Search results for 'Fraud in science' (try it on Scholar)

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  1. National Committee for Research Ethics in Science & Technology (2009). Guidelines for Research Ethics in Science and Technology. Jahrbuch für Wissenschaft Und Ethik 14 (1).score: 1640.0
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  2. James R. Wible (1992). Fraud in Science an Economic Approach. Philosophy of the Social Sciences 22 (1):5-27.score: 540.0
    In recent years, there have been multiple instances of misconduct in science, yet no coherent framework exists for characterizing this phenomenon. The thesis of this article is that economic analysis can provide such a framework. Economic analysis leads to two categories of misconduct: replication failure and fraud. Replication failure can be understood as the scientist making optimal use of time in a professional environment where innovation is emphasized rather than replication. Fraud can be depicted as a deliberate (...)
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  3. Albert A. Barber (1983). Fraud in Science: Who Patrols and Who Controls? In Brock K. Kilbourne & Maria T. Kilbourne (eds.), The Dark Side of Science. American Association for the Advancement of Science, Pacific Division. 1--91.score: 459.0
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  4. Robert L. Park (2008). Fraud in Science. Social Research: An International Quarterly 75 (4):1135-1150.score: 450.0
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  5. Patricia Woolf (1981). Fraud in Science: How Much, How Serious? Hastings Center Report 11 (5):9-14.score: 450.0
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  6. Stephan Fuchs & S. D. Westervelt (1996). Fraud and Trust in Science. Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 39 (2):248.score: 444.0
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  7. D. Evans (1986). Betrayers of the Truth: Fraud and Deceit in Science. Journal of Medical Ethics 12 (3):160-161.score: 435.0
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  8. N. Lynoe, L. Jacobsson & E. Lundgren (1999). Fraud, Misconduct or Normal Science in Medical Research--An Empirical Study of Demarcation. Journal of Medical Ethics 25 (6):501-506.score: 414.0
    OBJECTIVES: To study and describe how a group of senior researchers and a group of postgraduate students perceived the so-called "grey zone" between normal scientific practice and obvious misconduct. DESIGN: A questionnaire concerning various practices including dishonesty and obvious misconduct. The answers were obtained by means of a visual analogue scale (VAS). The central (two quarters) of the VAS were designated as a grey zone. SETTING: A Swedish medical faculty. SURVEY SAMPLE: 30 senior researchers and 30 postgraduate students. RESULTS: Twenty (...)
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  9. Stephen Lock & F. O. Wells (eds.) (1993). Fraud and Misconduct in Medical Research. Bmj.score: 360.0
     
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  10. Bjørn Hofmann (2007). That's Not Science! The Role of Moral Philosophy in the Science/Non-Science Divide. Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 28 (3):243-256.score: 342.0
    The science/non-science distinction has become increasingly blurred. This paper investigates whether recent cases of fraud in science can shed light on the distinction. First, it investigates whether there is an absolute distinction between science and non-science with respect to fraud, and in particular with regards to manipulation and fabrication of data. Finding that it is very hard to make such a distinction leads to the second step: scrutinizing whether there is a normative distinction (...)
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  11. Stefanic Stegemann-Bochl (2000). Misconduct in Science and the German Law. Science and Engineering Ethics 6 (1):57-62.score: 333.0
    In the past, only norms and rules developed for other types of illegal activities could be applied to misconduct in science in Germany. But only particularly blatant cases of misconduct can be dealt with efficiently in this way. Nowadays, a couple of very important funding agencies and research institutions have enacted special procedures that apply in cases of suspected scientific misconduct. A strongly decentralised system of dealing with misconduct in science is being established in Germany.
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  12. Yves Gingras & Pierre-Marc Gosselin (2008). The Emergence and Evolution of the Expression “Conflict of Interests” in Science : A Historical Overview, 1880–2006. Science and Engineering Ethics 14 (3):337-343.score: 273.0
    The tendency is strong to take the notion of “conflict of interests” for granted as if it had an invariant meaning and an ethical content independent of the historical context. It is doubtful however, from an historical and sociological point of view, that many of the cases now considered as instances of “conflicts of interests” would also have been conceived and perceived as such in, say, the 1930s. The idea of a “conflict of interests” presupposes that there are indeed interests (...)
