars from a wide range of perspectives evaluate MITECS. I found it very useful to consider the reviews side by side and am grateful to the reviewers for providing a number of new insights into the nature of the cognitive sciences. It is also gratifying to see (...)
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  20. Frank C. Keil, Structural Determinants of Interventions on Causal Systems.
    We investigate how people use causal knowledge to design interventions to affect the outcomes of causal systems. We propose that in addition to using content or mechanism knowledge to evaluate the effectiveness of interventions, people are also influenced by the abstract structural properties of a causal system. In particular, we investigated two factors that influence whether people tend to intervene proximally (on the immediate cause of an outcome of interest) or distally (on the root cause of a chain leading to (...)
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  21. George E. Newman & Frank C. Keil, Where's the Essence? Developmental Shifts in Children's Beliefs About Internal Features.
    The present studies investigated children’s and adults’ intuitive beliefs about the physical nature of essences. Adults and children (ranging in age from 6 to 10 years old) were asked to reason about two different ways of determining an unknown object’s category: taking a tiny internal sample from any part of the object (distributed view of essence), or taking a sample from one specific region (localized view of essence). Results from three studies indicated that adults strongly endorsed the distributed view, and (...)
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  22. Jonathan F. Kominsky & Frank C. Keil (2014). Overestimation of Knowledge About Word Meanings: The “Misplaced Meaning” Effect. Cognitive Science 38 (8):1604-1633.
    Children and adults may not realize how much they depend on external sources in understanding word meanings. Four experiments investigated the existence and developmental course of a “Misplaced Meaning” (MM) effect, wherein children and adults overestimate their knowledge about the meanings of various words by underestimating how much they rely on outside sources to determine precise reference. Studies 1 and 2 demonstrate that children and adults show a highly consistent MM effect, and that it is stronger in young children. Study (...)
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  23. Benjamin M. Rottman, Jonathan F. Kominsky & Frank C. Keil (2014). Children Use Temporal Cues to Learn Causal Directionality. Cognitive Science 38 (3):489-513.
    The ability to learn the direction of causal relations is critical for understanding and acting in the world. We investigated how children learn causal directionality in situations in which the states of variables are temporally dependent (i.e., autocorrelated). In Experiment 1, children learned about causal direction by comparing the states of one variable before versus after an intervention on another variable. In Experiment 2, children reliably inferred causal directionality merely from observing how two variables change over time; they interpreted Y (...)
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  24. Brent Strickland, Matthew Fisher, Frank Keil & Joshua Knobe (2014). Syntax and Intentionality: An Automatic Link Between Language and Theory-of-Mind. Cognition 133 (1):249–261.
    Three studies provided evidence that syntax influences intentionality judgments. In Experiment 1, participants made either speeded or unspeeded intentionality judgments about ambiguously intentional subjects or objects. Participants were more likely to judge grammatical subjects as acting intentionally in the speeded relative to the reflective condition (thus showing an intentionality bias), but grammatical objects revealed the opposite pattern of results (thus showing an unintentionality bias). In Experiment 2, participants made an intentionality judgment about one of the two actors in a partially (...)
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  25. Frank Keil (2011). Graceful Degradation and Conceptual Development. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 34 (3):133-134.
    In this book, Carey gives cognitive science a detailed account of the origins of concepts and an explanation of how origins stories are essential to understanding what concepts are and how we use them. At the same time, this book's details help highlight the challenge of explaining how conceptual change works with real-world concepts that often have heavily degraded internal content.
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  26. Benjamin M. Rottman & Frank C. Keil (2011). What Matters in Scientific Explanations: Effects of Elaboration and Content. Cognition 121 (3):324-337.
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  27. Brent Strickland & Frank Keil (2011). Event Completion: Event Based Inferences Distort Memory in a Matter of Seconds. Cognition 121 (3):409-415.
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  28. Frank Keil (2010). Hybrid Vigor and Conceptual Structure. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 33 (2-3):215-216.
    Machery rightly points out a diverse set of phenomena associated with concepts that create challenges for many traditional views of their nature. It may be premature, however, to give up such views completely. Here I defend the possibility of hybrid models of concept structure.
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  29. Frank C. Keil (2010). The Feasibility of Folk Science. Cognitive Science 34 (5):826-862.
    If folk science means individuals having well worked out mechanistic theories of the workings of the world, then it is not feasible. Laypeople’s explanatory understandings are remarkably coarse, full of gaps, and often full of inconsistencies. Even worse, most people overestimate their own understandings. Yet recent views suggest that formal scientists may not be so different. In spite of these limitations, science somehow works and its success offers hope for the feasibility of folk science as well. The success of science (...)
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  30. Frank C. Keil (2010). When and Why Do Hedgehogs and Foxes Differ? Critical Review 22 (4):415-426.
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  31. Frank C. Keil & George E. Newman (2010). Darwin and Development: Why Ontogeny Does Not Recapitulate Phylogeny for Human Concepts. In Denis Mareschal, Paul Quinn & Stephen E. G. Lea (eds.), The Making of Human Concepts. Oup Oxford. 317.
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  32. George E. Newman, Kristi L. Lockhart & Frank C. Keil (2010). “End-of-Life” Biases in Moral Evaluations of Others. Cognition 115 (2):343-349.