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  13. Murat Gunduz & Oytun Önder (2013). Corruption and Internal Fraud in the Turkish Construction Industry. Science and Engineering Ethics 19 (2):505-528.score: 273.0
    The purpose of this paper is to develop an understanding about the internal fraud and corruption problem in the Turkish construction industry. The reasons behind the internal fraud and corruption problem as well as the types of prevention methods were investigated; and as a result various recommendations were made. To this end, a risk awareness questionnaire was used to understand the behavioral patterns of the construction industry, and to clarify possible proactive and reactive measures against internal fraud (...)
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  14. Jacquelyn Anne K. Kegley (2010). Peirce and Royce and the Betrayal of Science: Scientific Fraud and Misconduct. The Pluralist 5 (2):87-104.score: 270.0
    I believe that the long-neglected ideas on science and scientific method of Charles Sanders Peirce and Josiah Royce can illuminate some of the current attacks on science that have surfaced: misconduct and fraud in science and anti-scientism or the "new cynicism." In addition, Royce and Peirce offer insights relevant to the ferment in contemporary philosophy of science around the various forms of pluralism advocated by a number of philosophers (see Kellert, Longino, and Waters). "Pluralism" is (...)
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  15. David S. Oderberg, Science. Stem Cells. And Fraud.score: 267.0
    The world of science was stunned, and the hopes of many people dashed, when Professor Hwang Woo Suk of Seoul National University was recently found guilty of massive scientific fraud. Until January 2006 he was considered one of the world’s leading experts in cloning and stem cell research. Yet he was found by his own university to have fabricated all of the cell lines he claimed, in articles published in Science in 2004 and 2005, to have derived (...)
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  16. James R. Wible (1998). The Economics of Science: Methodology and Epistemology as If Economics Really Mattered. Routledge.score: 267.0
    This book explores aspects of science from an economic point of view. The author begins with economic models of misconduct in science, moving on to discuss other important issues, including market failure and the market place of ideas.
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  17. Henry Etzkowitz (1996). Conflicts of Interest and Commitment in Academic Science in the United States. Minerva 34 (3):259-277.score: 261.0
    An interest in economic development has been extended to a set of research universities which since the late nineteenth century had been established, or had transformed themselves, to focus upon discipline-based fundamental investigations.21 The land-grant model was reformulated, from agricultural research and extension, to entrepreneurial transfers of science-based industrial technology by faculty members and university administrators.The norms of science, a set of values and incentives for proper institutional conduct,22 have been revised as an unintended consequence of the second (...)
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  18. Alan D. Sokal (2008). Beyond the Hoax: Science, Philosophy and Culture. Oxford University Press.score: 261.0
    In 1996, Alan Sokal, a Professor of Physics at New York University, wrote a paper for the cultural-studies journal Social Text, entitled: 'Transgressing the Boundaries: Towards a transformative hermeneutics of quantum gravity'. It was reviewed, accepted and published. Sokal immediately confessed that the whole article was a hoax - a cunningly worded paper designed to expose and parody the style of extreme postmodernist criticism of science. The story became front-page news around the world and triggered fierce and wide-ranging controversy. (...)
     
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  19. Matthew J. Brown (2014). Values in Science Beyond Underdetermination and Inductive Risk. Philosophy of Science 80 (5):829-839.score: 230.0
    Proponents of the value ladenness of science rely primarily on arguments from underdetermination or inductive risk, which share the premise that we should only consider values where the evidence runs out or leaves uncertainty; they adopt a criterion of lexical priority of evidence over values. The motivation behind lexical priority is to avoid reaching conclusions on the basis of wishful thinking rather than good evidence. This is a real concern, however, that giving lexical priority to evidential considerations over values (...)
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  20. Ulianov Montano (2013). Beauty in Science: A New Model of the Role of Aesthetic Evaluations in Science. [REVIEW] European Journal for Philosophy of Science 3 (2):133-156.score: 230.0
    In Beauty and Revolution in Science, James McAllister advances a rationalistic picture of science in which scientific progress is explained in terms of aesthetic evaluations of scientific theories. Here I present a new model of aesthetic evaluations by revising McAllister’s core idea of the aesthetic induction. I point out that the aesthetic induction suffers from anomalies and theoretical inconsistencies and propose a model free from such problems. The new model is based, on the one hand, on McAllister’s original (...)
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  21. Michael Brooks (2011). Free Radicals: The Secret Anarchy of Science. Profile Books.score: 225.0
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  22. A. C. Higgins (1994). Bibliography on Scientific Fraud. Exams Unlimited.score: 225.0
     
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  23. Brock K. Kilbourne & Maria T. Kilbourne (eds.) (1983). The Dark Side of Science. American Association for the Advancement of Science, Pacific Division.score: 225.0
     
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  24. Alan D. Sokal (1999/2003). Intellectual Impostures: Postmodern Philosophers' Abuse of Science. Profile Books.score: 225.0
  25. Janet Atkinson-Grosjean & Cory Fairley (2009). Moral Economies in Science: From Ideal to Pragmatic. Minerva 47 (2):147-170.score: 224.0
    In the following pages we discuss three historical cases of moral economies in science: Drosophila genetics, late twentieth century American astronomy, and collaborations between American drug companies and medical scientists in the interwar years. An examination of the most striking differences and similarities between these examples, and the conflicts internal to them, reveals constitutive features of moral economies, and the ways in which they are formed, negotiated, and altered. We critically evaluate these three examples through the filters of rational (...)
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  26. Richard Creath (2010). The Role of History in Science. Journal of the History of Biology 43 (2):207 - 214.score: 220.0
    The case often made by scientists (and philosophers) against history and the history of science in particular is clear. Insofar as a field of study is historical as opposed to law-based, it is trivial. Insofar as a field attends to the past of science as opposed to current scientific issues, its efforts are derivative and, by diverting attention from acquiring new knowledge, deplorable. This case would be devastating if true, but it has almost everything almost exactly wrong. The (...)
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  27. Vincent Fella Hendricks, Arne Jakobsen & Stig Andur Pedersen (2000). Identification of Matrices in Science and Engineering. Journal for General Philosophy of Science 31 (2):277-305.score: 208.0
    Engineering science is a scientific discipline that from the point of view of epistemology and the philosophy of science has been somewhat neglected. When engineering science was under philosophical scrutiny it often just involved the question of whether engineering is a spin-off of pure and applied science and their methods. We, however, hold that engineering is a science governed by its own epistemology, methodology and ontology. This point is systematically argued by comparing the different sciences (...)
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  28. Letitia Meynell (2013). Parsing Pictures: On Analyzing the Content of Images in Science. The Knowledge Engineering Review 28 (3): 327-345.score: 208.0
    In this paper I tackle the question of what basic form an analytical method for articulating and ultimately assessing visual representations should take. I start from the assumption that scientific images, being less prone to interpretive complication than artworks, are ideal objects from which to engage this question. I then assess a recent application of Nelson Goodman's aesthetics to the project of parsing scientific images, Laura Perini's ‘The truth in pictures’. I argue that, although her project is an important one, (...)
     
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  29. Sven Ove Hansson (2007). Values in Pure and Applied Science. Foundations of Science 12 (3):257-268.score: 206.0
    In pure science, the standard approach to non-epistemic values is to exclude them as far as possible from scientific deliberations. When science is applied to practical decisions, non-epistemic values cannot be excluded. Instead, they have to be combined with (value-deprived) scientific information in a way that leads to practically optimal decisions. A normative model is proposed for the processing of information in both pure and applied science. A general-purpose corpus of scientific knowledge, with high entry requirements, has (...)
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  30. Rosemary Chalk (1999). Integrity in Science: Moving Into the New Millennium. Science and Engineering Ethics 5 (2):179-182.score: 202.0
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  31. Heather Douglas (2010). Engagement for Progress: Applied Philosophy of Science in Context. Synthese 177 (3):317-335.score: 200.0
    Philosophy of science was once a much more socially engaged endeavor, and can be so again. After a look back at philosophy of science in the 1930s-1950s, I turn to discuss the current potential for returning to a more engaged philosophy of science. Although philosophers of science have much to offer scientists and the public, I am skeptical that much can be gained by philosophers importing off-the-shelf discussions from philosophy of science to science and (...)
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  32. Karen François (2011). In-Between Science and Politics. Foundations of Science 16 (2):161-171.score: 198.0
    This paper gives a philosophical outline of the initial foundations of politics as presented in the work of Plato and argues why this traditional philosophical approach can no longer serve as the foundation of politics. The argumentation is mainly based on the work of Latour (1993, 1997, 1999a, 2004, 2005, 2007, 2008) and consists of five parts. In the first section I elaborate on the initial categorization of politics and science as represented by Plato in his Republic. In the (...)