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  33. Raffaele Calabretta, Andrea Ferdinanddio, Domenico Parisi & Frank C. Keil (2008). How to Learn Multiple Tasks. Biological Theory 3 (1):30-41.
  34. Frank Keil (2008). Biases Towards Internal Features in Infants' Reasoning About Objects. Cognition 107 (2):420-432.
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  35. Frank C. Keil (2008). How to Learn Multiple Tasks. Biological Theory 3 (1):30-41.
    The article examines the question of how learning multiple tasks interacts with neural architectures and the flow of information through those architectures. It approaches the question by using the idealization of an artificial neural network where it is possible to ask more precise questions about the effects of modular versus nonmodular architectures as well as the effects of sequential versus simultaneous learning of tasks. A prior work has demonstrated a clear advantage of modular architectures when the two tasks must be (...)
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  36. Frank C. Keil (2008). Space—the Primal Frontier? Spatial Cognition and the Origins of Concepts. Philosophical Psychology 21 (2):241 – 250.
    The more carefully we look, the more impressive the repertoire of infant concepts seems to be. Across a wide range of tasks, infants seem to be using concepts corresponding to surprisingly high-level and abstract categories and relations. It is tempting to try to explain these abilities in terms of a core capacity in spatial cognition that emerges very early in development and then gets extended beyond reasoning about direct spatial arrays and events. Although such a spatial cognitive capacity may indeed (...)
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  37. Frank C. Keil, Courtney Stein, Lisa Webb, Van Dyke Billings & Leonid Rozenblit (2008). Discerning the Division of Cognitive Labor: An Emerging Understanding of How Knowledge Is Clustered in Other Minds. Cognitive Science 32 (2):259-300.
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  38. Gary F. Marcus & Frank C. Keil (2008). Concepts, Correlations, and Some Challenges for Connectionist Cognition. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 31 (6):722-723.
    Rogers & McClelland's (R&M's) précis represents an important effort to address key issues in concepts and categorization, but few of the simulations deliver what is promised. We argue that the models are seriously underconstrained, importantly incomplete, and psychologically implausible; more broadly, R&M dwell too heavily on the apparent successes without comparable concern for limitations already noted in the literature.
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  39. Candice M. Mills & Frank C. Keil (2008). Children's Developing Notions of (Im)Partiality. Cognition 107 (2):528-551.
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  40. Frank C. Keil, Marissa L. Greif & Rebekkah S. Kerner (2007). A World Apart: How Concepts of the Constructed World Are Different in Representation and in Development. In Eric Margolis & Stephen Laurence (eds.), Creations of the Mind: Theories of Artifacts and Their Representation. Oxford University Press. 231--248.
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  41. Frank C. Keil, Marissa L. Greif & Rebekkah S. Kerner (2007). 1. The Varieties of Artifact Kinds. In Eric Margolis & Stephen Laurence (eds.), Creations of the Mind: Theories of Artifacts and Their Representation. Oxford University Press. 231.
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  42. Frank Keil (2005). Doubt, Deference, and Deliberation: Understanding and Using the Division of Cognitive Labour. In Tamar Szabo Gendler & John Hawthorne (eds.), Oxford Studies in Epistemology Volume 1. Oup Oxford. 143.
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  43. Frank Keil (2003). Folkscience: Coarse Interpretations of a Complex Reality. Trends in Cognitive Sciences 7 (8):368-373.
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  44. Leonid Rozenblit & Frank Keil (2002). The Misunderstood Limits of Folk Science: An Illusion of Explanatory Depth. Cognitive Science 26 (5):521-562.
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  45. Paul Bloom & Frank C. Keil (2001). Thinking Through Language. Mind and Language 16 (4):351–367.
    What would it be like to have never learned English, but instead only to know Hopi, Mandarin Chinese, or American Sign Language? Would that change the way you think? Imagine entirely losing your language, as the result of stroke or trauma. You are aphasic, unable to speak or listen, read or write. What would your thoughts now be like? As the most extreme case, imagine having been raised without any language at all, as a wild child. What—if anything—would it be (...)
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  46. Frank C. Keil (2001). Good Intentions and Bad Words. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 24 (6):1110-1111.
    Bloom makes a strong case that word meaning acquisition does not require a dedicated word learning system. This conclusion, however, does not argue against a dedicated language acquisition system for syntax, morphology, and aspects of semantics. Critical questions are raised as to why word meaning should be so different from other aspects of language in the course of acquisition.
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  47. Frank C. Keil & Robert A. Wilson (2000). Explanation and Cognition. MIT Press.
    These essays draw on work in the history and philosophy of science, the philosophy of mind and language, the development of concepts in children, conceptual...
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  48. Frank C. Keil & Robert A. Wilson (2000). The Shadows and Shallows of Explanation. In Frank C. Keil & Robert A. Wilson (eds.), Explanation and Cognition. MIT Press.. 137-159.
    Reprinted, with modification, from Wilson and Keil 1998.
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  49. Frank C. Keil & Robert A. Wilson (2000). The Concept Concept: The Wayward Path of Cognitive Science. Mind and Language 15 (2-3):308-318.
    Critical discussion of Jerry Fodor's Concepts: Where Cognitive Science Went Wrong (1998).
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