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  33. Andrew Brook (2009). Introduction: Philosophy in and Philosophy of Cognitive Science. Topics in Cognitive Science 1 (2):216-230.score: 198.0
    Despite being there from the beginning, philosophical approaches have never had a settled place in cognitive research and few cognitive researchers not trained in philosophy have a clear sense of what its role has been or should be. We distinguish philosophy in cognitive research and philosophy of cognitive research. Concerning philosophy in cognitive research, after exploring some standard reactions to this work by nonphilosophers, we will pay particular attention to the methods that philosophers use. Being neither experimental nor computational, they (...)
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  34. Rein Vihalemm & Peeter Müürsepp (2007). Philosophy of Science in Estonia. Journal for General Philosophy of Science 38 (1):167 - 191.score: 198.0
    This paper presents a survey of the philosophy of science in Estonia. Topics covered include the historical background (science at the 17th century Academia Gustaviana, in the 19th century, during the Soviet period) and an overview of the current situation and main areas of research (the problem of demarcation, a critique of the traditional understandings of science, φ-science, classical and non-classical science, the philosophy of chemistry, the problem of induction, the sociology of scientific knowledge, semiotics (...)
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  35. Matthias Unterhuber, Alexander Gebharter & Gerhard Schurz (forthcoming). Philosophy of Science in Germany, 1992–2012: Survey-Based Overview and Quantitative Analysis. Journal for General Philosophy of Science:1-90.score: 198.0
    An overview of the German philosophy of science community is given for the years 1992–2012, based on a survey in which 159 philosophers of science in Germany participated. To this end, the institutional background of the German philosophy of science community is examined in terms of journals, centers, and associations. Furthermore, a qualitative description and a quantitative analysis of our survey results are presented. Quantitative estimates are given for: (a) academic positions, (b) research foci, (c) philosophers’ of (...)
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  36. Denis Dutton & Michael Krausz (eds.) (1981). The Concept of Creativity in Science and Art. Distributors for the U.S. And Canada, Kluwer Boston.score: 196.0
  37. Tord H. Ganelius (ed.) (1986). Progress in Science and its Social Conditions: Nobel Symposium 58, Held at Lidingö, Sweden, 15-19 August 1983. Published for the Nobel Foundation by Pergamon Press.score: 196.0
  38. Margrit Leuthold, Hans Georg W. Leuenberger, Ewald R. Weibel & Patrick Aebischer (eds.) (2002). Megatrends: Rise and Fall of Megatrends in Science ; Proceedings. Schwabe.score: 196.0
     
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  39. Arthur I. Miller (1996/2000). Insights of Genius: Imagery and Creativity in Science and Art. Mit Press.score: 196.0
     
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  40. Karl E. Peters (2014). The Changing Cultural Context of the Institute on Religion in an Age of Science and Zygon. Zygon 49 (3):612-628.score: 196.0
    Since Zygon: Journal of Religion and Science was founded 49 years ago and since one of its co-publishers, the Institute on Religion in an Age of Science (IRAS), was founded 60 years ago, there have been significant developments in their various cultural contexts—in science, in religion, in culture, in academia, and in the science and religion dialogue. This article is a personal remembrance and reflection that compares the context of IRAS in 1954 when it was first (...)
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  41. Ellery Eells & James H. Fetzer (eds.) (2010). The Place of Probability in Science. Springer.score: 192.0
  42. Darrell P. Rowbottom (2011). Kuhn Vs. Popper on Criticism and Dogmatism in Science: A Resolution at the Group Level. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science 42 (1):117-124.score: 192.0
    Popper repeatedly emphasised the significance of a critical attitude, and a related critical method, for scientists. Kuhn, however, thought that unquestioning adherence to the theories of the day is proper; at least for ‘normal scientists’. In short, the former thought that dominant theories should be attacked, whereas the latter thought that they should be developed and defended (for the vast majority of the time). -/- Both seem to have missed a trick, however, due to their apparent insistence that each individual (...)
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  43. Soemini Kasanmoentalib (1996). Science and Values in Risk Assessment: The Case of Deliberate Release of Genetically Engineered Organisms. [REVIEW] Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 9 (1):42-60.score: 192.0
    To make more responsible decisions regarding risk and to understand disagreements and controversies in risk assessments, it is important to know how and where values are infused into risk assessment and how they are embedded in the conclusions. In this article an attempt is made to disentangle the relationship of science and values in decision-making concerning the deliberate release of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) into the environment. This exercise in applied philosophy of science is based on Helen Longino's (...)
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  44. Cain S. Todd (2008). Unmasking the Truth Beneath the Beauty: Why the Supposed Aesthetic Judgements Made in Science May Not Be Aesthetic at All. International Studies in the Philosophy of Science 22 (1):61 – 79.score: 192.0
    In this article I examine the status of putative aesthetic judgements in science and mathematics. I argue that if the judgements at issue are taken to be genuinely aesthetic they can be divided into two types, positing either a disjunction or connection between aesthetic and epistemic criteria in theory/proof assessment. I show that both types of claim face serious difficulties in explaining the purported role of aesthetic judgements in these areas. I claim that the best current explanation of this (...)
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  45. Stathos Psillos (2000). Rudolf Carnap's 'Theoretical Concepts in Science'. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 31 (1):151-172.score: 192.0
    Rudolf Carnap delivered the hitherto unpublished lecture ‘Theoretical Concepts in Science’ at the meeting of the American Philosophical Association, Pacific Division, at Santa Barbara, California, on 29 December 1959. It was part of a symposium on ‘Carnap’s views on Theoretical Concepts in Science’. In the bibliography that appears in the end of the volume, ‘The Philosophy of Rudolf Carnap’, edited by Paul Arthur Schilpp, a revised version of this address appears to be among Carnap’s forthcoming papers. But although (...)
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  46. David Davies (1998). McAllister's Aesthetics in Science: A Critical Notice. International Studies in the Philosophy of Science 12 (1):25 – 32.score: 192.0
    In Beauty and Revolution in Science, James McAllister argues that a sophisticated rationalist image of science can accommodate two prominent features of actual scientific practice, namely, appeals to “aesthetic” criteria in theory choice, and the occurrence of scientific “revolutions”. The aesthetic criteria to which scientists appeal are, he maintains, inductively grounded in the empirical record of competing theories, and scientific revolutions involve changes in aestheic criteria bu continuity in empirical criteria of theory choice. I raise difficulties for McAllister's (...)
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  47. Yiftach Fehige (2013). Poems of Productive Imagination: Thought Experiments, Christianity, and Science in Novalis. Neue Zeitschrift Für Systematische Theologie Und Religionsphilosophie 55 (1):54-83.score: 192.0
    Thought experiments are employed for a number of reasons and in many different disciplines. This paper explores the work of Novalis in relation to the method of thought experiments in theology, with a special focus on the encounter between Christianity and the science of his day. In a first step I revisit the ongoing philosophical discussion on thought experiments in order to highlight the lack of interest in the literary features of thought experiments. Step two is dedicated to a (...)
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  48. Darrell P. Rowbottom (2013). Kuhn Vs. Popper on Criticism and Dogmatism in Science, Part II: How to Strike the Balance. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 44 (2):161-168.score: 192.0
    This paper is a supplement to, and provides a proof of principle of, Kuhn vs. Popper on Criticism and Dogmatism in Science: A Resolution at the Group Level. It illustrates how calculations may be performed in order to determine how the balance between different functions in science—such as imaginative, critical, and dogmatic—should be struck, with respect to confirmation (or corroboration) functions and rules of scientific method.
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  49. Alan Padgett (2010). Science and Religion in Western History: Models and Relationships. In Science and Religion in Dialogue. Wiley-Blackwell. 847--861.score: 192.0
    This chapter contains sections titled: * An Overview of Historical Approaches * Simplicity, Complexity, Modesty * Historical Developments * Recent Developments * Contemporary Proposals * Notes * Bibliography.
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  50. Władysław Krajewski (1997). Ideal Objects as Models in Science. International Studies in the Philosophy of Science 11 (2):185-190.score: 192.0
    Abstract Three main concepts of model in science are distinguished: (1) semantical model of a theory; (2) real model of another real thing; (3) mathematical model of a real thing. The last concept is the most important for the empirical sciences. The mathematical model is not identical with a theory: it is an ideal object which is directly described by the theory. We have here an intermediate level between reality and theory.
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